SirT1 is an inhibitor of proliferation and tumor formation in colon cancer.
ABSTRACT: The NAD-dependent deacetylase SirT1 regulates factors involved in stress response and cell survival and is a potential drug target of activators and inhibitors. Determination of SirT1 function in tumor cells is important for its targeting in cancer therapy. We found that SirT1 knockdown by short hairpin RNA accelerates tumor xenograft formation by HCT116 cells, whereas SirT1 overexpression inhibits tumor formation. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of SirT1 stimulates cell proliferation under conditions of growth factor deprivation. Paradoxically, SirT1 inhibition also sensitizes cells to apoptosis by chemotherapy drugs. Immunohistochemical staining revealed high level SirT1 in normal colon mucosa and benign adenomas. SirT1 overexpression was observed in approximately 25% of stage I/II/III colorectal adenocarcinomas but rarely found in advanced stage IV tumors. Furthermore, approximately 30% of carcinomas showed lower than normal SirT1 expression. This pattern is consistent with SirT1 having pleiotropic effects during cancer development (anti-proliferation and anti-apoptotic). These results suggest a rationale for the use of SirT1 activators and inhibitors in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer.
Project description:The class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 (sir2) is important in epigenetic gene silencing. Inhibition of SIRT1 reactivates silenced genes, suggesting a possible therapeutic approach of targeted reversal of aberrantly silenced genes. In addition, SIRT1 may be involved in the well-known link between obesity, cellular energy balance and cancer. However, a comprehensive study of SIRT1 using human cancer tissue with clinical outcome data is currently lacking, and its prognostic significance is uncertain. Using the database of 485 colorectal cancers in two independent prospective cohort studies, we detected SIRT1 overexpression in 180 (37%) tumors by immunohistochemistry. We examined its relationship to the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), related molecular events, clinical features including body mass index, and patient survival. We quantified DNA methylation in eight CIMP-specific promoters (CACNA1G, CDKN2A, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1) and eight other CpG islands (CHFR, HIC1, IGFBP3, MGMT, MINT1, MINT31, p14, and WRN) by MethyLight. SIRT1 overexpression was associated with CIMP-high (> or =6 of 8 methylated CIMP-specific promoters, P=0.002) and microsatellite instability (MSI)-high phenotype (P<0.0001). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, SIRT1 overexpression was significantly associated with the CIMP-high MSI-high phenotype (multivariate odds ratio, 3.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-7.59; P=0.008). In addition, mucinous component (P=0.01), high tumor grade (P=0.02), and fatty acid synthase overexpression (P=0.04) were significantly associated with SIRT positivity in multivariate analysis. SIRT1 was not significantly related with age, sex, tumor location, stage, signet ring cells, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), LINE-1 hypomethylation, KRAS, BRAF, BMI, PIK3CA, HDAC, p53, beta-catenin, COX-2, or patient prognosis. In conclusion, SIRT1 expression is associated with CIMP-high MSI-high colon cancer, suggesting involvement of SIRT1 in gene silencing in this unique tumor subtype.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRs), which are a class of small non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression via induction of translational repression or mRNA degradation. However, the molecular mechanism of miR-22 underlying the malignant progression of breast cancer, remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to explore the regulatory mechanism of miR-22 in breast cancer cell growth and metastasis. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction data revealed that miR-22 was significantly downregulated in breast cancer tissues, compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, the miR-22 levels were further decreased in stage III-IV, compared with stage I-II breast cancer. In addition, low miR-22 levels were significantly associated with the poor differentiation, metastasis and advanced clinical stages of breast cancer. