Transcriptional repression of the prosurvival endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP78/BIP by E2F1.
ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP78/BIP plays a central role in the prosurvival machinery, and its enhanced expression has been implicated in drug resistance, carcinogenesis, and metastasis. E2F1, as part of an antitumor safeguard mechanism, promotes apoptosis regardless of functional p53. Using cells that are defective in p53, we show that E2F1 represses GRP78/BIP at the transcriptional level, and this requires its DNA binding domain. Analysis of human GRP78/BIP promoter reporter constructs revealed that the region between -371 and -109 of the proximal promoter contains major E2F1-responsive elements. Toward understanding the underlying mechanism of this regulation, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel shift assays, demonstrating that E2F1 directly binds to GC-rich regions in the distal GC-box and endoplasmic reticulum stress response element -126 by interfering with the binding of positive regulatory proteins Sp1 and TFII-I of the ER stress response element-binding factor complex. We further show that TFII-I, which is required for optimal stress induction of GRP78/BIP, is suppressed by E2F1 on the protein level. Finally, our studies suggest a molecular link between the inhibition of GRP78/BIP and E2F1-mediated chemosensitization of tumor cells, underscoring its relevance for cancer treatment. Together, the data provide a new mechanism for the incompletely understood tumor suppressor function of E2F1.
Project description:In prostate cancer, oxidative stress and the subsequent Nrf2 activation promote the survival of cancer cells and acquired chemoresistance. Nrf2 links prostate cancer to endoplasmic reticulum stress, an event that triggers the unfolded protein response, aiming to restore cellular homeostasis as well as an adaptive survival mechanism. Glucose-regulated protein of 78 kD /immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (GRP78/BiP) is a key molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum that, when expressed at the cell surface, acts as a receptor for several signaling pathways enhancing antiapoptotic and proliferative signals. We showed GRP78/BiP translocation to PC3 cell surface in the presence of tunicamycin, an ER stress inductor, and demonstrated the existence of a GRP78/BiP-dependent non-canonical Nrf2 activation, responsible for increased resistance to ER-stress induced apoptosis. We found that, even in the absence of ROS production, tunicamycin causes Nrf2 activation, and activates Akt signaling, events bulnted by anti-GRP78/BiP antibody treatment. The presence of GRP78/BiP at the cell surface might be exploited for the immunotherapeutic strategy of prostate cancer since its blockage by anti-GRP78/BiP antibodies might promote cancer death by suppressing some of the several molecular protective mechanisms found in aggressive cancer cells.
Project description:When mammalian cells are subjected to stress targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), such as depletion of the ER Ca(2+) store, the transcription of a family of glucose-regulated protein (GRP) genes encoding ER chaperones is induced. The GRP promoters contain multiple copies of the ER stress response element (ERSE), consisting of a unique tripartite structure, CCAAT(N(9))CCACG. Within a subset of mammalian ERSEs, N(9) represents a GC-rich sequence of 9 bp that is conserved across species. A novel complex (termed ERSF) exhibits enhanced binding to the ERSE of the grp78 and ERp72 promoters using HeLa nuclear extracts prepared from ER-stressed cells. Optimal binding of ERSF to ERSE and maximal ERSE-mediated stress inducibility require the conserved GGC motif within the 9-bp region. Through chromatographic purification and subsequent microsequencing, we have identified ERSF as TFII-I. Whereas TFII-I remains predominantly nuclear in both nontreated NIH 3T3 cells and cells treated with thapsigargin (Tg), a potent inducer of the GRP stress response through depletion of the ER Ca(2+) store, the level of TFII-I transcript was elevated in Tg-stressed cells, correlating with an increase in TFII-I protein level in the nuclei of Tg-stressed cells. Purified recombinant TFII-I isoforms bind directly to the ERSEs of grp78 and ERp72 promoters. The stimulation of ERSE-mediated transcription by TFII-I requires the consensus tyrosine phosphorylation site of TFII-I and the GGC sequence motif of the ERSE. We further discovered that TFII-I is an interactive protein partner of ATF6 and that optimal stimulation of ERSE by ATF6 requires TFII-I.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Laminitis is often associated with endocrinopathies that cause hyperinsulinemia and is also induced experimentally by hyperinsulinemia, suggesting that insulin initiates laminitis pathogenesis. Hyperinsulinemia is expected to activate pro-growth and anabolic signaling pathways. We hypothesize that chronic over-stimulation of these pathways in lamellar tissue results in endoplasmic reticulum stress, contributing to tissue pathology, as it does in human metabolic diseases. We tested this hypothesis by asking whether lamellar tissue from horses with naturally-occurring endocrinopathic laminitis showed expression of protein markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress. RESULTS:Three markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress, spliced XBP1, Grp78/BiP and Grp94, were upregulated 2.5-9.5 fold in lamellar tissues of moderately to severely laminitic front limbs (n = 12) compared to levels in controls (n = 6-7) measured by immunoblotting and densitometry. Comparing expression levels between laminitic front limbs and less affected hind limbs from the same horses (paired samples from 7 to 8 individual horses) demonstrated significantly higher expression for both spliced XBP1 and Grp78/BiP in the laminitic front limbs, and a similar trend for Grp94. Expression levels of the 3 markers were minimal in all samples of the control (n = 6-7) or hind limb groups (n = 7-8). Immunofluorescent localizations were used to identify cell types expressing high levels of Grp78/BiP, as an indicator of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Grp78/BiP expression was highly elevated in suprabasal epidermal keratinocytes and only observed in laminitic front limbs (10/12 laminitic samples, compared to 0/7 in sections from the hind limbs and 0/5 of controls). CONCLUSIONS:These data demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway is active in naturally occurring cases of laminitis and is most active within a subset of epidermal keratinocytes. These data provide the rationale for further study of endoplasmic reticulum stress in experimental models of laminitis and the links between laminitis and human diseases sharing activation of this stress pathway. Pharmacological options to manipulate the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway under investigation for human disease could be applicable to laminitis treatment and prevention should this pathway prove to be a driver of disease progression.
