Endogenous aldosterone contributes to acute angiotensin II-stimulated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and preproendothelin-1 expression in heart but not aorta.
ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that angiotensin (Ang) II induces profibrotic gene expression through endogenous aldosterone, we measured the effect of 4 h infusion (600 ng/kg x min) of Ang II on tissue mRNA expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), preproendothelin-1 (ppET-1), TGF-beta, and osteopontin in wild-type (WT), aldosterone synthase-deficient (AS(-/-)), and AS(-/-) mice treated with aldosterone (either 500 ng/d for 7 d or 250 ng as a concurrent 4 h infusion). Ang II increased aldosterone in WT (P < 0.001) but not in AS(-/-) mice. Aldosterone (7 d) normalized basal aldosterone concentrations in AS(-/-) mice; however, there was no further effect of Ang II on aldosterone (P = NS). Basal cardiac and aortic PAI-1 and ppET-1 expression were similar in WT and AS(-/-) mice. Ang II-stimulated PAI-1 (P < 0.001) and ppET-1 expression (P = 0.01) was diminished in the heart of AS(-/-) mice; treatment with aldosterone for 4 h or 7 d restored PAI-1 and ppET-1 mRNA responsiveness to Ang II in the heart. Ang II increased PAI-1 (P = 0.01) expression in the aorta of AS(-/-) as well as WT mice. In the kidney, basal PAI-1, ppET-1, and TGF-beta mRNA expression was increased in AS(-/-) compared with WT mice and correlated with plasma renin activity. Ang II did not stimulate osteopontin or TGF-beta expression in the heart or kidney. Endogenous aldosterone contributes to the acute stimulatory effect of Ang II on PAI-1 and ppET-1 mRNA expression in the heart; renin activity correlates with basal profibrotic gene expression in the kidney.
Project description:Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a bifunctional protein comprising a magnesium (Mg(2+))/cation channel and a kinase domain. We previously demonstrated that vasoactive agents regulate vascular TRPM7. Whether TRPM7 plays a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and associated cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown. We studied TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice (TRPM7?kinase; heterozygous for TRPM7 kinase) and wild-type (WT) mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II; 400 ng/kg per minute, 4 weeks). TRPM7 kinase expression was lower in heart and aorta from TRPM7?kinase versus WT mice, effects that were further reduced by Ang II infusion. Plasma Mg(2+) was lower in TRPM7?kinase versus WT mice in basal and stimulated conditions. Ang II increased blood pressure in both strains with exaggerated responses in TRPM7?kinase versus WT groups (P<0.05). Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation was reduced in Ang II-infused TRPM7?kinase mice, an effect associated with Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in Ang II-infused TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice. TRPM7 kinase targets, calpain, and annexin-1, were activated by Ang II in WT but not in TRPM7?kinase mice. Echocardiographic and histopathologic analysis demonstrated cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction in Ang II-treated groups. In TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice, Ang II-induced cardiac functional and structural effects were amplified compared with WT counterparts. Our data demonstrate that in TRPM7?kinase mice, Ang II-induced hypertension is exaggerated, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction are amplified, and endothelial function is impaired. These processes are associated with hypomagnesemia, blunted TRPM7 kinase expression/signaling, endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation, and proinflammatory vascular responses. Our findings identify TRPM7 kinase as a novel player in Ang II-induced hypertension and associated vascular and target organ damage.
Project description:To test the hypothesis that apelin protects against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiovascular fibrosis and vascular remodeling.Wild-type mice administered apelin or apelin along with Ang II exhibited less cardiovascular fibrosis and decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) gene expression than mice receiving Ang II, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), apelin plus L-NAME or apelin plus Ang II plus L-NAME. In-vitro analysis using a luciferase construct driven by 3.1 kb of the human PAI-1 promoter revealed that apelin blocked Ang II-mediated PAI-1 gene expression. Immunoblotting for phosphorylated myosin phosphatase subunit and myosin light chain revealed that apelin blocked Ang II activation of the Rho kinase pathway, which is associated with induction of PAI-1 gene expression by Ang II. In addition, treatment of human aortic smooth muscle cells with apelin reduced PAI-1 mRNA and protein production in the presence and absence of Ang II. Conversely, L-NAME treatment attenuated the downregulation of PAI-1 by apelin in cells.Apelin protects against cardiac fibrosis and vascular remodeling through direct regulation of PAI-1 gene expression. This protective effect is mediated through the synergistic inhibition of Ang II signaling and increased production of nitric oxide by apelin. Our data extend previous findings and provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms by which apelin elicits a cardioprotective effect.