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) was demonstrated to act as a direct target gene of miR-22 and its protein expression negatively regulated by miR-22 in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Furthermore, SIRT1 expression levels were significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues, compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. SIRT1 levels were observed to be increased in stage III-IV when compared with stage I-II breast cancer. miR-22 overexpression decreased the proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells, whereas overexpression of SIRT1 eliminated the suppressive effects of the miR-22 overexpression on the malignant phenotype of MCF-7 cells. The results of the present study therefore suggested that miR-22 demonstrated suppressive effects on breast cancer growth and metastasis via targeting SIRT1, and thus the miR-22/SIRT1 axis may be used as a novel and potential therapeutic target for breast cancer in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:SIRT1 gene overexpression is reportedly associated with cancer development, via the triggering of DNA repair impairment, and cell proliferation. The study aimed to investigate SIRT1 expression in patients with gastric cancer and its correlations with the clinical and pathological characteristics of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS:All patients (64 patients) who underwent gastric biopsy and were diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma between January 2011 and December 2013 were enrolled in the study, and patients with benign gastric biopsy were enrolled in the control group (34 patients). The previously prepared gastric tissues were collected from the pathology department, and SIRT1 gene expressions were evaluated in the gastric tissues of all study patients. Patients were subclassified according to their demographic, clinical, and pathologic features, and the patient and control groups were compared. RESULTS:Sixty-four patients were included in the study (25 females and 39 males). The mean age of the patients was 66±1 (range: 33-88) years. The SIRT1 gene 2' Average delta cycle threshold (CT) value was 0.102 in the control group, whereas it was 0.292 in the patients with gastric cancer (relative risk: 2.86; p=0.014). The SIRT1 gene was upregulated in all tumor stage subgroups except stage I, female patients, young patients (<45 years), and corpus and cardia tumor subgroups compared to the control group. CONCLUSION:SIRT1 gene overexpression is associated with gastric adenocarcinoma, and it can be argued that SIRT1 gene upregulation is associated with unfavorable gastric adenocarcinoma prognosis.
Project description:MicroRNA 34a (miR-34a) is a tumor suppressor gene, but how it regulates cell proliferation is not completely understood. We now show that the microRNA miR-34a regulates silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) expression. MiR-34a inhibits SIRT1 expression through a miR-34a-binding site within the 3' UTR of SIRT1. MiR-34 inhibition of SIRT1 leads to an increase in acetylated p53 and expression of p21 and PUMA, transcriptional targets of p53 that regulate the cell cycle and apoptosis, respectively. Furthermore, miR-34 suppression of SIRT1 ultimately leads to apoptosis in WT human colon cancer cells but not in human colon cancer cells lacking p53. Finally, miR-34a itself is a transcriptional target of p53, suggesting a positive feedback loop between p53 and miR-34a. Thus, miR-34a functions as a tumor suppressor, in part, through a SIRT1-p53 pathway.
Project description:Background: Silent information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) is an evolutionarily conserved enzymes with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+-dependent deacetylase activity. SIRT1 is involved in a large variety of cellular processes, such as genomic stability, energy metabolism, senescence, gene transcription, and oxidative stress. SIRT1 has long been recognized as both a tumor promoter and tumor suppressor. Its prognostic role in cancers remains controversial. Methods: A meta-analysis of 13,138 subjects in 63 articles from PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was performed to evaluate survival and clinicopathological significance of SIRT1 expression in various cancers. Results: The pooled results of meta-analysis showed that elevated expression of SIRT1 implies a poor overall survival (OS) of cancer patients [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.566, 95% CI: 1.293-1.895, P < 0.0001], disease free survival (DFS) (HR = 1.631, 95% CI: 1.250-2.130, P = 0.0003), event free survival (EFS) (HR = 2.534, 95% CI: 1.602-4.009, P = 0.0001), and progress-free survival (PFS) (HR = 3.325 95% CI: 2.762-4.003, P < 0.0001). Elevated SIRT1 level was associated with tumor stage [Relative Risk (RR) = 1.299, 95% CI: 1.114-1.514, P = 0.0008], lymph node metastasis (RR = 1.172, 95% CI: 1.010-1.360, P = 0.0363), and distant metastasis (RR = 1.562, 95% CI: 1.022-2.387, P = 0.0392). Meta-regression and subgroup analysis revealed that ethnic background has influence on the role of SIRT1 expression in predicting survival and clinicopathological characteristics of cancers. Overexpression of SIRT1 predicted a worse OS and higher TNM stage and lymphatic metastasis in Asian population especially in China. Conclusion: Our data suggested that elevated expression of SIRT1 predicted a poor OS, DFS, EFS, PFS, but not for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CCS). SIRT1 overexpression was associated with higher tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis. SIRT1-mediated molecular events and biological processes could be an underlying mechanism for metastasis and SIRT1 is a therapeutic target for inhibiting metastasis, leading to good prognosis.
