Estimation of relative microscopic affinity constants of agonists for the active state of the receptor in functional studies on M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors.
ABSTRACT: In prior work, we have shown that it is possible to estimate the product of observed affinity and intrinsic efficacy of an agonist expressed relative to that of a standard agonist simply through the analysis of their respective concentration-response curves. In this report, we show analytically and through mathematical modeling that this product, termed intrinsic relative activity (RA(i)), is equivalent to the ratio of microscopic affinity constants of the agonists for the active state of the receptor. We also compared the RA(i) estimates of selected muscarinic agonists with a relative estimate of the product of observed affinity and intrinsic efficacy determined independently through the method of partial receptor inactivation. There was good agreement between these two estimates when agonist-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the human M(2) muscarinic receptor. Likewise, there was good agreement between the two estimates when agonist activity was measured on the ileum from M(2) muscarinic receptor knockout mice, a convenient assay for M(3) receptor activity. The RA(i) estimates of agonists in the mouse ileum were similar to those estimated at the human M(3) receptor with the exception of 4-(m-chlorophenyl-carbamoyloxy)-2-butynyltrimethylammonium (McN-A-343), which is known to be an M(1)- and M(4)-selective muscarinic agonist. Additional experiments showed that the response to McN-A-343 in the mouse ileum included a non-M(3) muscarinic receptor component. Our results show that the RA(i) estimate is a useful receptor-dependent measure of agonist activity and ligand-directed signaling.
Project description:Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic function in brain pathways thought to mediate cocaine's abuse-related effects. Here, we sought to confirm and extend in the mouse species findings that nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonists can enhance cocaine's discriminative stimulus. More importantly, we tested the hypothesis that muscarinic receptor agonists with varied receptor subtype selectivity can blunt cocaine's discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects; we hypothesized a critical role for the M(1) and/or M(4) receptor subtypes in this modulation. Mice were trained to discriminate cocaine from saline, or to self-administer intravenous cocaine chronically. The nonselective muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and methylscopolamine, the nonselective muscarinic agonists oxotremorine and pilocarpine, the M(1)/M(4)-preferring agonist xanomeline, the putative M(1)-selective agonist (4-hydroxy-2-butynyl)-1-trimethylammonium-3-chlorocarbanilate chloride (McN-A-343), and the novel M(1)-selective agonist 1-(1-2-methylbenzyl)-1,4-bipiperidin-4-yl)-1H benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one (TBPB) were tested as substitution and/or pretreatment to cocaine. Both muscarinic antagonists partially substituted for cocaine and enhanced its discriminative stimulus. Conversely, muscarinic agonists blunted cocaine discrimination and abolished cocaine self-administration with varying effects on food-maintained behavior. Specifically, increasing selectivity for the M(1) subtype (oxotremorine < xanomeline < TBPB) conferred lesser nonspecific rate-suppressing effects, with no rate suppression for TBPB. In mutant mice lacking M(1) and M(4) receptors, xanomeline failed to diminish cocaine discrimination while rate-decreasing effects were intact. Our data suggest that central M(1) receptor activation attenuates cocaine's abuse-related effects, whereas non-M(1)/M(4) receptors probably contribute to undesirable effects of muscarinic stimulation. These data provide the first demonstration of anticocaine effects of systemically applied, M(1) receptor agonists and suggest the possibility of a new approach to pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction.
Project description:The incorporation of [3H]serine into lipids, water-soluble metabolites and proteins by the human neuroblastoma cell line LA-N-1 exposed to oxotremorine-M, a muscarinic agonist, was investigated. Oxotremorine-M increased the incorporation of this labelled precursor into phosphatidylserine and proteins in a concentration-dependent manner, with the maximal stimulation at 250 microM. This activation was blunted by 100 microM atropine. There were no detectable changes of the radioactivity in the water-soluble metabolites. Acetylcholine, another muscarinic agonist, slightly decreased the serine incorporation into lipids, but did not affect the protein or water-soluble compartments. Several other muscarinic agonists, including 250 microM pilocarpine, 100 microM McN-A-343 and 1 mM carbachol, did not effect these [3H]serine incorporations. Preincubation of cells with 1 mM oxotremorine M, or 1 mM carbachol, or 1 mM McN-A-343, for 4 h prevented the oxotremorine-M-induced increase of serine incorporation. These observations are consistent with the oxotremorine-M action being mediated by muscarinic-receptor occupancy. The G-protein inhibitor guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (1 mM) and the G-protein activators, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (100 microM) and A1F3, prevented the oxotremorine stimulation. The muscarinic agonists, 250 microM oxotremorine-M, 1 mM carbamoylcholine and 500 microM acetylcholine, triggered the accumulation of inositol mono- and di-phosphates by cells that had been prelabelled with myo-[3H]inositol, and this phospholipase C activation was blunted by 100 microM atropine. The protein kinase C inhibitor H7 prevented the oxotremorine-M stimulation of serine incorporation. Over-night exposure of LA-N-1 cells to 100 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate resulted in a decrease of cytosolic protein kinase C activity, and prevented the oxotremorine-M stimulation of serine incorporation. Neither oxotremorine-M nor acetylcholine caused a redistribution of protein kinase C activity between the cytosol and membrane compartments. In addition, oxotremorine-M did not activate phospholipase D of the LA-N-1 cells.
