Primary Structure Revision and Active Site Mapping of E. Coli Isoleucyl-tRNA Synthetase by Means of Maldi Mass Spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: The correct amino acid sequence of E. coli isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) was established by means of peptide mapping by MALDI mass spectrometry, using a set of four endoproteases (trypsin, LysC, AspN and GluC). Thereafter, the active site of IleRS was mapped by affinity labeling with reactive analogs of the substrates. For the ATP binding site, the affinity labeling reagent was pyridoxal 5'-diphospho-5'-adenosine (ADP-PL), whereas periodate-oxidized tRNA(Ile), the 2',3'-dialdehyde derivative of tRNA(Ile) was used to label the binding site for the 3'-end of tRNA on the synthetase. Incubation of either reagent with IleRS resulted in a rapid loss of both the tRNA(Ile) aminoacylation and isoleucinedependent isotopic ATP-PPi exchange activities. The stoichiometries of IleRS labeling by ADP-PL or tRNA(Ile)ox corresponded to 1 mol of reagent incorporated per mol of enzyme. Altogether, the oxidized 3'-end of tRNA(Ile) and the pyridoxal moiety of the ATP analog ADP-PL react with the lysyl residues 601 and 604 of the consensus sequence (601)KMSKS(605). Identification of the binding site for L-isoleucine or for non cognate amino acids on E. coli IleRS was achieved by qualitative comparative labeling of the synthetase with bromomethyl ketone derivatives of L-isoleucine (IBMK) or of the non-cognate amino acids valine (VBMK), phenylalanine (FBMK) and norleucine (NleBMK). Labeling of the enzyme with IBMK resulted in a complete loss of isoleucine-dependent isotopic [(32)P]PPi-ATP exchange activity. VBMK, NleBMK and FBMK were also capable of abolishing the activity of IleRS, FBMK being the less efficient in inactivating the synthetase. Analysis by MALDI mass spectrometry designated cysteines-462 and -718 as the target residues of the substrate analog IBMK on E. coli IleRS, whereas VBMK, NleBMK and FBMK labeled in common His-394, His-478 and Cys-718. In addition, VBMK and NleBMK, which are chemically similar to IBMK, were found covalently bound to Cys-462, and VBMK was specifically attached to His-332 (or His-337) of the synthetase. The amino acid residues labeled by the substrate analogs are mainly distributed between three regions in the primary structure of E. coli IleRS: these are segments [325-394], [451-479] and [591-604]. In the 3-D structures of IleRS from T. thermophilus and S. aureus, the [325-394] stretch is part of the editing domain, while fragments [451-479] and [591-604] representing the isoleucine binding domain and the dinucleotide (or Rossmann) fold domain, respectively, are located in the catalytic core. His-332 of E. coli IleRS, that is strictly conserved among all the available IleRS sequences is located in the editing active site of the synthetase. It is proposed that His-332 of E. coli IleRS participates directly in hydrolysis, or helps to deprotonate the hydroxyl group of threonine at the hydrolytic site.
Project description:Bacteria decode the isoleucine codon AUA using a tRNA species that is posttranscriptionally modified at the wobble position of the anticodon with a lysine-containing cytidine derivative called lysidine. The lysidine modification of tRNA(Ile2) is an essential identity determinant for proper aminoacylation by isoleucyl tRNA synthetase (IleRS) and codon recognition on the ribosome. The ATP- and lysine-dependent formation of lysidine is catalyzed by tRNA(Ile)-lysidine synthetase. Using the purified recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli and an in vitro transcribed tRNA substrate, we have confirmed that lysidine modification is both necessary and sufficient to convert tRNA(Ile2) into a substrate for IleRS. A series of lysine analogs were tested as potential inhibitors during the mechanistic characterization of tRNA(Ile)-lysidine synthetase. Gel electrophoresis revealed that many of these analogs, including some simple alkyl amines, were alternative substrates. Incorporation of these amines into alternative tRNA products was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The availability of tRNA(Ile2) with differential modifications enabled an exploration of the structural requirements of the anticodon for aminoacylation by methionyl tRNA synthetase and IleRS. All of the modifications were effective at creating negative determinants for methionyl tRNA synthetase and positive determinants for IleRS, although the tolerance of IleRS differed between the enzymes from E. coli and Bacillus subtilis.