Project description:The sympathetic nervous system interacts with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributing to cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we sought to determine if renal denervation (RDN) inhibits aldosterone expression and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. Bilateral RDN or SHAM operation was performed before chronic 14-day Ang II subcutaneous infusion (200ng/kg/min) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Bilateral RDN blunted Ang II-induced hypertension and ameliorated the mesenteric vascular dysfunction. Cardiovascular hypertrophy in response to Ang II was significantly attenuated by RDN as shown by histopathology and transthoracic echocardiography. Moreover, Ang II-induced vascular and myocardial inflammation and fibrosis were suppressed by RDN with concurrent decrease in fibronectin and collagen deposition, macrophage infiltration, and MCP-1 expression. Interestingly, RDN also inhibited Ang II-induced aldosterone expression in the plasma, kidney and heart. This was associated with the reduction of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the adrenal gland. Ang II promoted aldosterone secretion which was partly attenuated by CGRP in the adrenocortical cell line, suggesting a protective role of CGRP in this model. Activation of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway was both inhibited by RDN especially in the heart. These results suggest that the regulation of the renal sympathetic nerve in Ang II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes is likely mediated by aldosterone, with CGRP involvement.
Project description:Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease. It also leads to the activation of coagulation. The coagulation protease thrombin induces cellular responses by activating protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). We investigated whether PAR-1 contributes to Ang II-induced cardiovascular remodeling and inflammation.PAR-1+/+ (wild-type; WT) and PAR-1-/- mice were infused with Ang II (600 ng/kg/min) for up to 4 weeks. In WT mice, this dose of Ang II did not cause a significant increase in blood pressure but it did cause pathological changes in both the aorta and the heart. Ang II infusion resulted in vascular remodeling of the aorta, demonstrated by a significant increase in medial wall thickening and perivascular fibrosis. Importantly, both parameters were significantly attenuated by PAR-1 deficiency. Furthermore, perivascular fibrosis around coronary vessels was reduced in Ang II-treated PAR-1-/- mice compared to WT mice. In addition, PAR-1 deficiency significantly attenuated Ang II induction of inflammatory cytokines and profibrotic genes in the aortas compared to WT mice. Finally, PAR-1 deficiency had no effect on Ang II-induced heart hypertrophy. However, the heart function measured by fractional shortening was less impaired in PAR-1-/- mice than in WT mice.Our data indicate that PAR-1 plays a significant role in cardiovascular remodeling mediated by a blood pressure-independent action of Ang II.
Project description:Abnormal activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a causal role in the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and associated cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. As both a vasoconstrictor and a proinflammatory mediator, angiotensin II (Ang II) is considered a potential link between hypertension and atherosclerosis. However, a role for Ang II-induced inflammation in atherosclerosis has not been clearly established, and the molecular mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways involved are not known. Here, we demonstrated that the RhoA GEF Arhgef1 is essential for Ang II-induced inflammation. Specifically, we showed that deletion of Arhgef1 in a murine model prevents Ang II-induced integrin activation in leukocytes, thereby preventing Ang II-induced recruitment of leukocytes to the endothelium. Mice lacking both LDL receptor (LDLR) and Arhgef1 were protected from high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis. Moreover, reconstitution of Ldlr-/- mice with Arhgef1-deficient BM prevented high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis, while reconstitution of Ldlr-/- Arhgef1-/- with WT BM exacerbated atherosclerotic lesion formation, supporting Arhgef1 activation in leukocytes as causal in the development of atherosclerosis. Thus, our data highlight the importance of Arhgef1 in cardiovascular disease and suggest targeting Arhgef1 as a potential therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis.
