Evaluation of imputation-based association in and around the integrin-alpha-M (ITGAM) gene and replication of robust association between a non-synonymous functional variant within ITGAM and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
ABSTRACT: We recently identified a novel non-synonymous variant, rs1143679, at exon 3 of the ITGAM gene associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility in European-Americans (EAs) and African-Americans. Using genome-wide association approach, three other studies also independently reported an association between SLE susceptibility and ITGAM or ITGAM-ITGAX region. The primary objectives of this study are to assess whether single or multiple causal variants from the same gene or any nearby gene(s) are involved in SLE susceptibility and to confirm a robust ITGAM association across nine independent data sets (n = 8211). First, we confirmed our previously reported association of rs1143679 (risk allele 'A') with SLE in EAs (P = 1.0 x 10(-8)) and Hispanic-Americans (P = 2.9 x 10(-5)). Secondly, using a comprehensive imputation-based association test, we found that ITGAM is one of the major non-human leukocyte antigen susceptibility genes for SLE, and the strongest association for EA is the same coding variant rs1143679 (log(10)Bayes factor=20, P = 6.17 x 10(-24)). Thirdly, we determined the robustness of rs1143679 association with SLE across three additional case-control samples, including UK (P = 6.2 x 10(-8)), Colombian (P = 3.6 x 10(-7)), Mexican (P = 0.002), as well as two independent sets of trios from UK (P(TDT) = 1.4 x 10(-5)) and Mexico (P(TDT) = 0.015). A meta-analysis combing all independent data sets greatly reinforces the association (P(meta) = 7.1 x 10(-50), odds ratio = 1.83, 95% confidence interval = 1.69-1.98, n = 10 046). However, this ITGAM association was not observed in the Korean or Japanese samples, in which rs1143679 is monomorphic for the non-risk allele (G). Taken together along with our earlier findings, these results demonstrate that the coding variant, rs1143679, best explains the ITGAM-SLE association, especially in European- and African-derived populations, but not in Asian populations.
Project description:Many autoimmune diseases (ADs) share similar underlying pathology and have a tendency to cluster within families, supporting the involvement of shared susceptibility genes. To date, most of the genetic variants associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility also show association with others ADs. ITGAM and its associated 'predisposing' variant (rs1143679, Arg77His), predicted to alter the tertiary structures of the ligand-binding domain of ITGAM, may play a key role for SLE pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to examine whether the ITGAM variant is also associated with other ADs. We evaluated case-control association between rs1143679 and ADs (N=18,457) including primary Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, celiac disease, and type-1 diabetes. We also performed meta-analyses using our data in addition to available published data. Although the risk allele 'A' is relatively more frequent among cases for each disease, it was not significantly associated with any other ADs tested in this study. However, the meta-analysis for systemic sclerosis was associated with rs1143679 (p(meta)=0.008). In summary, this study explored the role of ITGAM in general autoimmunity in seven non-lupus ADs, and only found association for systemic sclerosis when our results were combined with published results. Thus ITGAM may not be a general autoimmunity gene but this variant may be specifically associated with SLE and systemic sclerosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a heterogeneous disease ranging from mainly skin-restricted manifestations (discoid LE [DLE] and subacute cutaneous LE) to a progressive multisystem disease (systemic LE [SLE]). Genetic association studies have recently identified several strong susceptibility genes for SLE, including integrin alpha M (ITGAM), also known as CD11b, whereas the genetic background of DLE is less clear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:To specifically investigate whether ITGAM is a susceptibility gene not only for SLE, but also for cutaneous DLE, we genotyped 177 patients with DLE, 85 patients with sporadic SLE, 190 index cases from SLE families and 395 population control individuals from Finland for nine genetic markers at the ITGAM locus. SLE patients were further subdivided by the presence or absence of discoid rash and renal involvement. In addition, 235 Finnish and Swedish patients positive for Ro/SSA-autoantibodies were included in a subphenotype analysis. Analysis of the ITGAM coding variant rs1143679 showed highly significant association to DLE in patients without signs of systemic disease (P-value ?