Project description:Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) possess allosteric binding sites distinct from the orthosteric site utilized by their cognate ligands, but most GPCR allosteric modulators reported to date lack signaling efficacy in their own right. McN-A-343 (4-(N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamoyloxy)-2-butynyltrimethylammonium chloride) is a functionally selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) partial agonist that can also interact allosterically at the M(2) mAChR. We hypothesized that this molecule simultaneously utilizes both an allosteric and the orthosteric site on the M(2) mAChR to mediate these effects. By synthesizing progressively truncated McN-A-343 derivatives, we identified two, which minimally contain 3-chlorophenylcarbamate, as pure allosteric modulators. These compounds were positive modulators of the orthosteric antagonist N-[(3)H]methylscopolamine, but in functional assays of M(2) mAChR-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and guanosine 5'-3-O-([(35)S]thio)triphosphate binding, they were negative modulators of agonist efficacy. This negative allosteric effect was diminished upon mutation of Y177A in the second extracellular (E2) loop of the M(2) mAChR that is known to reduce prototypical allosteric modulator potency. Our results are consistent with McN-A-343 being a bitopic orthosteric/allosteric ligand with the allosteric moiety engendering partial agonism and functional selectivity. This finding suggests a novel and largely unappreciated mechanism of "directed efficacy" whereby functional selectivity may be engendered in a GPCR by utilizing an allosteric ligand to direct the signaling of an orthosteric ligand encoded within the same molecule.
Project description:Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors contain at least one allosteric site that is topographically distinct from the acetylcholine, orthosteric binding site. Although studies have investigated the basis of allosteric modulation at these receptors, less is known about putative allosteric ligands that activate the receptor in their own right. We generated M(2) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mutations in either the orthosteric site in transmembrane helices 3 and 6 (TM3 and -6) or part of an allosteric site involving the top of TM2, the second extracellular (E2) loop, and the top of TM7 and investigated their effects on the binding and function of the novel selective (putative allosteric) agonists (AC-42 (4-n-butyl-1-(4-(2-methylphenyl)-4-oxo-1-butyl)piperidine HCl), 77-LH-28-1 (1-(3-(4-butyl-1-piperidinyl)propyl)-3,3-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone), and N-desmethylclozapine) as well as the bitopic orthosteric/allosteric ligand, McN-A-343 (4-(m-chlorophenyl-carbamoyloxy)-2-butynyltrimethylammonium). Four classes of agonists were identified, depending on their response to the mutations, suggesting multiple, distinct modes of agonist-receptor interaction. Interestingly, with the exception of 77-LH-28-1, allosteric site mutations had no effect on the affinity of any of the agonists tested, but some mutations in the E2 loop influenced the efficacy of both orthosteric and novel selective agonists, highlighting a role for this region of the receptor in modulating activation status. Two point mutations (Y104(3.33)A (Ballesteros and Weinstein numbers in superscript) in the orthosteric and Y177A in the allosteric site) unmasked ligand-selective and signaling pathway-selective effects, providing evidence for the existence of pathway-specific receptor conformations. Molecular modeling of 77-LH-28-1 and N-desmethylclozapine yielded novel binding poses consistent with the possibility that the functional selectivity of such agents may arise from a bitopic mechanism.