Project description:The present study directly tested the hypothesis that the NHE3 (Na+/H+ exchanger 3) in the proximal tubules of the kidney is required for the development of Ang II (angiotensin II)-induced hypertension using PT-Nhe3-/- (proximal tubule-specific NHE3 knockout) mice. Specifically, PT-Nhe3-/- mice were generated using the SGLT2-Cre/Nhe3loxlox approach, whereas Ang II-induced hypertension was studied in 12 groups (n=5-12 per group) of adult male and female wild-type (WT) and PT-Nhe3-/- mice. Under basal conditions, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure were significantly lower in male and female PT-Nhe3-/- than WT mice (P<0.01). A high pressor, 1.5 mg/kg per day, intraperitoneal or a slow pressor dose of Ang II, 0.5 mg/kg per day, intraperitoneal for 2 weeks significantly increased systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure in male and female WT mice (P<0.01), but the hypertensive response to Ang II was markedly attenuated in male and female PT-Nhe3-/- mice (P<0.01). Ang II impaired the pressure-natriuresis response in WT mice, whereas proximal tubule-specific deletion of NHE3 improved the pressure-natriuresis response in Ang II-infused PT-Nhe3-/- mice (P<0.01). AT1 receptor blocker losartan completely blocked Ang II-induced hypertension in both WT and PT-Nhe3-/- mice (P<0.01). However, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester had no effect on Ang II-induced hypertension in WT or PT-Nhe3-/- mice (not significant). Furthermore, Ang II-induced hypertension was significantly attenuated by an orally absorbable NHE3 inhibitor AVE0657. In conclusion, NHE3 in the proximal tubules of the kidney may be a therapeutical target in hypertension induced by Ang II or with increased NHE3 expression in the proximal tubules.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligands have been shown to inhibit cardiac fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the regulation by PPAR-gamma ligands of angiotensin (Ang) II-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, extracellular matrix (ECM) production and cell growth in cardiac fibroblasts.<h4>Experimental approach</h4>The effects of PPAR-gamma ligands on Ang II-induced PAI-1, ECM expression and cell growth were assessed in primary-cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts; cardiac PAI-1 and ECM production was examined in Ang II-infused rats.<h4>Key results</h4>In growth-arrested cardiac fibroblasts, PPAR-gamma ligands rosiglitazone and 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) dose-dependently attenuated Ang II-induced cell proliferation and expression of PAI-1, collagen type-I, collagen type-III and fibronectin. An accompanying increase in PPAR-gamma expression and activation was also observed. These suppressive effects were attenuated by the PPAR-gamma antagonists GW9662 and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE). Moreover, rosiglitazone and 15d-PGJ2 inhibited in part the expression and phosphorylation of Ang II-induced transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, Smad2/3 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). Ang II infusion in rats markedly increased left ventricular production of PAI-1, collagen and fibronectin, with a concurrent increase in the ratios of heart weight/body weight and left ventricle weight/body weight. Co-treatment with rosiglitazone significantly decreased these levels and upregulated PPAR-gamma expression.<h4>Conclusions and implications</h4>Rosiglitazone and 15d-PGJ2 suppress Ang II-induced production of PAI-1 and ECM probably via interactions between PPAR-gamma and TGF-beta1/Smad2/3 and JNK signalling pathways. It is suggested that PPAR-gamma and its ligands may have potential applications in preventing cardiac fibrosis.
Project description:The activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is triggered by the release of the protease renin from the kidneys, which in turn is controlled in the sense of negative feedback loops. It is widely assumed that Ang II (angiotensin II) directly inhibits renin expression and secretion via a short-loop feedback by an effect on renin-producing cells (RPCs) mediated by AT1 (Ang II type 1) receptors. Because the concept of such a direct short-loop negative feedback control, which originates mostly from in vitro experiments, has not yet been systematically proven in vivo, we aimed to test the validity of this concept by studying the regulation of renin synthesis and secretion in mice lacking Ang II-AT1 receptors on RPCs. We found that RPCs of the kidney express Ang II-AT1 receptors. Mice with conditional deletion of Ang II-AT1 receptors in RPCs were normal with regard to the number of renin cells, renal renin mRNA, and plasma renin concentrations. Renin expression and secretion of these mice responded to Ang I (angiotensin I)-converting enzyme inhibition and to Ang II infusion like in wild-type (WT) controls. In summary, we did not obtain evidence that Ang II-AT1 receptors on RPCs are of major relevance for the normal regulation of renin expression and secretion in mice. Therefore, we doubt the existence of a direct negative feedback function of Ang II on RPCs.