=?4.73×10(-11), OR ?=?3.20, 95% CI ?=?2.23-4.57). Significant association was also detected to SLE patients (P-value ?=?8.29×10(-6), OR ?=?2.14, 95% CI ?=?1.52-3.00), and even stronger association was found when stratifying SLE patients by presence of discoid rash (P-value ?=?3.59×10(-8), OR ?=?3.76, 95% CI ?=?2.29-6.18). SIGNIFICANCE:We propose ITGAM as a novel susceptibility gene for cutaneous DLE. The risk effect is independent of systemic involvement and has an even stronger genetic influence on the risk of DLE than of SLE.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:ITGAM has consistently been associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in many ethnically diverse populations. However, in populations with higher Amerindian ancestry (like Yucatan) or highly admixed population (like Mexican), ITGAM has seldom been evaluated (except few studies where patients with childhood-onset SLE were included). In addition, ITGAM has seldom been evaluated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we evaluated whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within ITGAM, were associated with SLE and RA susceptibility in patients from Mexico. METHODS:Our study consisted of 1,462 individuals, which included 363 patients with SLE (292 from Central Mexico and 71 from Yucatan), and 621 healthy controls (504 from Central Mexico and 117 from Yucatan). Our study also included 478 patients with RA from Central Mexico. TaqMan assays were used to obtain the genotypes of the four SNPs: rs34572943 (G/A), rs1143679 (G/A), rs9888739 (C/T), and rs1143683 (C/T). We also verified the genotypes by Sanger sequencing. Fisher's exact test and permutation test were employed to evaluate the distribution of genotype, allele, and haplotype between patients and controls. RESULTS:Our data show that all four ITGAM SNPs are significantly associated with susceptibility to SLE using both genotypic and allelic association tests (corrected for multiple testing, but not for population stratification). A second study carried out in patients from Yucatan, a southeastern part of Mexico (with a high Amerindian ancestry), also replicated SLE association with all four SNPs, including the functional SNP, rs1143679 (OR = 24.6 and p = 9.3X10-6). On the other hand, none of the four SNPs are significant in RA after multiple testing. Interestingly, the GACC haplotype, which carries the ITGAM rs1143679 (A) minor allele, showed an association with protection against RA (OR = 0.14 and p = 3.0x10-4). CONCLUSION:Our data displayed that ITGAM is a risk factor to SLE in individuals of Mexican population. Concurrently, a risk haplotype in ITGAM confers protection against RA.
Project description:ITGAM was recently found to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in populations of not only European ancestry, but also in Hispanic- and African-Americans, Mexicans and Colombians. The risk alleles in the gene, however, were found to be monomorphic in two Asian populations examined: Japanese and Korean. In this study, using a collection of 910 SLE patients and 2360 controls from Chinese living in Hong Kong, analyzed by both genome-wide association and direct sequencing, we confirmed the association of the same risk alleles in ITGAM with the disease. These findings were further replicated in the Thai population with 278 patients and 383 ethnicity- and geography-matched controls. Subphenotype stratification analyses showed significantly more involvement of the gene in patients with renal nephritis and neurological disorders. Although our results support a pivotal role by rs1143679 (R77H) in disease association, our data also suggests an additional contribution from rs1143683, another non-synonymous polymorphism in this gene (A858V). Therefore, despite the low-allele frequencies of the risk alleles of the gene in our two Asian populations, ITGAM was confirmed to be a risk factor related to disease susceptibility and probably severe manifestations of SLE.
