Truncation of TRIM5 in the Feliformia explains the absence of retroviral restriction in cells of the domestic cat.
ABSTRACT: TRIM5alpha mediates a potent retroviral restriction phenotype in diverse mammalian species. Here, we identify a TRIM5 transcript in cat cells with a truncated B30.2 capsid binding domain and ablated restrictive function which, remarkably, is conserved across the Feliformia. Cat TRIM5 displayed no restriction activity, but ectopic expression conferred a dominant negative effect against human TRIM5alpha. Our findings explain the absence of retroviral restriction in cat cells and suggest that disruption of the TRIM5 locus has arisen independently at least twice in the Carnivora, with implications concerning the evolution of the host and pathogen in this taxon.
Project description:The TRIM5 family of proteins contains a RING domain, one or two B boxes, and a coiled-coil domain. The TRIM5alpha isoform also encodes a C-terminal B30.2(SPRY) domain, differences within which define the breadth and potency of TRIM5alpha-mediated retroviral restriction. Because Macaca nemestrina animals are susceptible to some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolates, we sought to determine if differences exist in the TRIM5 gene and transcripts of these animals. We identified a two-nucleotide deletion (Delta2) in the transcript at the 5' terminus of exon 7 in all M. nemestrina TRIM5 cDNA clones examined. This frameshift results in a truncated protein of 300 amino acids lacking the B30.2(SPRY) domain, which we have named TRIM5theta. This deletion is likely due to a single nucleotide polymorphism that alters the 3' splice site between intron 6 and exon 7. In some clones, a deletion of the entire 27-nucleotide exon 7 (Deltaexon7) resulted in the restoration of the TRIM5 open reading frame and the generation of another novel isoform, TRIM5eta. There are 18 amino acid differences between M. nemestrina TRIM5eta and Macaca mulatta TRIM5alpha, some of which are at or near locations previously shown to affect the breadth and potency of TRIM5alpha-mediated restriction. Infectivity assays performed on permissive CrFK cells stably transduced with TRIM5eta or TRIM5theta show that these isoforms are incapable of restricting either HIV type 1 (HIV-1) or simian immunodeficiency virus infection. The expression of TRIM5 alleles incapable of restricting HIV-1 infection may contribute to the previously reported increased susceptibility of M. nemestrina to HIV-1 infection in vivo.
Project description:The recent identification of antiretroviral tripartite motif-bearing restriction factors that protect against retroviral infection has revealed a novel branch of innate immunity. The factors target the retroviral capsid and inhibit infectivity soon after the capsid has entered the cytoplasm by an incompletely characterized mechanism. Restriction is species specific. For example, TRIM5alpha from Old World monkeys, but not humans, restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Here, we identify an antiviral TRIM5 molecule in rabbits that is closely related to antiviral TRIM5 of both primates and cattle. We demonstrate that the rabbit TRIM5 protein is active against divergent retroviruses and leads to a strong block to viral DNA synthesis and infectivity. Furthermore, we show that antiviral activity is directed against the viral capsid and that human TRIM5 proteins are dominant negative to restriction in rabbit cells. We propose that the sequence and restriction characteristics conserved between restriction factors from primates, cattle, and rabbits indicate that these factors have evolved from a common ancestor with antiretroviral properties.
Project description:The antagonistic interaction with host restriction proteins is a major driver of evolutionary change for viruses. We previously reported that polymorphisms of the TRIM5? B30.2/SPRY domain impacted the level of SIVsmm viremia in rhesus macaques. Viremia in macaques homozygous for the non-restrictive TRIM5? allele TRIM5(Q) was significantly higher than in macaques expressing two restrictive TRIM5alpha alleles TRIM5(TFP/TFP) or TRIM5(Cyp/TFP). Using this model, we observed that despite an early impact on viremia, SIVsmm overcame TRIM5? restriction at later stages of infection and that increasing viremia was associated with specific amino acid substitutions in capsid. Two amino acid substitutions (P37S and R98S) in the capsid region were associated with escape from TRIM5(TFP) restriction and substitutions in the CypA binding-loop (GPLPA87-91) in capsid were associated with escape from TRIM5(Cyp). Introduction of these mutations into the original SIVsmE543 clone not only resulted in escape from TRIM5? restriction in vitro but the P37S and R98S substitutions improved virus fitness in macaques with homozygous restrictive TRIM(TFP) alleles in vivo. Similar substitutions were observed in other SIVsmm strains following transmission and passage in macaques, collectively providing direct evidence that TRIM5? exerts selective pressure on the cross-species transmission of SIV in primates.
