Tor1/Sch9-regulated carbon source substitution is as effective as calorie restriction in life span extension.
ABSTRACT: The effect of calorie restriction (CR) on life span extension, demonstrated in organisms ranging from yeast to mice, may involve the down-regulation of pathways, including Tor, Akt, and Ras. Here, we present data suggesting that yeast Tor1 and Sch9 (a homolog of the mammalian kinases Akt and S6K) is a central component of a network that controls a common set of genes implicated in a metabolic switch from the TCA cycle and respiration to glycolysis and glycerol biosynthesis. During chronological survival, mutants lacking SCH9 depleted extracellular ethanol and reduced stored lipids, but synthesized and released glycerol. Deletion of the glycerol biosynthesis genes GPD1, GPD2, or RHR2, among the most up-regulated in long-lived sch9Delta, tor1Delta, and ras2Delta mutants, was sufficient to reverse chronological life span extension in sch9Delta mutants, suggesting that glycerol production, in addition to the regulation of stress resistance systems, optimizes life span extension. Glycerol, unlike glucose or ethanol, did not adversely affect the life span extension induced by calorie restriction or starvation, suggesting that carbon source substitution may represent an alternative to calorie restriction as a strategy to delay aging.
Project description:Calorie restriction (CR), the only non-genetic intervention known to slow aging and extend life span in organisms ranging from yeast to mice, has been linked to the down-regulation of Tor, Akt, and Ras signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase Rim15 is required for yeast chronological life span extension caused by deficiencies in Ras2, Tor1, and Sch9, and by calorie restriction. Deletion of stress resistance transcription factors Gis1 and Msn2/4, which are positively regulated by Rim15, also caused a major although not complete reversion of the effect of calorie restriction on life span. The deletion of both RAS2 and the Akt and S6 kinase homolog SCH9 in combination with calorie restriction caused a remarkable 10-fold life span extension, which, surprisingly, was only partially reversed by the lack of Rim15. These results indicate that the Ras/cAMP/PKA/Rim15/Msn2/4 and the Tor/Sch9/Rim15/Gis1 pathways are major mediators of the calorie restriction-dependent stress resistance and life span extension, although additional mediators are involved. Notably, the anti-aging effect caused by the inactivation of both pathways is much more potent than that caused by CR.
Project description:Loss of the protein kinase Sch9p increases both the chronological life span (CLS) and the replicative life span (RLS) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by mimicking calorie restriction, but the physiological consequences of SCH9 deletion are poorly understood. By transcriptional profiling of an sch9Delta mutant, we show that mitochondrial electron transport chain genes are upregulated. Accordingly, protein levels of electron transport chain subunits are increased and the oxygen consumption rate is enhanced in the sch9Delta mutant. Deletion of HAP4 and CYT1, both of which are essential for respiration, revert the sch9Delta mutant respiratory rate back to a lower-than-wild-type level. These alterations of the electron transport chain almost completely blocked CLS extension by the sch9Delta mutation but had a minor impact on the RLS. SCH9 thus negatively regulates the CLS and RLS through inhibition of respiratory genes, but a large part of its action on life span seems to be respiration independent and might involve increased resistance to stress. Considering that TOR1 deletion also increases respiration and that Sch9p is a direct target of TOR signaling, we propose that SCH9 is one of the major effectors of TOR repression of respiratory activity in glucose grown cells.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms that cause organismal aging are a topic of intense scrutiny and debate. Dietary restriction extends the life span of many organisms, including yeast, and efforts are underway to understand the biochemical and genetic pathways that regulate this life span extension in model organisms. Here we describe the mechanism by which dietary restriction extends yeast chronological life span, defined as the length of time stationary yeast cells remain viable in a quiescent state. We find that aging under standard culture conditions is the result of a cell-extrinsic component that is linked to the pH of the culture medium. We identify acetic acid as a cell-extrinsic mediator of cell death during chronological aging, and demonstrate that dietary restriction, growth in a non-fermentable carbon source, or transferring cells to water increases chronological life span by reducing or eliminating extracellular acetic acid. Other life span extending environmental and genetic interventions, such as growth in high osmolarity media, deletion of SCH9 or RAS2, increase cellular resistance to acetic acid. We conclude that acetic acid induced mortality is the primary mechanism of chronological aging in yeast under standard conditions.
Project description:Calorie restriction can extend life span in a variety of species including mammals, flies, nematodes, and yeast. Despite the importance of this nearly universal effect, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms that mediate the life-span-extending effect of calorie restriction in metazoans. Sir2 is known to be involved in life span determination and calorie restriction in yeast mother cells. In nematodes increased Sir2 can extend life span, but a direct link to calorie restriction has not been demonstrated. We now report that Sir2 is directly involved in the calorie-restriction life-span-extending pathway in Drosophila. We demonstrate that an increase in Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2) extends life span, whereas a decrease in dSir2 blocks the life-span-extending effect of calorie reduction or rpd3 mutations. These data lead us to propose a genetic pathway by which calorie restriction extends life span and provides a framework for genetic and pharmacological studies of life span extension in metazoans.
Project description:Perturbation of cardiolipin (CL) synthesis in yeast cells leads to defective respiratory chain function and mitochondrial DNA loss, both of which have been implicated in aging in mammals. The availability of yeast CL mutants enabled us to directly investigate the role of CL synthesis in aging. In this report, we show that the replicative life span of pgs1Delta, which lacks both CL and the precursor phosphatidylglycerol (PG), was significantly decreased at 30 degrees C. The life span of crd1Delta, which has PG but not CL, was unaffected at 30 degrees C but reduced at 37 degrees C. Life span extension induced by calorie restriction was not affected by the loss of CL. However, mild heat and osmotic stress, which extend life span in wild type cells, did not increase longevity in CL mutants, suggesting that the stress response is perturbed in these mutants. Consistent with this, longevity defects in pgs1Delta were alleviated by down-regulation of the high osmolarity glycerol stress response pathway, as well as by promoting cell integrity with the osmotic stabilizer sorbitol or via genetic suppression with the kre5(W1166X) mutant. These findings show for the first time that perturbation of CL synthesis leads to decreased longevity in yeast, which is restored by altering signaling through stress response pathways.