Project description:Integrin alpha M (ITGAM; CD11b) is a component of the macrophage-1 antigen complex, which mediates leukocyte adhesion, migration and phagocytosis as part of the immune system. We previously identified a missense polymorphism, rs1143679 (R77H), strongly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the molecular mechanisms of this variant are incompletely understood. A meta-analysis of published and novel data on 28 439 individuals with European, African, Hispanic and Asian ancestries reinforces genetic association between rs1143679 and SLE [Pmeta = 3.60 × 10(-90), odds ratio (OR) = 1.76]. Since rs1143679 is in the most active region of chromatin regulation and transcription factor binding in ITGAM, we quantitated ITGAM RNA and surface protein levels in monocytes from patients with each rs1143679 genotype. We observed that transcript levels significantly decreased for the risk allele ('A') relative to the non-risk allele ('G'), in a dose-dependent fashion: ('AA' < 'AG' < 'GG'). CD11b protein levels in patients' monocytes were directly correlated with RNA levels. Strikingly, heterozygous individuals express much lower (average 10- to 15-fold reduction) amounts of the 'A' transcript than 'G' transcript. We found that the non-risk sequence surrounding rs1143679 exhibits transcriptional enhancer activity in vivo and binds to Ku70/80, NFKB1 and EBF1 in vitro, functions that are significantly reduced with the risk allele. Mutant CD11b protein shows significantly reduced binding to fibrinogen and vitronectin, relative to non-risk, both in purified protein and in cellular models. This two-pronged contribution (nucleic acid- and protein-level) of the rs1143679 risk allele to decreasing ITGAM activity provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of its potent association with SLE.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; OMIM 152700) is a chronic autoimmune disease for which the aetiology includes genetic and environmental factors. ITGAM, integrin ?(M) (complement component 3 receptor 3 subunit) encoding a ligand for intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) proteins, is an established SLE susceptibility locus. This study aimed to evaluate the independent and joint effects of genetic variations in the genes that encode ITGAM and ICAM. METHODS:The authors examined several markers in the ICAM1-ICAM4-ICAM5 locus on chromosome 19p13 and the single ITGAM polymorphism (rs1143679) using a large-scale case-control study of 17 481 unrelated participants from four ancestry populations. The single-marker association and gene-gene interaction were analysed for each ancestry, and a meta-analysis across the four ancestries was performed. RESULTS:The A-allele of ICAM1-ICAM4-ICAM5 rs3093030, associated with elevated plasma levels of soluble ICAM1, and the A-allele of ITGAM rs1143679 showed the strongest association with increased SLE susceptibility in each of the ancestry populations and the trans-ancestry meta-analysis (OR(meta)=1.16, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.22; p=4.88×10(-10) and OR(meta)=1.67, 95% CI 1.55 to 1.79; p=3.32×10(-46), respectively). The effect of the ICAM single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was independent of the effect of the ITGAM SNP rs1143679, and carriers of both ICAM rs3093030-AA and ITGAM rs1143679-AA had an OR of 4.08 compared with those with no risk allele in either SNP (95% CI 2.09 to 7.98; p=3.91×10(-5)). CONCLUSION:These findings are the first to suggest that an ICAM-integrin-mediated pathway contributes to susceptibility to SLE.
Project description:Multiple studies have demonstrated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ITGAM locus (including the nonsynonymous SNPs rs1143679, rs1143678, and rs1143683) are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ITGAM encodes the protein CD11b, a subunit of the ?2 integrin Mac-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ITGAM genetic variation on the biologic functions of neutrophil Mac-1.Neutrophils from ITGAM-genotyped and -sequenced healthy donors were isolated for functional studies. The phagocytic capacity of neutrophil ITGAM variants was probed with complement-coated erythrocytes, serum-treated zymosan, heat-treated zymosan, and IgG-coated erythrocytes. The adhesion capacity of ITGAM variants, in adhering to either purified intercellular adhesion molecule 1 or tumor necrosis factor ?-stimulated endothelial cells, was assessed in a flow chamber. Expression levels of total CD11b and activation of CD11b were assessed by flow cytometry.Mac-1-mediated neutrophil phagocytosis, determined in cultures with 2 different complement-coated particles, was significantly reduced in individuals with nonsynonymous variant alleles of ITGAM. This reduction in phagocytosis was related to variation at either rs1143679 (in the ?-propeller region) or rs1143678/rs1143683 (highly linked SNPs in the cytoplasmic/calf-1 regions). Phagocytosis mediated by Fc? receptors was also significantly reduced in donors with variant ITGAM alleles. Similarly, firm adhesion of neutrophils was significantly reduced in individuals with variant ITGAM alleles. These functional alterations were not attributable to differences in total receptor expression or activation.The nonsynonymous ITGAM variants rs1143679 and rs1143678/rs113683 contribute to altered Mac-1 function on neutrophils. These results underscore the need to consider multiple nonsynonymous SNPs when assessing the functional consequences of ITGAM variation on immune cell processes and the risk of SLE.