Project description:Numerous longevity genes have been discovered in model organisms and altering their function results in prolonged lifespan. In mammals, some have speculated that any health benefits derived from manipulating these same pathways might be offset by increased cancer risk on account of their propensity to boost cell survival. The Sir2/SIRT1 family of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases is proposed to underlie the health benefits of calorie restriction (CR), a diet that broadly suppresses cancer in mammals. Here we show that CR induces a two-fold increase SIRT1 expression in the intestine of rodents and that ectopic induction of SIRT1 in a beta-catenin-driven mouse model of colon cancer significantly reduces tumor formation, proliferation, and animal morbidity in the absence of CR. We show that SIRT1 deacetylates beta-catenin and suppresses its ability to activate transcription and drive cell proliferation. Moreover, SIRT1 promotes cytoplasmic localization of the otherwise nuclear-localized oncogenic form of beta-catenin. Consistent with this, a significant inverse correlation was found between the presence of nuclear SIRT1 and the oncogenic form of beta-catenin in 81 human colon tumor specimens analyzed. Taken together, these observations show that SIRT1 suppresses intestinal tumor formation in vivo and raise the prospect that therapies targeting SIRT1 may be of clinical use in beta-catenin-driven malignancies.
Project description:SIRT1 is an evolutionarily conserved protein deacetylase that modulates stress response, cellular metabolism and aging in model organisms. While SIRT1 exerts beneficial effects in protecting against age-related diseases, the role of SIRT1 in cancer has been controversial. SIRT1 promotes cell survival by deacetylating, and thereby negatively regulating the activity of important tumor suppressors such as p53. In this regard, SIRT1 has been considered to be a potential oncogene, and SIRT1 inhibitors have been studied for possible anticancer therapeutic effects. In contrast, it has been shown that SIRT1 deficiency leads to increased genomic instability and tumorigenesis, and that overexpression of SIRT1 attenuates cancer formation in mice, suggesting it may also act as a tumor suppressor. Based on this evidence, SIRT1-activating molecules could act as candidate chemotherapeutic drugs. In order to gain insight into the role of SIRT1 in cancer, we performed a comprehensive resequencing analysis of the SIRT1 gene in 41 tumor cell lines and found an unusually excessive homozygosity, which was confirmed to be allelic loss by microsatellite analysis. Furthermore, we found two novel SIRT1 mutations (D739Y and R65_A72del) in addition to the known, rare non-synonymous variation resulting in I731V. In vitro assays using purified SIRT1 protein showed that these mutations do not alter SIRT1 deacetylase activity or telomerase activity, which was shown to be regulated by SIRT1. We conclude that allelic loss or mutations in the SIRT1 gene occur prevalently during tumorigenesis, supporting the assertion that SIRT1 may serve as a tumor suppressor.