Project description:Deciphering the genetic code is a fundamental process in all living organisms. In many bacteria, AUA codons are deciphered by tRNA(Ile2) bearing lysidine (L) at the wobble position. L is a modified cytidine introduced post-transcriptionally by tRNA(Ile)-lysidine synthetase (TilS). Some bacteria, including Mycoplasma mobile, do not carry the tilS gene, indicating that they have established a different system to decode AUA codons. In this study, tRNA(Ile2) has been isolated from M. mobile and was found to contain a UAU anticodon without any modification. Mycoplasma mobile isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) recognized the UAU anticodon, whereas Escherichia coli IleRS did not efficiently aminoacylate tRNA(Ile2)(UAU). In M. mobile IleRS, a single Arg residue at position 865 was critical for specificity for the UAU anticodon and, when the corresponding site (W905) in E. coli IleRS was substituted with Arg, the W905R mutant efficiently aminoacylated tRNA with UAU anticodon. Mycoplasma mobile tRNA(Ile2) cannot distinguish between AUA and AUG codon on E. coli ribosome. However, on M. mobile ribosome, M. mobile tRNA(Ile2)(UAU) specifically recognized AUA codon, and not AUG codon, suggesting M. mobile ribosome has a property that prevents misreading of AUG codon. These findings provide an insight into the evolutionary reorganization of the AUA decoding system.
Project description:Lysidine, a lysine-combined modified cytidine, is exclusively located at the anticodon wobble position (position 34) of eubacterial tRNA(Ile)(2) and not only converts the codon specificity from AUG to AUA, but also converts the aminoacylation specificity from recognition by methionyl-tRNA synthetase to that by isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS). Here, we report the crystal structure of lysidine synthetase (TilS) from Aquifex aeolicus at 2.42-A resolution. TilS forms a homodimer, and each subunit consists of the N-terminal dinucleotide-binding fold domain (NTD), with a characteristic central hole, and the C-terminal globular domain (CTD) connected by a long alpha-helical linker. The NTD shares striking structural similarity with the ATP-pyrophosphatase domain of GMP synthetase, which reminds us of the two-step reaction by TilS: adenylation of C34 and lysine attack on the C2 carbon. Conserved amino acid residues are clustered around the NTD central hole. Kinetic analyses of the conserved residues' mutants indicated that C34 of tRNA(Ile)(2) is adenylated by an ATP lying across the NTD central hole and that a lysine, which is activated at a loop appended to the NTD, nucleophilically attacks the C2 carbon from the rear. Escherichia coli TilS (called MesJ) has an additional CTD, which may recognize the tRNA(Ile)(2) acceptor stem. In contrast, a mutational study revealed that A. aeolicus TilS does not recognize the tRNA acceptor stem but recognizes the C29.G41 base pair in the anticodon stem. Thus, the two TilS enzymes discriminate tRNA(Ile)(2) from tRNA(Met) by strategies similar to that used by IleRS, but in distinct manners.
Project description:Sodium pseudomonate was shown to be a powerful competitive inhibitor of Escherichia coli B isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (Ile-tRNA synthetase). The antibiotic competitively inhibits (Ki 6 nM; cf. Km 6.3 microM), with respect top isoleucine, the formation of the enzyme . Ile approximately AMP complex as measured by the pyrophosphate-exchange reaction, and has no effect on the transfer of [14C]isoleucine from the enzyme . [14C]Ile approximately AMP complex to tRNAIle. The inhibitory constant for the pyrophosphate-exchange reaction was of the same order as that determined for the inhibition of the overall aminoacylation reaction (Ki 2.5 nM; cf. Km 11.1 microM). Sodium [9'-3H]pseudomonate forms a stable complex with Ile-tRNA synthetase. Gel-filtration and gel-electrophoresis studies showed that the antibiotic is only fully released from the complex by 5 M-urea treatment or boiling in 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulphate. The molar binding ratio of sodium [9'-3H]pseudomonate to Ile-tRNA synthetase was found to be 0.85:1 by equilibrium dialysis. Aminoacylation of yeast tRNAIle by rat liver Ile-tRNA synthetase was also competitively inhibited with respect to isoleucine, Ki 20 microM (cf. Km 5.4 microM). The Km values for the rat liver and E. coli B enzymes were of the same order, but the Ki for the rat liver enzyme was 8000 times the Ki for the E. coli B enzyme. This presumably explains the low toxicity of the antibiotic in mammals.