Project description:Disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis causes ER stress and leads to activation of the unfolded protein response, which reduces the stress and promotes cell survival at the early stage of stress, or triggers cell death and apoptosis when homeostasis is not restored under prolonged ER stress. Here, we report that Cab45S, a member of the CREC family, inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis. Depletion of Cab45S increases inositol-requiring kinase 1 (IRE1) activity, thus producing more spliced forms of X-box-binding protein 1 mRNA at the early stage of stress and leads to phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which finally induces apoptosis. Furthermore, we find that Cab45S specifically interacts with 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein/immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (GRP78/BiP) on its nucleotide-binding domain. Cab45S enhances GRP78/BiP protein level and stabilizes the interaction of GRP78/BiP with IRE1 to inhibit ER stress-induced IRE1 activation and apoptosis. Together, Cab45S, a novel regulator of GRP78/BiP, suppresses ER stress-induced IRE1 activation and apoptosis by binding to and elevating GRP78/BiP, and has a role in the inhibition of ER stress-induced apoptosis.
Project description:GRP78/BiP is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein with the important function of maintaining ER homeostasis, and the overexpression of GRP78/BiP alleviates ER stress. Our previous studies showed that infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71), a (+)RNA picornavirus, induced GRP78/BiP upregulation; however, ectopic GRP78/BiP overexpression in ER downregulates virus replication and viral particle formation. The fact that a virus infection increases GRP78/BiP expression, which is unfavorable for virus replication, is counterintuitive. In this study, we found that the GRP78/BiP protein level was elevated in the cytoplasm instead of in the ER in EV71-infected cells. Cells transfected with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, a synthetic analog of replicative double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), but not with viral proteins, also exhibited upregulation and elevation of GRP78/BiP in the cytosol. Our results further demonstrate that EV71 infections induce the dsRNA/protein kinase R-dependent cytosolic accumulation of GRP78/BiP. The overexpression of a GRP78/BiP mutant lacking a KDEL retention signal failed to inhibit both dithiothreitol-induced eIF2α phosphorylation and viral replication in the context of viral protein synthesis and viral titers. These data revealed that EV71 infection might cause upregulation and aberrant redistribution of GRP78/BiP to the cytosol, thereby facilitating virus replication.
Project description:Fruits, nuts, legumes, and vegetables are rich sources of boron (B), an essential plant nutrient with chemopreventive properties. Blood boric acid (BA) levels reflect recent B intake, and men at the US mean intake have a reported non-fasting level of 10 μM. Treatment of DU-145 prostate cancer cells with physiological concentrations of BA inhibits cell proliferation without causing apoptosis and activates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). EIF2α induces cell differentiation and protects cells by redirecting gene expression to manage endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our objective was to determine the temporal expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-activated genes in DU-145 prostate cells treated with 10 μM BA. Immunoblots showed post-treatment increases in eIF2α protein at 30 min and ATF4 and ATF6 proteins at 1 h and 30 min, respectively. The increase in ATF4 was accompanied by an increase in the expression of its downstream genes growth arrest and DNA damage-induced protein 34 (GADD34) and homocysteine-induced ER protein (Herp), but a decrease in GADD153/CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), a pro-apoptotic gene. The increase in ATF6 was accompanied by an increase in expression of its downstream genes GRP78/BiP, calreticulin, Grp94, and EDEM. BA did not activate IRE1 or induce cleavage of XBP1 mRNA, a target of IRE1. Low boron status has been associated with increased cancer risk, low bone mineralization, and retinal degeneration. ATF4 and BiP/GRP78 function in osteogenesis and bone remodeling, calreticulin is required for tumor suppressor p53 function and mineralization of teeth, and BiP/GRP78 and EDEM prevent the aggregation of misfolded opsins which leads to retinal degeneration. The identification of BA-activated genes that regulate its phenotypic effects provides a molecular underpinning for boron nutrition and biology.
