ADAR1 is essential for the maintenance of hematopoiesis and suppression of interferon signaling.
ABSTRACT: The deaminase ADAR1 edits adenosines in nuclear transcripts of nervous tissue and is required in the fetal liver of the developing mouse embryo. Here we show by inducible gene disruption in mice that ADAR1 is essential for maintenance of both fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells. Loss of ADAR1 in hematopoietic stem cells led to global upregulation of type I and II interferon-inducible transcripts and rapid apoptosis. Our findings identify ADAR1 as an essential regulator of hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and suppressor of interferon signaling that may protect organisms from the deleterious effects of interferon activation associated with many pathological processes, including chronic inflammation, autoimmune disorders and cancer.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine residues to inosine in double-stranded RNA. In vivo, ADAR1 is essential for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem/progenitors. Whether other hematopoietic cell types also require ADAR1 has not been assessed. Using erythroid- and myeloid-restricted deletion of Adar1, we demonstrate that ADAR1 is dispensable for myelopoiesis but is essential for normal erythropoiesis. Adar1-deficient erythroid cells display a profound activation of innate immune signaling and high levels of cell death. No changes in microRNA levels were found in ADAR1-deficient erythroid cells. Using an editing-deficient allele, we demonstrate that RNA editing is the essential function of ADAR1 during erythropoiesis. Mapping of adenosine-to-inosine editing in purified erythroid cells identified clusters of hyperedited adenosines located in long 3'-untranslated regions of erythroid-specific transcripts and these are ADAR1-specific editing events. ADAR1-mediated RNA editing is essential for normal erythropoiesis.
Project description:Purpose: RNA editing by ADAR1 is essential for hematopoietic development. The goals of this study were firstly, to identify ADAR1-specific RNA-editing sites by indentifying A-to-I (G) RNA editing sites in wild type mice that were not edited or reduced in editing frequency in ADAR1 deficient murine erythroid cells. Secondly, to determine the transcription consequence of an absence of ADAR1-mediated A-to-I editing. Methods: Total RNA from E14.5 fetal liver of embryos with an erythroid restricted deletion of ADAR1 (KO) and littermate controls (WT), in duplicate. cDNA libraries were prepared and RNA sequenced using Illumina HiSeq2000. The sequence reads that passed quality filters were analyzed at the transcript level with TopHat followed by Cufflinks. qRTâPCR validation was performed using SYBR Green assays. A-to-I (G) RNA editing sites were identified as previously described by Ramaswami G. et al., Nature Methods, 2012 using BurrowsâWheeler Aligner (BWA) followed by ANOVA (ANOVA). RNA editing sites were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Results: Using an optimized data analysis workflow, we mapped about 30 million sequence reads per sample to the mouse genome (build mm9) and identified 14,484 transcripts in the fetal livers of WT and ADAR1E861A mice with BWA. RNA-seq data had a goodness of fit (R2) of >0.7, p<0.0001 between biological duplicates per genotype. Clusters of hyper-editing were onserved in long, unannotated 3'UTRs of erythroid specific transcripts. A profound upregulation of interferon stimulated genes were found to be massively upregulated (up to 5 log2FC) in KO fetal liver compared to WT. 11.332 (6,894 novel) A-to-I RNA editing sites were identified when assessing mismatches in RNA-seq data. Conclusions: Our study represents the first detailed analysis of erythroid transcriptomes and A-to-I RNA editing sites, with biologic replicates, generated by RNA-seq technology. A-to-I RNA editing is the essential function of ADAR1 and is required to prevent sensing of endogenous transcripts, likely via a RIG-I like receptor mediated axis. Fetal liver mRNA profiles of E14.5 wild type (WT) and ADAR Epor-Cre knock out mice were generated by deep sequencing, in duplicate using Illumina HiSeq 2000.