Project description:It was hypothesised that the coding variant (R77H), rs1143679, within ITGAM could predict specific clinical manifestations associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).To assess genetic association, 2366 patients with SLE and 2931 unaffected controls with European ancestry were analysed. The patients with SLE were coded by the presence or absence of individual American College of Rheumatology criteria. Logistic regression and Pearson chi(2) tests were used to assess statistical significance.For overall case-control analysis, a highly significant association was detected (p=2.22x10-21, OR 1.73). Using case-only analysis, a significant association was detected with renal criteria (p=0.0003), discoid rash (p=0.02) and immunological criteria (p=0.04). When patients with SLE were compared with healthy controls, the association became stronger for renal (p=4.69x10-22, OR 2.15), discoid (p=1.77x10-14, OR 2.03) and immunological (p=3.49x10-22, OR 1.86) criteria. Risk allele frequency increased from 10.6% (controls) to 17.0% (SLE), 20.4% (renal), 18.1% (immunological) and 19.5% (discoid).These results show a strong association between the risk allele (A) at rs1143679 and renal disease, discoid rash and immunological manifestations of SLE.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The majority of the genetic variance of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains unexplained by the common disease-common variant hypothesis. Rare variants, which are not detectable by genome-wide association studies because of their low frequencies, are predicted to explain part of this "missing heritability." However, recent studies identifying rare variants within known disease-susceptibility loci have failed to show genetic associations because of their extremely low frequencies, leading to the questioning of the contribution of rare variants to disease susceptibility. A common (minor allele frequency = 17.4% in cases) nonsynonymous coding variant rs1143679 (R77H) in ITGAM (CD11b), which forms half of the heterodimeric integrin receptor, complement receptor 3 (CR3), is robustly associated with SLE and has been shown to impair CR3-mediated phagocytosis. METHODS:We resequenced ITGAM in 73 SLE cases and identified two previously unidentified, case-specific nonsynonymous variants, F941V and G1145S. Both variants were genotyped in 2,107 and 949 additional SLE cases, respectively, to estimate their frequencies in a disease population. An in vitro model was used to assess the impact of F941V and G1145S, together with two nonsynonymous ITGAM polymorphisms, A858V (rs1143683) and M441T (rs11861251), on CR3-mediated phagocytosis. A paired two-tailed t test was used to compare the phagocytic capabilities of each variant with that of wild-type CR3. RESULTS:Both rare variants, F941V and G1145S, significantly impair CR3-mediated phagocytosis in an in vitro model (61% reduction, P = 0.006; 26% reduction, P = 0.0232). However, neither of the common variants, M441T and A858V, had an effect on phagocytosis. Neither rare variant was observed again in the genotyping of additional SLE cases, suggesting that their frequencies are extremely low. CONCLUSIONS:Our results add further evidence to the functional importance of ITGAM in SLE pathogenesis through impaired phagocytosis. Additionally, this study provides a new example of the identification of rare variants in common-allele-associated loci, which, because of their extremely low frequencies, are not statistically associated. However, the demonstration of their functional effects adds support to their contribution to disease risk, and questions the current notion of dismissing the contribution of very rare variants on purely statistical analyses.
Project description:Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) disproportionately affects minorities, such as Hispanic Americans (HA). Prevalence of SLE is 3-5 times higher in HA than in European-derived populations and have more active disease at the time of diagnosis, with more serious organ system involvement. HA is an admixed population, it is possible that there is an effect of admixture on the relative risk of the disease. This admixture can create substantial increase of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in both magnitude and range, which can provide a unique opportunity for admixture mapping. The main objectives of this study are to (a) estimate hidden population structure in HA individuals; (b) estimate individual ancestry proportions and its impact on SLE risk; (c) assess impact of admixture on ITGAM association, a recently identified SLE susceptibility gene; and (d) estimate power of admixture mapping in HA. Our dataset contained 1125 individuals, of whom 884 (657 SLE cases and 227 controls) were self-classified as HA. Using 107 unlinked ancestry informative markers (AIMs), we estimated hidden population structure and individual ancestry in HA. Out of 5671 possible pairwise LD, 54% were statistically significant, indicating recent population admixture. The best-fitted model for HA was a four-population model with average ancestry of European (48%), American-Indian (AI) (40%), African (8%) and a fourth population (4%) with unknown ancestry. We also identified significant higher risk associated with AI ancestry (odds ratio (OR)=4.84, P=0.0001, 95% CI (confidence interval)=2.14-10.95) on overall SLE. We showed that ITGAM is associated as a risk factor for SLE (OR=2.06, P=8.74 x 10(-5), 95% CI=1.44-2.97). This association is not affected by population substructure or admixture. We have shown that HA have great potential and are an appropriate population for admixture mapping. As expected, the case-only design is more powerful than case-control design, for any given admixture proportion or ancestry risk ratio.