Project description:Dietary restriction (DR) extends life span in diverse organisms, including mammals, and common mechanisms may be at work. DR is often known as calorie restriction, because it has been suggested that reduction of calories, rather than of particular nutrients in the diet, mediates extension of life span in rodents. We here demonstrate that extension of life span by DR in Drosophila is not attributable to the reduction in calorie intake. Reduction of either dietary yeast or sugar can reduce mortality and extend life span, but by an amount that is unrelated to the calorie content of the food, and with yeast having a much greater effect per calorie than does sugar. Calorie intake is therefore not the key factor in the reduction of mortality rate by DR in this species.
Project description:Glucose is the preferred carbon and energy source in prokaryotes, unicellular eukaryotes, and metazoans. However, excess of glucose has been associated with several diseases, including diabetes and the less understood process of aging. On the contrary, limiting glucose (i.e., calorie restriction) slows aging and age-related diseases in most species. Understanding the mechanism by which glucose limits life span is therefore important for any attempt to control aging and age-related diseases. Here, we use the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model to study the regulation of chronological life span by glucose. Growth of S. pombe at a reduced concentration of glucose increased life span and oxidative stress resistance as reported before for many other organisms. Surprisingly, loss of the Git3 glucose receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, also increased life span in conditions where glucose consumption was not affected. These results suggest a role for glucose-signaling pathways in life span regulation. In agreement, constitutive activation of the Galpha subunit acting downstream of Git3 accelerated aging in S. pombe and inhibited the effects of calorie restriction. A similar pro-aging effect of glucose was documented in mutants of hexokinase, which cannot metabolize glucose and, therefore, are exposed to constitutive glucose signaling. The pro-aging effect of glucose signaling on life span correlated with an increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in oxidative stress resistance and respiration rate. Likewise, the anti-aging effect of both calorie restriction and the Deltagit3 mutation was accompanied by increased respiration and lower reactive oxygen species production. Altogether, our data suggest an important role for glucose signaling through the Git3/PKA pathway to regulate S. pombe life span.
Project description:Calorie restriction extends life span in organisms as diverse as yeast and mammals through incompletely understood mechanisms.The role of NAD+-dependent deacetylases known as Sirtuins in this process, particularly in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is controversial. We measured chronological life span of wild-type and sir2? strains over a higher glucose range than typically used for studying yeast calorie restriction. sir2? extended life span in high glucose complete minimal medium and had little effect in low glucose medium, revealing a partial role for Sir2 in the calorie-restriction response under these conditions. Experiments performed on cells grown in rich medium with a newly developed genetic strategy revealed that sir2? shortened life span in low glucose while having little effect in high glucose, again revealing a partial role for Sir2 In complete minimal media, Sir2 shortened life span as glucose levels increased; whereas in rich media, Sir2 extended life span as glucose levels decreased. Using a genetic strategy to measure the strength of gene silencing at HML, we determined increasing glucose stabilized Sir2-based silencing during growth on complete minimal media. Conversely, increasing glucose destabilized Sir-based silencing during growth on rich media, specifically during late cell divisions. In rich medium, silencing was far less stable in high glucose than in low glucose during stationary phase. Therefore, Sir2 was involved in a response to nutrient cues including glucose that regulates chronological aging, possibly through Sir2-dependent modification of chromatin or deacetylation of a nonhistone protein.
Project description:Calorie restriction slows aging and increases life span in many organisms. In yeast, a mechanistic explanation has been proposed whereby calorie restriction slows aging by activating Sir2. Here we report the identification of a Sir2-independent pathway responsible for a majority of the longevity benefit associated with calorie restriction. Deletion of FOB1 and overexpression of SIR2 have been previously found to increase life span by reducing the levels of toxic rDNA circles in aged mother cells. We find that combining calorie restriction with either of these genetic interventions dramatically enhances longevity, resulting in the longest-lived yeast strain reported thus far. Further, calorie restriction results in a greater life span extension in cells lacking both Sir2 and Fob1 than in cells where Sir2 is present. These findings indicate that Sir2 and calorie restriction act in parallel pathways to promote longevity in yeast and, perhaps, higher eukaryotes.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that increased mitochondrial metabolism and the concomitant decrease in NADH levels mediate calorie restriction (CR)-induced life span extension. The mitochondrial inner membrane is impermeable to NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form) and NADH, and it is unclear how CR relays increased mitochondrial metabolism to multiple cellular pathways that reside in spatially distinct compartments. Here we show that the mitochondrial components of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle (Mdh1 [malate dehydrogenase] and Aat1 [aspartate amino transferase]) and the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle (Gut2, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) are novel longevity factors in the CR pathway in yeast. Overexpressing Mdh1, Aat1, and Gut2 extend life span and do not synergize with CR. Mdh1 and Aat1 overexpressions require both respiration and the Sir2 family to extend life span. The mdh1Deltaaat1Delta double mutation blocks CR-mediated life span extension and also prevents the characteristic decrease in the NADH levels in the cytosolic/nuclear pool, suggesting that the malate-aspartate shuttle plays a major role in the activation of the downstream targets of CR such as Sir2. Overexpression of the NADH shuttles may also extend life span by increasing the metabolic fitness of the cells. Together, these data suggest that CR may extend life span and ameliorate age-associated metabolic diseases by activating components of the NADH shuttles.