Project description:Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), the enzymes responsible for coupling tRNAs to their cognate amino acids, minimize translational errors by intrinsic hydrolytic editing. Here, we compared the propensity of norvaline (Nva), a linear amino acid not coded for protein synthesis, to the proteinogenic, branched valine (Val) to mistranslate isoleucine (Ile) in proteins. We show that in the synthetic site of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS), aminoacylation and pre-transfer editing with Nva and Val occur at similar rates. Post-transfer editing was, however, more efficient with Nva as IleRS misaminoacylates Nva-tRNAIle at slower rate than Val-tRNAIle. Accordingly, an Escherichia coli strain lacking IleRS post-transfer editing misincorporated Nva and Val in the proteome to a similar extent and at the same Ile positions. However, Nva mistranslation inflicted higher toxicity than Val, in agreement with IleRS post-transfer editing domain being optimized for hydrolysis of Nva-tRNAIle. Furthermore, we found that the evolutionary related IleRS, leucyl- and valyl-tRNA synthetases (I/L/VRSs), all efficiently hydrolyze Nva-tRNAs even when editing of Nva seems redundant. Thus, we hypothesize that editing of Nva-tRNAs had already existed in the last common ancestor of I/L/VRSs, and that the editing domain of I/L/VRSs had primarily evolved to prevent infiltration of Nva into modern proteins.
Project description:Pathogenic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are attractive targets for anti-infective agents because their catalytic active sites are different from those of human ARSs. Mupirocin is a topical antibiotic that specifically inhibits bacterial isoleucy-ltRNA synthetase (IleRS), resulting in a block to protein synthesis. Previous studies on Thermus thermophilus IleRS indicated that mupirocin-resistance of eukaryotic IleRS is primarily due to differences in two amino acids, His581 and Leu583, in the active site. However, without a eukaryotic IleRS structure, the structural basis for mupirocin-resistance of eukaryotic IleRS remains elusive. Herein, we determined the crystal structure of Candida albicans IleRS complexed with Ile-AMP at 2.9 Å resolution. The largest difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic IleRS enzymes is closure of the active site pocket by Phe55 in the HIGH loop; Arg410 in the CP core loop; and the second Lys in the KMSKR loop. The Ile-AMP product is lodged in a closed active site, which may restrict its release and thereby enhance catalytic efficiency. The compact active site also prevents the optimal positioning of the 9-hydroxynonanoic acid of mupirocin and plays a critical role in resistance of eukaryotic IleRS to anti-infective agents.
Project description:Isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) is unusual among aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in having a tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing activity. Alongside the typical bacterial IleRS (such as Escherichia coli IleRS), some bacteria also have the enzymes (eukaryote-like) that cluster with eukaryotic IleRSs and exhibit low sensitivity to the antibiotic mupirocin. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ileS1 and ileS2 genes of contemporary bacteria are the descendants of genes that might have arisen by an ancient duplication event before the separation of bacteria and archaea. We present the analysis of evolutionary constraints of the synthetic and editing reactions in eukaryotic/eukaryote-like IleRSs, which share a common origin but diverged through adaptation to different cell environments. The enzyme from the yeast cytosol exhibits tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing analogous to E. coli IleRS. This argues for the presence of this proofreading in the common ancestor of both IleRS types and an ancient origin of the synthetic site-based quality control step. Yet surprisingly, the eukaryote-like enzyme from Streptomyces griseus IleRS lacks this capacity; at the same time, its synthetic site displays the 10(3)-fold drop in sensitivity to antibiotic mupirocin relative to the yeast enzyme. The discovery that pre-transfer editing is optional in IleRSs lends support to the notion that the conserved post-transfer editing domain is the main checkpoint in these enzymes. We substantiated this by showing that under error-prone conditions S. griseus IleRS is able to rescue the growth of an E. coli lacking functional IleRS, providing the first evidence that tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing in IleRS is not essential for cell viability.