Project description:Purpose: RNA editing by ADAR1 is essential for hematopoietic development. The goals of this study were firstly, to identify ADAR1-specific RNA-editing sites by indentifying A-to-I (G) mismatches in RNA-seq data compared to mm9 reference genome in wild type mice that were not edited or reduced in editing frequency in ADAR1E861A editing deficient mice. Secondly, to determine the transcriptional consequence of an absence of ADAR1-mediated A-to-I editing. Methods: Fetal liver mRNA profiles of embryonic day 12.5 wild-type (WT) and ADAR1 editing-deficient (ADAR1E861A) mice were generated by RNA sequencing, in triplicate (biological replicates), using Illumina HiSeq2000. The sequence reads that passed quality filters were analyzed at the transcript level with TopHat followed by Cufflinks. qRT–PCR validation was performed using SYBR Green assays. A-to-I (G) RNA editing sites were identified as previously described by Ramaswami G. et al., Nature Methods, 2012 using Burrows–Wheeler Aligner (BWA) followed by ANOVA (ANOVA). RNA editing sites were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Results: Using an optimized data analysis workflow, we mapped about 30 million sequence reads per sample to the mouse genome (build mm9) and identified 14,484 transcripts in the fetal livers of WT and ADAR1E861A mice with BWA. RNA-seq data had a goodness of fit (R2) of >0.94 between biological triplicates per genotype. Approximately 4.4% of the transcripts showed differential expression between the WT and ADAR1E861A fetal liver, with a LogFC≥1.5 and p value <0.05. A profound upregulation of interferon stimulated genes were found to be massively upregulated (up to 11 logFC) in ADAR1E861A fetal liver compared to WT. 6,012 A-to-I RNA editing sites were identified when assessing mismatches in RNA-seq data of WT and ADAR1E861A fetal liver. Conclusions: Our study represents the first detailed analysis of fetal liver transcriptomes and A-to-I RNA editing sites, with biologic replicates, generated by RNA-seq technology. A-to-I RNA editing is the essential function of ADAR1 and is required to suppress interferon signaling to endogenous RNA. Fetal liver mRNA profiles of E12.5 wild type (WT) and ADAR E861A mutant mice were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq 200.
Project description:RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to inosine in viral and cellular RNAs. Two size forms of the ADAR1 editing enzyme are known, an IFN-inducible approximately 150-kDa protein and a constitutively expressed N-terminally truncated approximately 110-kDa protein. We have now identified alternative exon 1 structures of human ADAR1 transcripts that initiate from unique promoters, one constitutively expressed and the other IFN inducible. Cloning and sequence analyses of 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) cDNAs from human placenta established a linkage between exon 2 of ADAR1 and two alternative exon 1 structures, designated herein as exon 1A and exon 1B. Analysis of RNA isolated from untreated and IFN-treated human amnion cells demonstrated that exon 1B-exon 2 transcripts were synthesized in the absence of IFN and were not significantly altered in amount by IFN treatment. By contrast, exon 1A-exon 2 transcripts were IFN inducible. Transient transfection analysis with reporter constructs led to the identification of two functional promoters, designated PC and PI. Exon 1B transcripts were initiated from the PC promoter whose activity in transient transfection reporter assays was not increased by IFN treatment. The 107-nt exon 1B mapped 14.5 kb upstream of exon 2. The 201-nt exon 1A that mapped 5.4 kb upstream of exon 2 was initiated from the interferon-inducible PI promoter. These results suggest that two promoters, one IFN inducible and the other not, initiate transcription of the ADAR1 gene, and that alternative splicing of unique exon 1 structures to a common exon 2 junction generates RNA transcripts with the deduced coding capacity for either the constitutively expressed approximately 110-kDa ADAR1 protein (exon 1B) or the interferon-induced approximately 150-kDa ADAR1 protein (exon 1A).
Project description:The ADAR RNA editing enzymes deaminate adenosine bases to inosines in cellular RNAs, recoding open reading frames. Human ADAR1 mutations cause Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome (AGS) and Adar1 mutant mice showing an aberrant interferon response and death by embryonic day E12.5 model the human disease. Searches have not identified key ADAR1 RNA editing sites recoding immune/haematopoietic proteins but editing is widespread in Alu sequences. We show that Adar1 embryonic lethality is rescued in Adar1; Mavs double mutant mice in which general antiviral responses to cytoplasmic dsRNA are prevented. We propose that inosine bases are epigenetic marks identifying cellular RNA as innate immune ÒselfÓ. Consistent with this idea we show that an editing-active cytoplasmic ADAR is required to prevent aberrant immune responses in Adar1 mutant mouse embryo fibroblasts. No dramatic increase in repetitive transcripts is observed. AGS mutations in ADAR1 affect editing by the interferon-inducible cytoplasmic ADAR1 isoform. RNA-seq expression profiling in Adar1 and Adar1/Mavs knockout mice embryos.