Project description:Activation of the renin angiotensin system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of blood pressure, which is mainly attributed to the formation of angiotensin-II (Ang II). The actions of Ang II are mediated through binding to the Ang-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) which leads to increased blood pressure, fluid retention, and aldosterone secretion. In addition, Ang II is also involved in cell injury, vascular remodeling, and inflammation. The actions of Ang II could be antagonized by its conversion to the vasodilator peptide Ang (1-7), partly generated by the action of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and/or neprilysin (NEP). Previous studies demonstrated increased urinary ACE2 shedding in the <i>db</i>/<i>db</i> mouse model of diabetic kidney disease. The aim of the study was to investigate whether renal and urinary ACE2 and NEP are altered in the 2K1C Goldblatt hypertensive mice. Since AT1R is highly expressed in the kidney, we also researched the effect of global deletion of AT1R on renal and urinary ACE2, NEP, and kidney injury marker (KIM-1). Hypertension and albuminuria were induced in AT1R knock out (AT1RKO) and WT mice by unilateral constriction of the renal artery of one kidney. The 24 h mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was measured using radio-telemetry. Two weeks after 2K1C surgery, MAP and albuminuria were significantly increased in WT mice compared to AT1RKO mice. Results demonstrated a correlation between MAP and albuminuria. Unlike <i>db</i>/<i>db</i> diabetic mice, ACE2 and NEP expression and activities were significantly decreased in the clipped kidney of WT and AT1RKO compared with the contralateral kidney and sham control (<i>p</i> < 0.05). There was no detectable urinary ACE2 and NEP expression and activity in 2K1C mice. KIM-1 was significantly increased in the clipped kidney of WT and AT1KO (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Deletion of AT1R has no effect on the increased urinary KIM-1 excretion detected in 2K1C mice. In conclusion, renal injury in 2K1C Goldblatt mouse model is associated with loss of renal ACE2 and NEP expression and activity. Urinary KIM-1 could serve as an early indicator of acute kidney injury. Deletion of AT1R attenuates albuminuria and hypertension without affecting renal ACE2, NEP, and KIM-1 expression.
Project description:Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protects the heart from acute ischemic stress. However, the importance of STAT3 to the heart in chronic stress, such as hypertension, is not known. To study this, we used cardiomyocyte-targeted STAT3 knockout (KO) mice and Angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion by osmotic minipumps. After 4 weeks, ANG II induced similar cardiac hypertrophy in wild type (WT) and cardiac Cre-expressing control (CTRL) mice with no impairment of cardiac function. In contrast, STAT3 KO mice exhibited reduced contractile function but similar hypertrophy to CTRL mice. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening decreased by 22.5 and 27.3%, respectively. Since STAT3 has direct protective effects on mitochondrial function, we examined rates of glucose and oleate oxidation by isolated perfused hearts using a Langendorff system. Hearts of ANG II-treated STAT3 KO and CTRL mice had similar rates of oleate oxidation as saline-infused WT mice. Rates of glucose oxidation were similar between hearts of WT plus saline and CTRL plus ANG II mice; however, glucose oxidation was increased by 66% in hearts of ANG II-treated STAT3 KO mice. The ratio of maximal ATP yield from glucose to fatty acid oxidation was 21.1 ± 3.1 in hearts of ANG II-treated STAT3 KO mice vs. 12.6 ± 2.2 in hearts of ANG II-treated CTRL mice. Lactate production was also elevated in hearts of ANG II-treated STAT3 KO mice by 162% compared to ANG II-treated CTRL mice. Our findings indicate that STAT3 is important for maintaining contractile function and metabolic homeostasis in the hypertensive heart, and STAT3 deficiency promotes a switch toward glucose utilization.