Project description:The gene coding for E. coli cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (cysS) was isolated by complementation of a strain deficient in cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase activity at high temperature (43 degrees C). Sequencing of a 2.1 kbp DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame of 1383 bp coding for a protein of 461 amino acid residues with a Mr of 52,280, a value in close agreement with that observed for the purified protein, which behaves as a monomer. The sequence of CysRS bears the canonical His-Ile- Gly -His (HIGH) and Lys-Met-Ser-Lys-Ser (KMSKS) motifs characteristic of the group of enzymes containing a Rossmann fold; furthermore, it shows striking homologies with MetRS (an homodimer of 677 residues) and to a lesser extent with Ile-, Leu-, and ValRS (monomers of 939, 860, and 951 residues respectively). With its monomeric state and smaller size, CysRS is probably more closely related to the primordial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase from which all have diverged.
Project description:Hydrolytic editing activities are present in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases possessing reduced amino acid discrimination in the synthetic reactions. Post-transfer hydrolysis of misacylated tRNA in class I editing enzymes occurs in a spatially separate domain inserted into the catalytic Rossmann fold, but the location and mechanisms of pre-transfer hydrolysis of misactivated amino acids have been uncertain. Here, we use novel kinetic approaches to distinguish among three models for pre-transfer editing by Escherichia coli isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS). We demonstrate that tRNA-dependent hydrolysis of noncognate valyl-adenylate by IleRS is largely insensitive to mutations in the editing domain of the enzyme and that noncatalytic hydrolysis after release is too slow to account for the observed rate of clearing. Measurements of the microscopic rate constants for amino acid transfer to tRNA in IleRS and the related valyl-tRNA synthetase (ValRS) further suggest that pre-transfer editing in IleRS is an enzyme-catalyzed activity residing in the synthetic active site. In this model, the balance between pre-transfer and post-transfer editing pathways is controlled by kinetic partitioning of the noncognate aminoacyl-adenylate. Rate constants for hydrolysis and transfer of a noncognate intermediate are roughly equal in IleRS, whereas in ValRS transfer to tRNA is 200-fold faster than hydrolysis. In consequence, editing by ValRS occurs nearly exclusively by post-transfer hydrolysis in the editing domain, whereas in IleRS both pre- and post-transfer editing are important. In both enzymes, the rates of amino acid transfer to tRNA are similar for cognate and noncognate aminoacyl-adenylates, providing a significant contrast with editing DNA polymerases.
Project description:Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases provide the first step in protein synthesis quality control by discriminating cognate from noncognate amino acid and tRNA substrates. While substrate specificity is enhanced in many instances by cis- and trans-editing pathways, it has been revealed that in organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae some aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases display significant tRNA mischarging activity. To investigate the extent of tRNA mischarging in this pathogen, the aminoacylation profiles of class I isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) and class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) were determined. Pneumococcal IleRS mischarged tRNA(Ile) with both Val, as demonstrated in other bacteria, and Leu in a tRNA sequence-dependent manner. IleRS substrate specificity was achieved in an editing-independent manner, indicating that tRNA mischarging would only be significant under growth conditions where Ile is depleted. Pneumococcal LysRS was found to misaminoacylate tRNA(Lys) with Ala and to a lesser extent Thr and Ser, with mischarging efficiency modulated by the presence of an unusual U4:G69 wobble pair in the acceptor stems of both pneumococcal tRNA(Lys) isoacceptors. Addition of the trans-editing factor MurM, which also functions in peptidoglycan synthesis, reduced Ala-tRNA(Lys) production by LysRS, providing evidence for cross talk between the protein synthesis and cell wall biogenesis pathways. Mischarging of tRNA(Lys) by AlaRS was also observed, and this would provide additional potential MurM substrates. More broadly, the extensive mischarging activities now described for a number of Streptococcus pneumoniae aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases suggest that adaptive misaminoacylation may contribute significantly to the viability of this pathogen during amino acid starvation.Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common causative agent of several debilitating and potentially life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and infectious endocarditis. Such infections are increasingly difficult to treat due to widespread development of penicillin resistance. High-level penicillin resistance is known to depend in part upon MurM, a protein involved in both aminoacyl-tRNA-dependent synthesis of indirect amino acid cross-linkages within cell wall peptidoglycan and in translation quality control. The involvement of MurM in both protein synthesis and antibiotic resistance identify it as a potential target for the development of new and potent antibiotics for pneumococcal infections. The goals of this work were to identify and characterize S. pneumoniae pathways that can synthesize mischarged tRNAs and to relate these activities to expected changes in protein and peptidoglycan biosynthesis during antibiotic and nutritional stress.