Mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor limits cell invasion by controlling alphaVbeta3 integrin expression and proteolytic processing of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor.
ABSTRACT: The multifunctional mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R) is considered a tumor suppressor. We report here that RNA interference with M6P/IGF2R expression in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing human cancer and endothelial cells resulted in increased pericellular plasminogen activation, cell adhesion, and higher invasive potential through matrigel. M6P/IGF2R silencing led also to the cell surface accumulation of urokinase and plasminogen and enhanced expression of alphaV integrins. Genetic rescue experiments and inhibitor studies revealed that the enhanced plasminogen activation was due to a direct effect of M6P/IGF2R on uPAR, whereas increased cell adhesion to vitronectin was dependent on alphaV integrin expression and not uPAR. Increased cell invasion of M6P/IGF2R knockdown cells was rescued by cosilencing both uPAR and alphaV integrin. Furthermore, we found that M6P/IGF2R expression accelerates the cleavage of uPAR. M6P/IGF2R silencing resulted in an increased ratio of full-length uPAR to the truncated D2D3 fragment, incapable of binding most uPAR ligands. We conclude that M6P/IGF2R controls cell invasion by regulating alphaV integrin expression and by accelerating uPAR cleavage, leading to the loss of the urokinase/vitronectin/integrin-binding site on uPAR.
Project description:The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is upregulated upon tumor cell invasion and correlates with poor lung cancer survival. Although a cis-interaction with integrins has been ascribed to uPAR, whether this interaction alone is critical to urokinase (uPA)- and uPAR-dependent signaling and tumor promotion is unclear. Here we report the functional consequences of point mutations of uPAR (H249A-D262A) that eliminate beta1 integrin interactions but maintain uPA binding, vitronectin attachment and association with alphaV integrins, caveolin and epidermal growth factor receptor. Disruption of uPAR interactions with beta1 integrins recapitulated previously reported findings with beta1-integrin-derived peptides that attenuated matrix-dependent ERK activation, MMP expression and in vitro migration by human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The uPAR mutant cells acquired enhanced capacity to adhere to vitronectin via uPAR-alphaVbeta5-integrin, rather than through the uPAR-alpha3beta1-integrin complex and they were unable to initiate uPA signaling to activate ERK, Akt or Stat1. In an orthotopic lung cancer model, uPAR mutant cells exhibited reduced tumor size compared with cells expressing wild-type uPAR. Taken together, the results indicate that uPAR-beta1-integrin interactions are essential to signals induced by integrin matrix ligands or uPA that support lung cancer cell invasion in vitro and progression in vivo.
Project description:Interactions between urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and its various ligands regulate tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Antibodies that bind specific uPAR epitopes may disrupt these interactions, thereby inhibiting these processes. Using a highly diverse and naïve human fragment of the antigen binding (Fab) phage display library, we identified 12 unique human Fabs that bind uPAR. Two of these antibodies compete against urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) for uPAR binding, whereas a third competes with beta1 integrins for uPAR binding. These competitive antibodies inhibit uPAR-dependent cell signaling and invasion in the non-small cell lung cancer cell line, H1299. Additionally, the integrin-blocking antibody abrogates uPAR/beta1 integrin-mediated H1299 cell adhesion to fibronectin and vitronectin. This antibody and one of the uPAR/uPA antagonist antibodies shows a significant combined effect in inhibiting cell invasion through Matrigel/Collagen I or Collagen I matrices. Our results indicate that these antagonistic antibodies have potential for the detection and treatment of uPAR-expressing tumors.
Project description:The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) provides a rendezvous between proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix and integrin-mediated adhesion to vitronectin. These processes are, however, tightly linked because the high affinity binding of urokinase regulates the binding of uPAR to matrix-embedded vitronectin. Although crystal structures exist to define the corresponding static bi- and trimolecular receptor complexes, it is evident that the dynamic property of uPAR plays a decisive role in its function. In the present study, we combine small angle x-ray scattering, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, and surface plasmon resonance to develop a structural model describing the allosteric regulation of uPAR. We show that the flexibility of its N-terminal domain provides the key for understanding this allosteric mechanism. Importantly, our model has direct implications for understanding uPAR-assisted cell adhesion and migration as well as for translational research, including targeted intervention therapy and non-invasive tumor imaging in vivo.
