Increase in mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative stress, and glycolysis in murine lymphomas.
ABSTRACT: Lymphomas adapt to their environment by undergoing a complex series of biochemical changes that are currently not well understood. To better define these changes, we examined the gene expression and gene ontology profiles of thymic lymphomas from a commonly used model of carcinogenesis, the p53(-/-) mouse. These tumors show a highly significant upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial protein translation, mtDNA copy number, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant defenses, proton transport, ATP synthesis, hypoxia response, and glycolysis, indicating a fundamental change in the bioenergetic profile of the transformed T cell. Our results suggest that T cell tumorigenesis involves a simultaneous upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial respiration, and glycolytic activity. These processes would allow cells to adapt to the stressful tumor environment by facilitating energy production and thereby promote tumor growth. Understanding these adaptations is likely to result in improved therapeutic strategies for this tumor type.
Project description:Relapses of aggressive B-cell lymphomas pose a higher risk to affected patients because of potential treatment resistance and usually rapid tumor growth. Recent advances, such as targeting Bruton tyrosine kinase, have provided promising results in small numbers of cases, but treatment for the majority of patients remains challenging and outcomes are generally poor. A number of recent studies have utilized state-of-the-art genomic technologies in an attempt to better understand tumor genome evolution during relapse and to identify relapse-specific genetic alterations. It has been found that in some settings (e.g. diffuse large B-cell lymphomas in immunocompromised patients, secondary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas as Richter transformations) a significant part of the recurrences are <i>clonally-unrelated de novo</i> neoplasms, which might have distinct genomic and drug sensitivity profiles as well as different prognoses. Similar to earlier findings in indolent lymphomas, genetic tumor evolution of <i>clonally-related</i> relapsing aggressive B-cell lymphomas is predominantly characterized by two patterns: early divergence from a common progenitor and late divergence/linear evolution from a primary tumor. The clinical implications of these distinct patterns are not yet clear and will require additional investigation; however, it is plausible that these two patterns of recurrence are linked to different treatment-resistance mechanisms. Attempts to identify drivers of relapses result in a very heterogeneous list of affected genes and pathways as well as epigenetic mechanisms and suggest many ways of how recurrent tumors can adapt to treatment and expand their malignant properties.
Project description:Targeted immunotherapy based on PD-1/PD-L1 suppression has revolutionized the treatment of various solid tumors. A remarkable improvement has also been observed in the treatment of patients with refractory/relapsing classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). We investigated PD-L1 status in a variety of treatment resistant lymphomas. Tumor samples from 78 patients with therapy resistant lymphomas were immunohistochemically (IHC) investigated for the expression of PD-L1 using two antibody clones (SP142 and SP263, Ventana). Thirteen PD-L1+ cases were further analyzed for gene copy number variations (CNV) by NGS and for PD-L1/JAK2/PD-L2 co-amplification using fluorescent in-situ hybridization assay (FISH). PD-L1 positivity (?5% positive cancer cells, IHC) was present in 32/77 (42%) and 33/71 cases (46%) using SP142 and SP263 antibodies, respectively. Concordance between the two anti-PD-L1 clones was high with only three (4%) discrepant cases. The strongest and consistent (10/11 cases) expression was observed in cHL and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphomas (3/3). Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) were frequently positive (13/26) irrespective of subtype. Follicular (1/8), peripheral T-cell (3/11) and mantle cell (1/8) lymphomas were rarely positive, while small lymphocytic lymphoma/CLL and marginal zone lymphomas were consistently negative (3/3). Co-amplification/CNVs of PD-L1/JAK2/PD-L2 were observed in 3 cases of DLBCL and cHL, respectively. Of note, all three cHL-amplified cases were positive by FISH, but not by NGS. Since only a fraction of the IHC positive lymphoma cases were positive by FISH and NGS assays, other mechanisms are involved in PD-L1 upregulation, especially in DLBCL. FISH assay may be more suitable than NGS assay for determination of PD-L1 alterations in cHL.
Project description:Since most oncogenic viruses persist as extrachromosomal covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in tumor cells, we developed an assay to visualize and identify cccDNA in primary lymphomas. We identified concatemers of the mitochondrial genome in all samples analyzed, but not in normal lymphocytes. One AIDS-associated lymphoma (EL) was further studied in detail as its mitochondrial genome consisted of tandem head-to-tail duplications. Insertion of C-residues was noted near the origin of replication of EL mtDNA. EL cells responded weakly to Fas-apoptotic stimulus, displayed reduced mitochondrial activity and mass, and produced higher levels of reactive oxygen intermediates. Screening of several AIDS-associated lymphomas and established lymphoid cell lines also revealed the presence of mitochondrial genome concatemers consisting of interlinked monomer molecules. Taken together, our results suggest that formation of mtDNA concatemers is associated with oncogenic transformation in lymphoid cells.