Project description:SIRT1, the most conserved mammalian NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, plays a vital role in the regulation of metabolism, stress responses, and genome stability. However, the role of SIRT1 in the multi-step process leading to transformation and/or tumorigenesis, as either a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter, is complex and may be dependent upon the context in which SIRT1 activity is altered, and the role of SIRT1 in tumor metabolism is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT1 dose-dependently regulates cellular glutamine metabolism and apoptosis, which in turn differentially impact cell proliferation and cancer development. Heterozygous deletion of Sirt1 induces c-Myc expression, enhancing glutamine metabolism and subsequent proliferation, autophagy, stress resistance, and cancer formation. In contrast, homozygous deletion of Sirt1 triggers cellular apoptotic pathways, increases cell death, diminishes autophagy, and reduces cancer formation. Consistent with the observed dose dependence in cells, intestine-specific Sirt1 heterozygous mice have enhanced intestinal tumor formation, whereas intestine-specific Sirt1 homozygous knockout mice have reduced development of colon cancer. Furthermore, SIRT1 reduction, but not deletion, is associated with human colorectal tumors, and colorectal cancer patients with low protein expression of SIRT1 have a poor prognosis. Taken together, our findings indicate that the dose-dependent regulation of tumor metabolism and possibly apoptosis by SIRT1 mechanistically contribute to the observed dual roles of SIRT1 in tumorigenesis. Our study highlights the importance of maintenance of a suitable SIRT1 dosage for metabolic and tissue homeostasis, which will have important implications in SIRT1-small-molecule-activator/inhibitor-based therapeutic strategies for cancers.
Project description:Clinical trials of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as antitumor therapy have been conducted for gastric cancer. Expression of SIRT1, a class III HDAC, is related to poor prognosis in some malignancies. We investigated the correlation between SIRT1 expression and progression and prognosis of gastric cancers comparing with molecules linked to SIRT1 in order to better predict the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in treating this disease. We evaluated SIRT1 expression by western blot in 51 cases and SIRT1, DBC1, acetylated H4K16 (H4K16Ac), acetylated H3K9 (H3K9Ac), and p53 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 557 cases of gastric cancer. Western blotting showed that SIRT1 high expression related with statistics to advanced tumor progression, positive lymphatic invasion, positive venous invasion, and advanced stage but not to poor prognosis. IHC revealed that SIRT1 high expression correlated with worse clinico-pathological prognostic factors as same as in western blotting and related poor prognosis both by univariate and multivariate analyses. By the contrast, DBC1 and H4K16Ac were related to favorable prognostic factors and linked to favorable prognosis by univariate analysis but not by multivariate analysis. H3K16Ac correlated only favorable prognostic factors. Results of p53 were very similar to those of SIRT1. We found that SIRT1 high expression closely correlates with progression and prognosis in gastric cancer patients. And it was also indicated that SIRT1 acts as an oncogene by the results of DBC1, H4K16Ac, and H3K9Ac and might be a target molecule of HDAC inhibitor treatment for gastric cancer patients.
Project description:The silent information regulation factor 1 (sirtuin Type 1, SIRT1), as a kind of NAD+ dependent class III histone deacetylation enzyme, has been found to be involved in tumor proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The roles of SIRTl in breast cancer is multifaceted depending on its substrate from upstream or downstream signaling pathway. In this study, we sought to make clear the regulating effects of SIRT1 in breast cancer cells, and to explore the underlying mechanisms through which SIRT1 regulates breast cancer. First, our results showed that SIRT1 was significantly up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cells, which correlated with histological grade, tumor size, as well as lymph node metastasis. Then we established SIRT1-overexpressed and SIRT1- knockdown breast cancer cell lines to investigate the functions of SIRT1 in regulating colony formation, cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis and migration. We found that overexpression of SIRT1 significantly promoted breast cancer growth both in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of SIRT1 inhibited these phenotypes. Furthermore, SIRT1 was found to interact with Akt directly, consequently promoting the activity of Akt in breast cancer cells in vitro and positively correlating with expression of Akt, P-Akt, in breast cancer tissues in vivo. Down regulation the activity of Akt partially weakened the proliferative effect mediated by SIRT1. Taken together, our results demonstrated SIRT1's tumor promotion function and potential mechanisms in breast cancer, thus providing valuable therapeutic targets for breast cancer.