Project description:The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a non-integrin vitronectin (VN) cell adhesion receptor linked to the plasma membrane by a glycolipid anchor. Through structure-function analyses of uPAR, VN and integrins, we document that uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to VN triggers a novel type of integrin signalling that is independent of integrin-matrix engagement. The signalling is fully active on VN mutants deficient in integrin binding site and is also efficiently transduced by integrins deficient in ligand binding. Although integrin ligation is dispensable, signalling is crucially dependent upon an active conformation of the integrin and its association with intracellular adaptors such as talin. This non-canonical integrin signalling is not restricted to uPAR as it poses no structural constraints to the receptor mediating cell attachment. In contrast to canonical integrin signalling, where integrins form direct mechanical links between the ECM and the cytoskeleton, the molecular mechanism enabling the crosstalk between non-integrin adhesion receptors and integrins is dependent upon membrane tension. This suggests that for this type of signalling, the membrane represents a critical component of the molecular clutch.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) transcription factor promotes tumor cell growth, invasion and metastasis. Phosphorylation of FRA-1 increases protein stability and function. We identify a novel signaling axis that leads to increased phosphorylation of FRA-1, increased extracellular matrix (ECM)-induced breast cancer cell invasion and is prognostic of poor outcome in patients with breast cancer. METHODS:While characterizing five breast cancer cell lines derived from primary human breast tumors, we identified BRC-31 as a novel basal-like cell model that expresses elevated FRA-1 levels. We interrogated the functional contribution of FRA-1 and an upstream signaling axis in breast cancer cell invasion. We extended this analysis to determine the prognostic significance of this signaling axis in samples derived from patients with breast cancer. RESULTS:BRC-31 cells display elevated focal adhesion kinase (FAK), SRC and extracellular signal-regulated (ERK2) phosphorylation relative to luminal breast cancer models. Inhibition of this signaling axis, with pharmacological inhibitors, reduces the phosphorylation and stabilization of FRA-1. Elevated integrin ?V?3 and uPAR expression in these cells suggested that integrin receptors might activate this FAK-SRC-ERK2 signaling. Transient knockdown of urokinase/plasminogen activator urokinase receptor (uPAR) in basal-like breast cancer cells grown on vitronectin reduces FRA-1 phosphorylation and stabilization; and uPAR and FRA-1 are required for vitronectin-induced cell invasion. In clinical samples, a molecular component signature consisting of vitronectin-uPAR-uPA-FRA-1 predicts poor overall survival in patients with breast cancer and correlates with an FRA-1 transcriptional signature. CONCLUSIONS:We have identified a novel signaling axis that leads to phosphorylation and enhanced activity of FRA-1, a transcription factor that is emerging as an important modulator of breast cancer progression and metastasis.
Project description:Components of the plasminogen activation system including urokinase (uPA), its inhibitor (PAI-1) and its cell surface receptor (uPAR) have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes related to tissue homoeostasis. Firstly, the binding of uPA to uPAR favours extracellular proteolysis by enhancing cell surface plasminogen activation. Secondly, it promotes cell adhesion and signalling through binding of the provisional matrix protein vitronectin. We now report that uPA and plasmin induces a potent negative feedback on cell adhesion through specific cleavage of the RGD motif in vitronectin. Cleavage of vitronectin by uPA displays a remarkable receptor dependence and requires concomitant binding of both uPA and vitronectin to uPAR Moreover, we show that PAI-1 counteracts the negative feedback and behaves as a proteolysis-triggered stabilizer of uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to vitronectin. These findings identify a novel and highly specific function for the plasminogen activation system in the regulation of cell adhesion to vitronectin. The cleavage of vitronectin by uPA and plasmin results in the release of N-terminal vitronectin fragments that can be detected in vivo, underscoring the potential physiological relevance of the process.
Project description:The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein with an established role in focalizing uPA-mediated plasminogen activation on cell surfaces. Distinct from this function, uPAR also modulates cell adhesion and migration on vitronectin-rich matrices. Although uPA and vitronectin engage structurally distinct binding sites on uPAR, they nonetheless cooperate functionally, as uPA binding potentiates uPAR-dependent induction of lamellipodia on vitronectin matrices. We now present data advancing the possibility that it is the burial of the ?-hairpin in uPA per se into the hydrophobic ligand binding cavity of uPAR that modulates the function of this receptor. Based on these data, we now propose a model in which the inherent interdomain mobility in uPAR plays a major role in modulating its function. Particularly one uPAR conformation, which is stabilized by engagement of the ?-hairpin in uPA, favors the proper assembly of an active, compact receptor structure that stimulates lamellipodia induction on vitronectin. This molecular model has wide implications for drug development targeting uPAR function.