Project description:Trim5alpha from primates (including humans), cows, and rabbits has been shown to be an active antiviral host gene that acts against a range of retroviruses. Although this suggests that Trim5alpha may be a common antiviral restriction factor among mammals, the status of Trim5 genes in rodents has been unclear. Using genomic and phylogenetic analyses, we describe an expanded paralogous cluster of at least eight Trim5-like genes in mice (including the previously described Trim12 and Trim30 genes), and three Trim5-like genes in rats. Our characterization of the rodent Trim5 locus, and comparison to the Trim5 locus in humans, cows, and rabbits, indicates that Trim5 has undergone independent evolutionary expansions within species. Evolutionary analysis shows that rodent Trim5 genes have evolved under positive selection, suggesting evolutionary conflicts consistent with important antiviral function. Sampling six rodent Trim5 genes failed to reveal antiviral activities against a set of eight retroviral challenges, although we predict that such activities exist.
Project description:Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are composed of RING, B-box 2, and coiled coil domains. Some TRIM proteins, such as TRIM5alpha, also possess a carboxy-terminal B30.2(SPRY) domain and localize to cytoplasmic bodies. TRIM5alpha has recently been shown to mediate innate intracellular resistance to retroviruses, an activity dependent on the integrity of the B30.2 domain, in particular primate species. An examination of the sequences of several TRIM proteins related to TRIM5 revealed the existence of four variable regions (v1, v2, v3, and v4) in the B30.2 domain. Species-specific variation in TRIM5alpha was analyzed by amplifying, cloning, and sequencing nonhuman primate TRIM5 orthologs. Lineage-specific expansion and sequential duplication occurred in the TRIM5alpha B30.2 v1 region in Old World primates and in v3 in New World monkeys. We observed substitution patterns indicative of selection bordering these particular B30.2 domain variable elements. These results suggest that occasional, complex changes were incorporated into the TRIM5alpha B30.2 domain at discrete time points during the evolution of primates. Some of these time points correspond to periods during which primates were exposed to retroviral infections, based on the appearance of particular endogenous retroviruses in primate genomes. The results are consistent with a role for TRIM5alpha in innate immunity against retroviruses.
Project description:The tripartite motif protein TRIM5? restricts particular retrovirus infections by binding to the incoming capsid and inhibiting the early stage of virus infection. The TRIM5? RING domain exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and assists the higher-order association of TRIM5? dimers, which promotes capsid binding. We characterized a panel of RING domain mutants of the rhesus monkey TRIM5? (TRIM5?(rh)) protein. The RING domain function that significantly contributed to retroviral restriction depended upon the restricted virus. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the RING domain contributes to the potency of HIV-1 restriction. Nonetheless, TRIM5?(rh) mutants without detectable E3 ubiquitin ligase activity still blocked reverse transcription and inhibited HIV-1 infection at a moderate level. When TRIM5?(rh) capsid binding was weakened by substitution with a less efficient B30.2/SPRY domain, the promotion of higher-order association by the RING domain was more important to HIV-1 restriction than its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. For the restriction of N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection, promotion of higher-order association represented the major contribution of the RING domain. Thus, both identity of the target virus and the B30.2/SPRY domain-mediated affinity for the viral capsid determine the relative contribution of the two known RING domain functions to TRIM5? restriction of retrovirus infection.
Project description:TRIM5alpha provides a cytoplasmic block to retroviral infection, and orthologs encoded by some primates are active against HIV. Here, we present an evolutionary comparison of the TRIM5 gene to its closest human paralogs: TRIM22, TRIM34, and TRIM6. We show that TRIM5 and TRIM22 have a dynamic history of gene expansion and loss during the evolution of mammals. The cow genome contains an expanded cluster of TRIM5 genes and no TRIM22 gene, while the dog genome encodes TRIM22 but has lost TRIM5. In contrast, TRIM6 and TRIM34 have been strictly preserved as single gene orthologs in human, dog, and cow. A more focused analysis of primates reveals that, while TRIM6 and TRIM34 have evolved under purifying selection, TRIM22 has evolved under positive selection as was previously observed for TRIM5. Based on TRIM22 sequences obtained from 27 primate genomes, we find that the positive selection of TRIM22 has occurred episodically for approximately 23 million years, perhaps reflecting the changing pathogenic landscape. However, we find that the evolutionary episodes of positive selection that have acted on TRIM5 and TRIM22 are mutually exclusive, with generally only one of these genes being positively selected in any given primate lineage. We interpret this to mean that the positive selection of one gene has constrained the adaptive flexibility of its neighbor, probably due to genetic linkage. Finally, we find a striking congruence in the positions of amino acid residues found to be under positive selection in both TRIM5alpha and TRIM22, which in both proteins fall predominantly in the beta2-beta3 surface loop of the B30.2 domain. Astonishingly, this same loop is under positive selection in the multiple cow TRIM5 genes as well, indicating that this small structural loop may be a viral recognition motif spanning a hundred million years of mammalian evolution.