Project description:We previously reported cognitive dysfunction in klotho mutant mice. In the present study, we further examined novel mechanisms involved in cognitive impairment in these mice. Significantly decreased janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription3 (STAT3) phosphorylation were observed in the hippocampus of klotho mutant mice. A selective decrease in protein expression and binding density of the M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptor (M1 mAChR) was observed in these mice. Cholinergic parameters (ie, acetylcholine (ACh), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)) and NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) were significantly impaired in klotho mutant mice. McN-A-343 (McN), an M1 mAChR agonist, significantly attenuated these impairments. AG490 (AG), a JAK2 inhibitor, counteracted the attenuating effects of McN, although AG did not significantly alter the McN-induced effect on AChE. Furthermore, AG significantly inhibited the attenuating effects of McN on decreased NMDAR-dependent LTP, protein kinase C ?II, p-ERK, p-CREB, BDNF, and p-JAK2/p-STAT3-expression in klotho mutant mice. In addition, k252a, a BDNF receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) inhibitor, significantly counteracted McN effects on decreased ChAT, ACh, and M1 mAChR and p-JAK2/p-STAT3 expression. McN-induced effects on cognitive impairment in klotho mutant mice were consistently counteracted by either AG or k252a. Our results suggest that inactivation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling axis and M1 mAChR downregulation play a critical role in cognitive impairment observed in klotho mutant mice.
Project description:The recently identified small molecule, 3-amino-5-chloro-6-methoxy-4-methylthieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxylic acid cyclopropylamide (LY2033298), is the first selective allosteric modulator of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) that mediates both receptor activation and positive modulation of the endogenous agonist, acetylcholine (ACh), via the same allosteric site on the M(4) mAChR. We thus utilized this novel chemical tool, as well as ACh, the bitopic (orthosteric/allosteric) agonist, McN-A-343, and the clinically efficacious M(1)/M(4) mAChR-preferring agonist, xanomeline, in conjunction with site-directed mutagenesis of four different regions of the M(4) mAChR (extracellular loops 1, 2, and 3, and transmembrane domain 7), to identify regions that govern ligand-specific modes of binding, signaling, and allosteric modulation. In the first extracellular loop (E1), we identified Ile(93) and Lys(95) as key residues that specifically govern the signaling efficacy of LY2033298 and its binding cooperativity with ACh, whereas Phe(186) in the E2 loop was identified as a key contributor to the binding affinity of the modulator for the allosteric site, and Asp(432) in the E3 loop appears to be involved in the functional (activation) cooperativity between the modulator and the endogenous agonist. In contrast, the highly conserved transmembrane domain 7 residues, Tyr(439) and Tyr(443), were identified as contributing to a key activation switch utilized by all classes of agonists. These results provide new insights into the existence of multiple activation switches in G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), some of which can be selectively exploited by allosteric agonists, whereas others represent global activation mechanisms for all classes of ligand.
Project description:1. Release of acetylcholine from parasympathetic nerves is inhibited by neuronal M(2) muscarinic receptors. The effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on prejunctional M(2) and postjunctional M(3) muscarinic receptor function in rat trachea and ileum were investigated in vitro. 2. Neuronal M(2) muscarinic receptor function was tested by measuring the ability of an agonist, pilocarpine, to inhibit and an antagonist, methoctramine, to potentiate electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contraction of trachea and ileum. Concentration-response curves to pilocarpine and methoctramine were shifted to the left in both to a greater degree in diabetics than controls. 3. In trachea, post-junctional M(3) muscarinic receptor function was increased since maximum contractile responses to the muscarinic agonists acetylcholine and carbachol were greater in diabetics than controls. This increase offset the increased function of the inhibitory neuronal M(2) muscarinic receptors since EFS-induced, frequency-dependent contraction was equal in control and diabetic rats. 4. In contrast, post-junctional M(3) muscarinic receptor function was unchanged by diabetes since concentration-response curves to acetylcholine and carbachol were not different between groups. Thus, EFS-induced contractions of the ileum were decreased in diabetics versus controls. 5. In conclusion, inhibitory M(2) muscarinic receptors on parasympathetic nerves in the trachea and ileum are hyperfunctional in diabetic rats. The function of post-junctional M(3) muscarinic receptors in the trachea, but not the ileum, is also increased in diabetes. 6. The dysfunction of inhibitory, neuronal M(2) muscarinic receptors in the airways may protect against hyperreactivity and in the ileum may contribute to gastrointestinal dysmotility associated with diabetes.