Project description:Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is a double-stranded RNA-editing enzyme that converts adenosine (A) to inosine (I), and essential for normal development. In this study, we reported an essential role of ADAR1 in the survival and maintenance of intestinal stem cells and intestinal homoeostasis by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and interferon (IFN) signaling. ADAR1 was highly expressed in the Lgr5+ cells, and its deletion in adult mice led to a rapid apoptosis and loss of these actively cycling stem cells in the small intestine and colon. ADAR1 deletion resulted in a drastic expansion of progenitors and Paneth cells but a reduction of three other major epithelial lineages. Moreover, loss of ADAR1 induced ER stress and activation of IFN signaling, and altered expression in WNT targets, followed by intestinal inflammation. An ER stress inhibitor partially suppressed crypt apoptosis. Finally, data from cultured intestinal crypts demonstrated that loss of ADAR1 in the epithelial cells is the primary cause of these effects. These results support an essential role of ADAR1 and RNA editing in tissue homeostasis and stem cells.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is a highly prevalent posttranscriptional modification of RNA, mediated by ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes. In addition to RNA editing, additional functions have been proposed for ADAR1. To determine the specific role of RNA editing by ADAR1, we generated mice with an editing-deficient knock-in mutation (Adar1(E861A), where E861A denotes Glu(861)?Ala(861)). Adar1(E861A/E861A) embryos died at ~E13.5 (embryonic day 13.5), with activated interferon and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-sensing pathways. Genome-wide analysis of the in vivo substrates of ADAR1 identified clustered hyperediting within long dsRNA stem loops within 3' untranslated regions of endogenous transcripts. Finally, embryonic death and phenotypes of Adar1(E861A/E861A) were rescued by concurrent deletion of the cytosolic sensor of dsRNA, MDA5. A-to-I editing of endogenous dsRNA is the essential function of ADAR1, preventing the activation of the cytosolic dsRNA response by endogenous transcripts.
Project description:The ADAR RNA-editing enzymes deaminate adenosine bases to inosines in cellular RNAs. Aberrant interferon expression occurs in patients in whom ADAR1 mutations cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) or dystonia arising from striatal neurodegeneration. Adar1 mutant mouse embryos show aberrant interferon induction and die by embryonic day E12.5. We demonstrate that Adar1 embryonic lethality is rescued to live birth in Adar1; Mavs double mutants in which the antiviral interferon induction response to cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is prevented. Aberrant immune responses in Adar1 mutant mouse embryo fibroblasts are dramatically reduced by restoring the expression of editing-active cytoplasmic ADARs. We propose that inosine in cellular RNA inhibits antiviral inflammatory and interferon responses by altering RLR interactions. Transfecting dsRNA oligonucleotides containing inosine-uracil base pairs into Adar1 mutant mouse embryo fibroblasts reduces the aberrant innate immune response. ADAR1 mutations causing AGS affect the activity of the interferon-inducible cytoplasmic isoform more severely than the nuclear isoform.
Project description:ADARs (adenosine deaminases that act on RNA) are RNA-editing enzymes that convert adenosines to inosines in structured or double-stranded RNAs. Expression and intracellular distribution of ADAR1 is controlled by a plethora of mechanisms suggesting that enzyme activity has to be tightly regulated. Mammalian ADAR1 is a shuttling protein, whereas Xenopus ADAR1 is exclusively nuclear. In oocytes, Xenopus ADAR1 associates with most nascent transcripts but is strongly enriched at a specific site on chromosome 3, termed the special loop. Enrichment at this site requires the presence of RNAs but is independent of ongoing transcription. Here we show that RNAs transcribed elsewhere in the genome accumulate at the special loop even in the absence of transcription. In situ hybridization experiments, however, indicate the absence of known editing substrates from this site. In the absence of transcription also other RNA binding and processing factors accumulate at the special loop, suggesting that ADAR1 is stored or assembled at the special loop in an RNA-containing complex. Nuclear injection of RNAs providing binding sites for ADAR1 dissociates the enzyme from the special loop, supporting the notion that the special loop represents a site where ADAR1 is stored, possibly for later use during development.
Project description:RNA editing catalyzed by ADAR1 and ADAR2 involves the site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine within imperfectly duplexed RNA. ADAR1- and ADAR2-mediated editing occurs within transcripts of glutamate receptors (GluR) in the brain and in hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA in the liver. Although the Q/R site within the GluR-B premessage is edited more efficiently by ADAR2 than it is by ADAR1, the converse is true for the +60 site within this same transcript. ADAR1 and ADAR2 are homologs having two common functional regions, an N-terminal double-stranded RNA-binding domain and a C-terminal deaminase domain. It is neither understood why only certain adenosines within a substrate molecule serve as targets for ADARs, nor is it known which domain of an ADAR confers its specificity for particular editing sites. To assess the importance of several aspects of RNA sequence and structure on editing, we evaluated 20 different mutated substrates, derived from four editing sites, for their ability to be edited by either ADAR1 or ADAR2. We found that when these derivatives contained an A:C mismatch at the editing site, editing by both ADARs was enhanced compared to when A:A or A:G mismatches or A:U base pairs occurred at the same site. Hence substrate recognition and/or catalysis by ADARs could involve the base that opposes the edited adenosine. In addition, by using protein chimeras in which the deaminase domains were exchanged between ADAR1 and ADAR2, we found that this domain played a dominant role in defining the substrate specificity of the resulting enzyme.