Project description:The angiogenic potential of a cell requires dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeletal architecture that involves the interaction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) with the extracellular matrix. This study focuses on the effect of uPAR deficiency (uPAR-/-) on angiogenic function and associated cytoskeletal organization. Utilizing murine endothelial cells, it was observed that adhesion, migration, proliferation, and capillary tube formation were altered in uPAR-/- cells compared to wild-type (WT) cells. On a vitronectin (Vn) matrix, uPAR-/- cells acquired a "fried egg" morphology characterized by circular actin organization and lack of lamellipodia formation. The up-regulation of β1 integrin, FAK(P-Tyr925), and paxillin (P-Tyr118), and decreased Rac1 activation, suggested increased focal adhesions, but delayed focal adhesion turnover in uPAR-/- cells. This accounted for the enhanced adhesion, but attenuated migration, on Vn. VEGF-enriched Matrigel implants from uPAR-/- mice demonstrated a lack of mature vessel formation compared to WT mice. Collectively, these results indicate that a uPAR deficiency leads to decreased angiogenic functions of endothelial cells.
Project description:The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a multifaceted role in almost any process where migration of cells and tissue-remodeling is involved such as inflammation, but also in diseases as arthritis and cancer. Normally, uPAR is absent in healthy tissues. By its carefully orchestrated interaction with the protease urokinase plasminogen activator and its inhibitor (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), uPAR localizes a cascade of proteolytic activities, enabling (patho)physiologic cell migration. Moreover, via the interaction with a broad range of cell membrane proteins, like vitronectin and various integrins, uPAR plays a significant, but not yet completely understood, role in differentiation and proliferation of cells, affecting also disease progression. The implications of these processes, either for diagnostics or therapeutics, have received much attention in oncology, but only limited beyond. Nonetheless, the role of uPAR in different diseases provides ample opportunity to exploit new applications for targeting. Especially in the fields of oncology, cardiology, rheumatology, neurology, and infectious diseases, uPAR-targeted molecular imaging could offer insights for new directions in diagnosis, surveillance, or treatment options.
Project description:The receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) plays an important role in controlling cell migration. uPAR binds urokinase and vitronectin extracellular ligands, and signals in complex with transmembrane receptors such as Formyl-peptide Receptors (FPR)s and integrins. Previous work from this laboratory has shown that synthetic peptides, corresponding to the uPAR(88-92) chemotactic sequence, when carrying the S90P or S90E substitutions, up- or down-regulate cell migration, respectively. To gain mechanistic insights into these opposite cell responses, the functional consequences of S90P and S90E mutations in full-length uPAR were evaluated. First, (HEK)-293 embryonic kidney cells expressing uPAR(S90P) exhibit enhanced FPR activation, increased random and directional cell migration, long-lasting Akt phosphorylation, and increased adhesion to vitronectin, as well as uPAR/vitronectin receptor association. In contrast, the S90E substitution prevents agonist-triggered FPR activation and internalization, decreases binding and adhesion to vitronectin, and inhibits uPAR/vitronectin receptor association. Also, 293/uPAR(S90P) cells appear quite elongated and their cytoskeleton well organized, whereas 293/uPAR(S90E) cells assume a large flattened morphology, with random orientation of actin filaments. Interestingly, when HT1080 cells co-express wild type uPAR with uPAR S90E, the latter behaves as a dominant-negative, impairing uPAR-mediated signaling and reducing cell wound repair as well as lung metastasis in nude mice. In contrast, signaling, wound repair and in vivo lung metastasis of HT1080 cells bearing wild type uPAR are enhanced when they co-express uPAR(S90P). In conclusion, our findings indicate that Ser(90) is a critical residue for uPAR signaling and that the S90P and S90E exert opposite effects on uPAR activities. These findings may be accommodated in a molecular model, in which uPAR(S90E) and uPAR(S90P) are forced into inactive and active forms, respectively, suggesting important implications for the development of novel drugs targeting uPAR function.