Project description:The effect on cholinergic analgesia of inactivation of the M(1) gene by an antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide (aODN) was investigated in the mouse hot plate test. Mice received a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of anti-M(1) aODN (0.3, 1. 0 or 2.0 nmol per injection), degenerate ODN (dODN) or vehicle on days 1, 4 and 7. A dose-dependent inhibition of the antinociception induced by the muscarinic agonists oxotremorine (0.1 mg kg(-1) s.c.) and McN-A-343 (30 microg per mouse i.c.v.) and the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine (0.2 mg kg(-1) s.c.) was observed 24 h after the last i.c.v. injection of aODN. Time-course experiments revealed that, after the end of the aODN treatment, sensitivity to analgesic drugs progressively appeared reaching the normal range at 96 h. The anti-M(1) aODN was selective against muscarinic antinociception since the enhancement of pain threshold produced by morphine and baclofen were not affected by the above-mentioned treatment. dODN, used as control, did not affect muscarinic antinociception. Binding studies evidenced a selective reduction of M(1) receptor levels in the hippocampus of aODN-treated mice. Neither aODN, dODN nor vehicle produced any behavioural impairment of mice as revealed by the rota-rod and Animex experiments. These results indicate that activation of M(1) muscarinic receptor subtype is fundamental to induce central cholinergic analgesia in mice.
Project description:Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a constitutively active multifunctional serine-threonine kinase which is involved in diverse physiological processes. GSK-3 has been implicated in a wide range of diseases including neurodegeneration, inflammation, diabetes and cancer. GSK-3 is a downstream target for protein kinase B (Akt) which phosphorylates GSK-3 and suppresses its activity. Based upon our preliminary findings, we postulated Akt's involvement in emesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the participation of GSK-3 and the antiemetic potential of two GSK-3 inhibitors (AR-A014418 and SB216763) in the least shrew model of vomiting against fully-effective emetic doses of diverse emetogens, including the nonselective and/or selective agonists of serotonin type 3 (e.g. 5-HT or 2-Methyl-5-HT)-, neurokinin type 1 receptor (e.g. GR73632), dopamine D<sub>2</sub> (e.g. apomorphine or quinpirole)-, and muscarinic 1 (e.g. pilocarpine or McN-A-343) receptors, as well as the L-type Ca<sup>2+</sup> channel agonist (FPL64176), the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca<sup>2+</sup>-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, and the chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin. We first determined if these emetogens could regulate the phosphorylation level of GSK-3 in the brainstem emetic loci of least shrews and then investigated whether AR-A014418 and SB216763 could protect against the evoked emesis. Phospho-GSK-3?/? Ser21/9 levels in the brainstem and the enteric nerves of jejunum in the small intestine were upregulated following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of all the tested emetogens. Furthermore, administration of AR-A014418 (2.5-20 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently attenuated both the frequency and percentage of shrews vomiting in response to i.p. administration of 5-HT (5 mg/kg), 2-Methyl-5-HT (5 mg/kg), GR73632 (5 mg/kg), apomorphine (2 mg/kg), quinpirole (2 mg/kg), pilocarpine (2 mg/kg), McN-A-343 (2 mg/kg), FPL64176 (10 mg/kg), or thapsigargin (0.5 mg/kg). Relatively lower doses of SB216763 exerted antiemetic efficacy, but both inhibitors barely affected cisplatin (10 mg/kg)-induced vomiting. Collectively, these results support the notion that vomiting is accompanied by a downregulation of GSK-3 activity and pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3 protects against pharmacologically evoked vomiting.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is based on vagus nerve (VN) activity that regulates macrophage and dendritic cell responses in the spleen through alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7nAChR) signaling. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients present dysautonomia with decreased vagus nerve activity, dendritic cell and T cell over-activation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether central activation of the CAP alters the function of dendritic cells (DCs) and sequential CD4+/CD25-T cell activation in the context of experimental colitis.<h4>Methods</h4>The dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of experimental colitis in C57BL/6 mice was used. Central, intracerebroventricular infusion of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist McN-A-343 was used to activate CAP and vagus nerve and/or splenic nerve transection were performed. In addition, the role of ?7nAChR signaling and the NF-kB pathway was studied. Serum amyloid protein (SAP)-A, colonic tissue cytokines, IL-12p70 and IL-23 in isolated splenic DCs, and cytokines levels in DC-CD4+CD25-T cell co-culture were determined.<h4>Results</h4>McN-A-343 treatment reduced colonic inflammation associated with decreased pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 colonic and splenic cytokine secretion. Splenic DCs cytokine release was modulated through ?7nAChR and the NF-kB signaling pathways. Cholinergic activation resulted in decreased CD4+CD25-T cell priming. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of central cholinergic activation was abolished in mice with vagotomy or splenic neurectomy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Suppression of splenic immune cell activation and altered interaction between DCs and T cells are important aspects of the beneficial effect of brain activation of the CAP in experimental colitis. These findings may lead to improved therapeutic strategies in the treatment of IBD.