Project description:The fundamental question of how and which neuronal specific transcription factors tailor mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics to the need of developing neuronal cells has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we report that the neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD6 possesses mitochondrial biogenic properties by amplifying the mitochondrial DNA content and TFAM expression levels, a key regulator for mitochondrial biogenesis. NeuroD6-mediated increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in the neuronal progenitor-like PC12-NEUROD6 cells is concomitant with enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetic functions, including increased expression levels of specific subunits of respiratory complexes of the electron transport chain, elevated mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels produced by oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, NeuroD6 augments the bioenergetic capacity of PC12-NEUROD6 cells to generate an energetic reserve, which confers tolerance to the mitochondrial stressor, rotenone. We found that NeuroD6 induces an adaptive bioenergetic response throughout rotenone treatment involving maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels in conjunction with preservation of the actin network. In conclusion, our results support the concept that NeuroD6 plays an integrative role in regulating and coordinating the onset of neuronal differentiation with acquisition of adequate mitochondrial mass and energetic capacity to ensure energy demanding events, such as cytoskeletal remodeling, plasmalemmal expansion, and growth cone formation.
Project description:To study mechanisms of T cell-mediated rejection of B cell lymphomas, we developed a murine lymphoma model wherein three potential rejection antigens, human c-MYC, chicken ovalbumin (OVA), and GFP are expressed. After transfer into wild-type mice 60-70% of systemically growing lymphomas expressing all three antigens were rejected; lymphomas expressing only human c-MYC protein were not rejected. OVA expressing lymphomas were infiltrated by T cells, showed MHC class I and II upregulation, and lost antigen expression, indicating immune escape. In contrast to wild-type recipients, 80-100% of STAT1-, IFN-?-, or IFN-? receptor-deficient recipients died of lymphoma, indicating that host IFN-? signaling is critical for rejection. Lymphomas arising in IFN-?- and IFN-?-receptor-deficient mice had invariably lost antigen expression, suggesting that poor overall survival of these recipients was due to inefficient elimination of antigen-negative lymphoma variants. Antigen-dependent eradication of lymphoma cells in wild-type animals was dependent on cross-presentation of antigen by cells of the tumor stroma. These findings provide first evidence for an important role of the tumor stroma in T cell-mediated control of hematologic neoplasias and highlight the importance of incorporating stroma-targeting strategies into future immunotherapeutic approaches.
Project description:Chemotherapeutic agents, e.g., cytarabine and doxorubicin, cause DNA damage. However, it remains unknown whether such agents differentially regulate cell cycle arrest in distinct types of B-cell lymphomas, and whether this phenotype can be exploited for developing new therapies. We treated various types of B cells, including primary and B lymphoma cells, with cytarabine or doxorubicin, and determined DNA damage responses, cell cycle regulation and sensitivity to a Wee1 inhibitor. We found that cyclin A2/B1 upregulation appears to be an intrinsic programmed response to DNA damage; however, different types of B cells arrest in distinct phases of the cell cycle. The Wee1 inhibitor significantly enhanced the apoptosis of G2 phase-arrested B-cell lymphomas by inducing premature entry into mitosis and mitotic catastrophe, whereas it did not affect G1/S-phase-arrested lymphomas. Cytarabine-induced G1-arrest can be converted to G2-arrest by doxorubicin treatment in certain B-cell lymphomas, which correlates with newly acquired sensitivity to the Wee1 inhibitor. Consequently, the Wee1 inhibitor together with cytarabine or doxorubicin inhibited tumor growth <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> more effectively, providing a potential new therapy for treating B-cell lymphomas. We propose that the differential cell cycle arrest can be exploited to enhance the chemosensitivity of B-cell lymphomas.