Project description:Activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway is associated with poor response to doxorubicin-containing regimens, such as rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin (doxorubicin), vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP), in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, interferes with ER responses and improves survival in patients with aggressive hematologic malignant tumors, although its use in DLBCL patients remains controversial. The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), also known as immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP), is an ER stress sensor involved in the resistance to doxorubicin and bortezomib, but its role in the response to chemotherapy in DLBCL has not been explored before. We show that high BiP/GRP78 expression is related to worse overall survival (median overall survival, 5.2 versus 3.4 years). Moreover, cell death after R-CHOP in DLCBL cell lines is associated with decreased BiP/GRP78 expression. Conversely, DLBCL cell lines are primarily resistant to bortezomib, probably owing to BiP/GRP78 overexpression. Small-interfering RNA silencing of BiP/GRP78 renders all cell lines sensitive to bortezomib. R-CHOP with bortezomib (R-CHOP-BZ) reduces BiP/GRP78 expression and overcomes bortezomib resistance, mimicking the small-interfering RNA silencing of BiP/GRP78. Accordingly, R-CHOP-BZ is the most effective treatment, providing a rationale for the use of this combinational therapy to improve DLBCL patient survival. Moreover, this study provides preclinical evidence that the germinal center B-cell-like subtype DLBCL is sensitive to bortezomib combined with immunochemotherapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glucose-regulated protein 78/Binding immunoglobulin protein (GRP78/BiP) is a protein associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and is upregulated by metabolic alterations at the tissue-level, such as hypoxia or glucose deprivation, and it is hyper-expressed in fat tissue of obese individuals. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the role of the GRP78/BiP level as a metabolic and vascular disease biomarker in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM), obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). METHODS:Four hundred and five patients were recruited, of whom 52.5% were obese, 72.8% had DM, and 78.6% had MS. The intimae media thickness (cIMT) was assessed by ultrasonography. The plasma GRP78/BiP concentration was determined, and its association with metabolic and vascular parameters was assessed. Circulating GRP78/BiP was also prospectively measured in 30 DM patients before and after fenofibrate/niacin treatment and 30 healthy controls. RESULTS:In the cross-sectional study, the GRP78/BiP level was significantly higher in the patients with obesity, DM, and MS. Age-, gender- and BMI-adjusted GRP78/BiP was directly associated with LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apoB, and cIMT. GRP78/BiP was positively associated to carotid plaque presence in the adjusted model, irrespective of obesity, DM and MS. In the prospective study, nicotinic acid treatment produced a significant reduction in the GRP78/BiP levels that was not observed with fenofibrate. CONCLUSIONS:GRP78/BiP plasma concentrations are increased in patients with both metabolic derangements and subclinical atherosclerosis. GRP78/BiP could be a useful marker of metabolic and cardiovascular risk.
Project description:Accumulation of human wild-type (wt) ?-synuclein (?-syn) induces neurodegeneration in humans and in experimental rodent models of Parkinson disease (PD). It also leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We overexpressed glucose regulated protein 78, also known as BiP (GRP78/BiP), to test the hypothesis that this ER chaperone modulates the UPR, blocks apoptosis, and promotes the survival of nigral dopamine (DA) neurons in a rat model of PD induced by elevated level of human ?-syn. We determined that ?-syn activates ER stress mediators associated with pancreatic ER kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6) signaling pathways as well as proaoptotic CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in nigral DA neurons. At the same time, overexpression of GRP78/BiP diminished ?-syn neurotoxicity by down regulating ER stress mediators and the level of apoptosis, promoted survival of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells and resulted in higher levels of striatal DA, while eliminating amphetamine induced behavioral asymmetry. We also detected a complex between GRP78/BiP and ?-syn that may contribute to prevention of the neurotoxicity caused by ?-syn. Our data suggest that the molecular chaperone GRP78/BiP plays a neuroprotective role in ?-syn-induced Parkinson-like neurodegeneration.
Project description:The up-regulation of chaperones such as the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78, also referred to as BiP or HSPA5) is part of the adaptive cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. GRP78 is widely used as a marker of the unfolded protein response, associated with sustained ER stress. Here we report the discovery of a proteostatic mechanism involving GRP78 trimethylation in the context of ER stress. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we identified two GRP78 fractions, one homeostatic and one induced by ER stress. ER stress leads to de novo biosynthesis of non-trimethylated GRP78, whereas homeostatic, METTL21A-dependent lysine 585-trimethylated GRP78 is reduced. This proteostatic mechanism, dependent on the posttranslational modification of GRP78, allows cells to differentially regulate specific protein abundance during cellular stress.