Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study examined two main hypotheses: a) Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b) Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (>/= 20 cigarettes a day) when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of 'current' smoking (some days and everyday) among the Polish immigrants. METHODS: Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545) completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July-August, 2007). The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484). RESULTS: Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0%) among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4%) among the general Irish population (p < 0.001). Of the 57% of smokers (n = 345/606) who purchased cigarettes solely from Poland and the 33% (n = 198/606) who purchased only from Ireland, 42.6% (n = 147/345) and 41.4% (n = 82/198) were "heavy" smokers, respectively (p = 0.79). Employment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.25-6.69), lower education (OR: 3.76; 95%CI: 2.46-5.74), and a longer stay in Ireland (>24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.
Project description:Other contributors to this collection have evoked the disparate worlds inhabited by Sir William Wilde.To provide an overall assessment of his career.Looking at the historical conditions that made possible such a career spanning such disparate worlds. Deploying methodologies developed by historians of medicine and sociologists of science, the article brings together Wilde the nineteenth century clinician and Dublin man of science, the Wilde of the Census and of the west of Ireland, William Wilde Victorian medical man and Wilde the Irish medical man-the historian of Irish medical traditions and the biographer of Irish medical men, and William Wilde as an Irish Victorian.A variety of close British Isles parallels can be drawn between Wilde and his cohort in the medical elite of Dublin and their clinical peers in Edinburgh and London both in terms of clinical practice and self-presentation and in terms of the social and political challenges facing their respective ancient regime hegemonies in an age of democratic radicalisation. The shared ideological interests of Wilde and his cohort, however, were also challenged by the socio-political particularities and complexities of Ireland during the first half of the nineteenth century culminating in the catastrophe of the Great Famine. William Wilde saw the practice of scientific medicine as offering a means of deliverance from historical catastrophe for Irish society and invoked a specifically Irish scientific and medical tradition going back to the engagement with the condition of Ireland by enlightened medical men in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The study examines trends in smoking among Irish adolescents aged 15-16 years between 1995 and 2015 and the factors associated with their smoking behaviours between 2007 and 2015. METHODS:Data were obtained from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs Ireland between 1995 and 2015. To examine the gender gap, two-sample proportion tests were used. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the factors associated with smoking behaviours. Dependent variable is whether a respondent is a smoker in last 30 days. Independent variables include gender, survey years, perceived ease of access to cigarettes, perceived risk of smoking, perceived relative wealth, parental monitoring, maternal relationship, family structure, truancy and peer smoking. RESULTS:Smoking prevalence has dropped from 41% in 1995 to 13% in 2015. The prevalence was much higher among girls than boys in 1995. The gender gap was closed by 2015. Multivariate regression results show that peer smoking, perceived access to cigarettes, perceived risks of smoking, parental monitoring, truancy, maternal relationship, perceived relative wealth and family structure were all significantly associated with adolescent smoking, and some of the factors had different effects for female and male students. CONCLUSION:Ireland has successfully achieved a considerable decrease of adolescent smoking from 1995 to 2015, during which various tobacco control policies have been implemented. In addition, the gender gap on adolescent smoking has been closed during the period. Adolescent smoking could be further improved through strengthening enforcement on adolescent access to cigarettes and maintaining a high-intensity tobacco control media campaign targeting adolescents. Parents could also contribute by enhancing monitoring.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Cigarette purchasing behavior may reflect quitting intentions. Little is known about how income could modify the association between cigarette purchasing behaviors and quit attempts among smokers experiencing homelessness. METHODS:Homeless, current smokers completed a questionnaire on the amount spent weekly on cigarettes (?$20/week versus >$20/week), source of cigarettes (store versus other source), quantity of cigarettes purchased (<pack versus ?pack), and past-year quit attempts. The association of participant income and these cigarette purchasing behaviors were examined. The relationship between cigarette purchasing behaviors and quit attempts was also examined and monthly income (none versus any) was explored as a potential moderator of this relationship. RESULTS:Of the 472 currently smoking individuals, 55% reported spending >$20/week on cigarettes, 83% reported purchasing cigarettes from a store, and 86% reported purchasing ?pack during their last purchase. Those who reported an income spent a third of their monthly income on cigarettes, and were more likely to spend >$20/week on cigarettes. The amount spent weekly on cigarettes and the source of cigarettes was not associated with quit attempts, nor did income moderate these relationships. Persons without an income who bought a pack or more of cigarettes made fewer quit attempts (??=?-0.4, 95% CI -0.7, -0.2), whereas the association between quantity of cigarettes purchased and quit attempts was not significant for those with an income (??=?-0.2, 95% CI -0.4, 0.1). CONCLUSIONS:Current smokers experiencing homelessness and who are without an income may find it particularly challenging to engage in attempts to quit smoking. Smoking cessation interventions that highlight relief of financial hardship as a potential benefit of successfully quitting smoking may be useful among this population.