Project description:The neuropathogenesis of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) involves disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and increased neuroinflammation. However, it is unknown if alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis in the brain underlie the neuropathogenesis of HAND. In this study, neuropathological and molecular analyses of mitochondrial biogenesis and inflammatory pathways were performed in brain specimens from a well-characterized cohort of HIV+ cases that were on antiretroviral regimens. In vitro investigations using primary human astroglia and neurons were used to probe the underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial alterations. In frontal cortices from HAND brains compared to cognitive normal brains, total levels of transcription factors that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1-? (PGC-1?) and transcription factor A, mitochondrial (TFAM) were decreased. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that TFAM was decreased in neurons and increased in astroglia. These changes were accompanied by decreased total mitochondrial DNA per cell and increased levels of messenger RNA for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1?. To determine how IL-1? affects astroglial bioenergetic processes and mitochondrial activity, human astroglial cultures were exposed to recombinant IL-1?. IL-1? induced mitochondrial activity within 30?min of treatment, altered mitochondrial related gene expression, altered mitochondrial morphology, enhanced adenoside triphosphate (ATP) utilization and increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines. WIN55,212-2 (WIN), an aminoalkylindole derivative and cannabinoid receptor agonist, blocked IL-1?-induced bioenergetic fluctuations and inflammatory gene expression in astroglia independent of cannabinoid receptor (CB)1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?. A PPAR? antagonist reversed the anti-inflammatory effects of WIN in human astroglia. These results show that mitochondrial biogenesis is differentially regulated in neurons and astroglia in HAND brains and that targeting astroglial bioenergetic processes may be a strategy to modulate neuroinflammation.
Project description:Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that continually adapt their structure through fusion and fission in response to changes in their bioenergetic environment. Targeted deletion of mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin1 (MFN1) in oocytes resulted in female infertility associated with failure to achieve oocyte maturation. Oocyte-granulosa cell communication was impaired, and cadherins and connexins were downregulated, resulting in follicle developmental arrest at the secondary follicle stage. Deletion of MFN1 in oocytes resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and altered mitochondrial dynamics, as well as accumulation of ceramide, which contributed to increased apoptosis and a reproductive phenotype that was partially rescued by treatment with ceramide synthesis inhibitor myriocin. Absence of MFN1 and resulting apoptotic cell loss also caused depletion of ovarian follicular reserve, and a phenotype consistent with accelerated female reproductive aging.
Project description:The ability of cancer cells to survive and grow under hypoxic conditions has been known for decades, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Under certain conditions, cancer cells undergo changes in their bioenergetic profile to favor mitochondrial respiration by activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1?) and up-regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we hypothesized that augmented mitochondrial biogenesis plays a critical role for cancer cells to survive hypoxia. Consistent with this hypothesis, both hypoxic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors and HCC cell lines subjected to hypoxia increase mitochondrial biogenesis. Silencing of PGC-1? in hypoxic HCC cell lines halts their proliferation. Mechanistic investigations in vitro indicated that intracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, a nuclear protein overexpressed in HCC, is essential for the process. Silencing of HMGB1 in hypoxic HCC cell lines resulted in a significant decrease in PGC-1? activation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Without HMGB1, hypoxic HCC cells had significantly reduced adenosine triphosphate production, decreased cellular proliferation, and increased apoptosis. In a diethylnitrosamine-induced murine model of HCC, genetic blocking of HMGB1 in hypoxic tumors resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth. Tumors lacking HMGB1 had a significant reduction in mitochondrial biogenesis and a significant increase in mitochondrial dysfunction. Further in vitro mechanistic experiments indicated that during hypoxia HMGB1 translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and binds to cytoplasmic Toll-like receptor-9. This binding leads to activation of p38 and subsequent phosphorylation of PGC-1?, with resultant up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.Taken together, our findings suggest that during hypoxia HMGB1 up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis in HCC cancer cells, promoting tumor survival and proliferation. (Hepatology 2017;66:182-197).
Project description:The oncogenic transcription factor Myc is required for the progression and maintenance of diverse tumors. This has led to the concept that Myc itself, Myc-activated gene products, or associated biological processes might constitute prime targets for cancer therapy. Here, we present an in vivo reverse-genetic screen targeting a set of 241 Myc-activated mRNAs in mouse B-cell lymphomas, unraveling a critical role for the mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) Ptcd3 in tumor maintenance. Other MRP-coding genes were also up regulated in Myc-induced lymphoma, pointing to a coordinate activation of the mitochondrial translation machinery. Inhibition of mitochondrial translation with the antibiotic Tigecycline was synthetic-lethal with Myc activation, impaired respiratory activity and tumor cell survival in vitro, and significantly extended lifespan in lymphoma-bearing mice. We have thus identified a novel Myc-induced metabolic dependency that can be targeted by common antibiotics, opening new therapeutic perspectives in Myc-overexpressing tumors.