Project description:Host restriction factor TRIM5 inhibits retroviral transduction in a species-specific manner by binding to and destabilizing the retroviral capsid lattice before reverse transcription is completed. However, the restriction mechanism may not be that simple since TRIM5 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, the proteasome, autophagy, and TAK1-dependent AP-1 signaling have been suggested to contribute to restriction. Here, we show that, among a panel of seven primate and Carnivora TRIM5 orthologues, each of which has potential for potent retroviral restriction activity, all activated AP-1 signaling. In contrast, TRIM family paralogues most closely related to TRIM5 did not. While each primate species has a single TRIM5 gene, mice have at least seven TRIM5 homologues that cluster into two groups, Trim12a, -b, and -c and Trim30a, -b, -c, and -d. The three Trim12 proteins activated innate immune signaling, while the Trim30 proteins did not, though none of the murine Trim5 homologues restricted any of a panel of cloned retroviruses. To determine if any mouse TRIM5 homologues had potential for restriction activity, each was fused to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CA binding protein cyclophilin A (CypA). The three Trim12-CypA fusions all activated AP-1 and restricted HIV-1 transduction, whereas the Trim30-CypA fusions did neither. AP-1 activation and HIV-1 restriction by the Trim12-CypA fusions were inhibited by disruption of TAK1. Overall then, these experiments demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between TRIM5 retroviral restriction activity and the ability to activate TAK1-dependent innate immune signaling.The importance of retroviruses for the evolution of susceptible host organisms cannot be overestimated. Eight percent of the human genome is retrovirus sequence, fixed in the germ line during past infection. Understanding how metazoa protect their genomes from mutagenic retrovirus infection is therefore of fundamental importance to biology. TRIM5 is a cellular protein that protects host genome integrity by disrupting the retroviral capsid as it transports viral nucleic acid to the host cell nucleus. Previous data suggest that innate immune signaling contributes to TRIM5-mediated restriction. Here, we show that activation of innate immune signaling is conserved among primate and carnivore TRIM5 orthologues and among 3 of the 7 mouse Trim5 homologues and that such activity is required for TRIM5-mediated restriction activity.
Project description:The control of retroviral infection by antiviral factors referred to as restriction factors has become an exciting area in infectious disease research. TRIM5alpha has emerged as an important restriction factor impacting on retroviral replication including HIV-1 replication in primates. TRIM5alpha has a tripartite motif comprising RING, B-Box and coiled coil domains. The antiviral alpha splice variant additionally encodes a B30.2 domain which is recruited to incoming viral cores and determines antiviral specificity. TRIM5 is ubiquitinylated and rapidly turned over by the proteasome in a RING dependent way. Protecting restricted virus from degradation, by inhibiting the proteasome, rescues DNA synthesis, but not infectivity, indicating that restriction of infectivity by TRIM5alpha does not depend on the proteasome but the early block to DNA synthesis is likely to be mediated by rapid degradation of the restricted cores. The peptidyl prolyl isomerase enzyme cyclophilin A isomerises a peptide bond on the surface of the HIV-1 capsid and impacts on sensitivity to restriction by TRIM5alpha from Old World monkeys. This suggests that TRIM5alpha from Old World monkeys might have a preference for a particular capsid isomer and suggests a role for cyclophilin A in innate immunity in general. Whether there are more human antiviral TRIMs remains uncertain although the evidence for TRIM19's (PML) antiviral properties continues to grow. A TRIM5-like molecule with broad antiviral activity in cattle suggests that TRIM mediated innate immunity might be common in mammals. Certainly the continued study of restriction of viral infectivity by antiviral host factors will remain of interest to a broad audience and impact on a variety of areas including development of animal models for infection, development of viral vectors for gene therapy and the search for novel antiviral drug targets.
Project description:To test the hypothesis that rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K (RELIK) could play a role in shaping the evolution of TRIM5?, the susceptibility of viruses containing the RELIK capsid (CA) to TRIM5 restriction was evaluated. RELIK CA-containing viruses were susceptible to the TRIM5?s from Old World monkeys but were unaffected by most ape or New World monkey factors. TRIM5?s from various lagomorph species were also isolated and tested for anti-retroviral activity. The TRIM5?s from both cottontail rabbit and pika restrict a range of retroviruses, including HIV-1, HIV-2, FIV, EIAV and N-MLV. TRIM5?s from the European and cottontail rabbit, which have previously been found to contain RELIK, also restricted RELIK CA-containing viruses, whereas a weaker restriction was observed with chimeric TRIM5? containing the B30.2 domain from the pika, which lacks RELIK. Taken together, these results could suggest that the pika had not been exposed to exogenous RELIK and that endogenized RELIK might exert a selective pressure on lagomorph TRIM5?.