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The availability of lower-cost cigarettes in neighboring countries provides price-sensitive smokers with incentives to purchase cheaper out-of-country cigarettes. This study estimates the prevalence of and factors associated with cross-border purchasing of cheaper cigarettes among smokers from Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Spain. The prevalence of cross-border purchasing was estimated by residential location, defined as living in regions bordering a lower-price country (where prices were at least €1/pack lower), regions bordering a similar- or higher-price country, and internal non-border regions. METHODS:Data were from a survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers (n=6011) from Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Spain. The primary outcome was purchasing cheaper out-of-country cigarettes in the previous six months. Residential location was defined using The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS2 in Germany and NUTS3 in the other countries). Multivariable logistic regression tested differences in purchasing cheaper out-of-country cigarettes by country and residential location. RESULTS:Residential location was associated with purchasing cheaper out-of-country cigarettes in Germany and Poland (p<0.05): 31% of German and 11% of Polish smokers living in regions bordering lower-price countries reported purchasing cheaper out-of-country cigarettes in the previous six months. Smokers living in regions bordering lower-price countries had 4.21 times greater odds of purchasing cheaper out-of-country cigarettes compared to smokers living in non-border regions. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, only a minority of smokers in the six countries purchased cheaper cigarettes outside their country. However, smokers living in regions bordering countries where cigarettes were at least €1/pack lower than their home country had significantly higher odds of purchasing cheaper out-of-country cigarettes. This effect was especially prominent among German smokers. Tax harmonization policies designed to minimize cross-border price differentials can eliminate lower-priced alternatives for price-sensitive smokers.
Project description:We recently reported a joint analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) data on 958 sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases and 932 controls from Ireland and the publicly available data sets from the United States and the Netherlands. The strongest pooled association was rs10260404 in the dipeptidyl-peptidase 6 (DPP6) gene. Here, we sought confirmation of joint analysis signals in both an expanded Irish and a Polish ALS cohort. Among 287 522 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 27 were commonly associated on joint analysis of the Irish, US and Dutch GWAs. These 27 SNPs were genotyped in an expanded Irish cohort (312 patients with SALS; 259 controls) and an additional Polish cohort (218 patients; 356 controls). Eleven SNPs, including rs10260404, reached a final P-value below 0.05 in the Irish cohort. In the Polish cohort, only one SNP, rs6299711, showed nominal association with ALS. Pooling of data for 1267 patients with ALS and 1336 control subjects did not identify any association reaching Bonferroni significance (P<1.74 x 10(-7)). The present strategy did not reveal any consistently associated SNP across four populations. The result for DPP6 is surprising, as it has been replicated elsewhere. We discuss the possible interpretations and implications of these findings for future ALS GWA studies both within and between populations.
Project description:Despite promising decreases in overall smoking rates, a significant proportion of the population continues to engage in this costly behavior. Substituting e-cigarettes for conventional cigarettes is an increasingly popular harm-reduction strategy. Narratives may be one method of increasing the substitutability of e-cigarettes. Participants (N = 160) were assigned to 1 of 4 narratives that described a close friend becoming ill. In the positive narrative, participants read about a friend that became ill but learned it was only the flu. In the negative narrative, the friend became ill from smoking cigarettes; in the negativeregret narrative, the friend became ill from smoking cigarettes and explicitly expressed regret for having started smoking; and in the negativechange narrative, the friend became ill from smoking, switched to e-cigarettes, and made a full recovery. Participants then completed an experimental tobacco marketplace (ETM) in which they could purchase conventional cigarettes and alternative nicotine products, including e-cigarettes. Across ETM trials, the price of conventional cigarettes increased while the price of the alternative products remained constant. Initial purchasing of conventional cigarettes decreased and initial purchasing of e-cigarettes increased in the negative-change group compared with the other three groups. This finding was moderated by conventional cigarette dependence and perception of e-cigarette risk but not previous e-cigarette exposure. Narratives can change conventional cigarette and e-cigarette purchasing in an ETM that mimics real-world marketplaces. Narratives can be a valuable harm-reduction tool because they are cost-effective, can be widely disseminated, and can be personalized to individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:The public health impact of e-cigarettes may depend on their substitutability for tobacco cigarettes. Dual users of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes completed purchasing tasks in which they specified daily use levels under hypothetical conditions that varied the availability and price of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum (for those with nicotine gum experience). When either e-cigarettes or tobacco cigarettes were the only available commodity, as price per puff increased, purchasing decreased, revealing similar reinforcement profiles. When available concurrently, as the price of tobacco puffs increased, purchasing of tobacco puffs decreased while purchasing of fixed-price e-cigarette puffs increased. Among those with nicotine gum experience, when the price of tobacco puffs was closest to the actual market value of tobacco puffs, e-cigarette availability decreased median tobacco puff purchases by 44% compared to when tobacco was available alone. In contrast, nicotine gum availability caused no decrease in tobacco puff purchases. E-cigarettes may serve as a behavioral economic substitute for tobacco cigarettes, and may be a superior substitute compared to nicotine gum in their ability to decrease tobacco use. Although important questions remain regarding the health impacts of e-cigarettes, these data are consistent with the possibility that e-cigarettes may serve as smoking cessation/reduction aids.
Project description:Objectives:Examine correlates of initiation of e-cigarette use among smokers and determine the impact of e-cigarette use on cessation among smokers in a national U.S. consumer panel. Methods:This study used the Nielsen Homescan Panel data from 2011 to 2013, augmented with state-specific measures of tobacco control activities, to examine 1) correlates of single and repeat e-cigarette purchasing among panelists currently purchasing cigarettes; and 2) correlates of "cessation". Participating panelists scanned all retail purchases, and Nielsen recorded over 3 million product types. The key explanatory variable for cessation was e-cigarette purchase. Parallel analysis was conducted for conventional nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) purchase. Cessation was defined as no purchases for at least 6 months and no subsequent purchases until the end of 2013. Analysis was conducted in 2015. E-cigarettes tracked by Nielsen during this period were cig-a-like products resembling tobacco cigarettes in appearance. Results:Single e-cigarette purchase was associated with whether the panelist resided in a single person male household and bought a higher volume of cigarettes. Repeat purchase was associated with higher state cigarette taxes, less stringent state public smoke-free policies, lower cigarette prices, and more frequent cigarette purchasing. Cessation was associated with repeat e-cigarette purchasing, repeat NRT purchasing, younger age, lower monthly cigarette volume, less frequent purchasing of cigarettes, less recent cigarette purchase at baseline, and single e-cigarette purchase before baseline. Conclusions:Both individual and policy variables were associated with e-cigarette use. Repeat e-cigarette purchase was associated with cigarette purchase discontinuation, as were various smoking intensity measures.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Many African Americans live in communities with a disproportionately high density of tobacco advertisements compared to Whites. Some research indicates that point-of-sale advertising is associated with impulse purchases of cigarettes and smoking. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) can be used to examine associations between tobacco advertisement exposure and smoking variables in the natural environment. METHODS:Non-treatment seeking African American smokers were given a mobile device for 2weeks (N=56). They were prompted four times per day and responded to questions about recent exposure to tobacco advertisements. Participants were also asked to indicate the number of cigarettes smoked, and if they made any purchase, or an impulse purchase, since the last assessment. Linear mixed models (LMMs) analyzed between- and within-subject associations between exposure and outcomes. RESULTS:Participants reported seeing at least one advertisement on 33% of assessments. Of those assessments, they reported seeing menthol advertisements on 87% of assessments. Between-subject analyses revealed that participants who on average saw more advertisements were generally more likely to report purchasing cigarettes and to purchase cigarettes on impulse. Within-subject analyses revealed that when an individual participant reported seeing more advertisements than usual they were more likely to have reported purchasing cigarettes, making an impulse purchase and smoking more cigarettes during the same period, but not the subsequent time period. CONCLUSIONS:Many African American smokers are frequently exposed to pro-tobacco marketing. Advertisement exposure is cross-sectionally associated with impulse purchases and smoking. Future research should assess prospective associations in more detail.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hepatitis C infection is a major public health concern globally. In Ireland, like other European countries, people who use drugs (PWUD) and prisoners carry a larger HCV disease burden than the general population. Recent advances in HCV management have made HCV elimination across Europe a realistic goal. Engaging these two marginalised and underserved populations remains a challenge. The aim of this review was to map key findings and identify gaps in the literature (published and unpublished) on HCV infection in Irish PWUD and prisoners. METHODS:A scoping review guided by the methodological framework set out by Levac and colleagues (based on previous work by Arksey & O'Malley). RESULTS:A total of 58 studies were identified and divided into the following categories; Epidemiology, Guidelines and Policy, Treatment Outcomes, HCV-related Health Issues and qualitative research reporting on Patients' and Health Providers' Experiences. This review identified significantly higher rates of HCV infection among Irish prisoners and PWUD than the general population. There are high levels of undiagnosed and untreated HCV infection in both groups. There is poor engagement by Irish PWUD with HCV services and barriers have been identified. Prison hepatology nurse services have a positive impact on treatment uptake and outcomes. Identified gaps in the literature include; lack of accurate epidemiological data on incident infection, untreated chronic HCV infection particularly in PWUD living outside Dublin and those not engaged with OST. CONCLUSION:Ireland like other European countries has high levels of undiagnosed and untreated HCV infection. Collecting, synthesising and identifying gaps in the available literature is timely and will inform national HCV screening, treatment and prevention strategies.