Analysis of the structural determinants underlying discrimination between substrate and solvent in beta-phosphoglucomutase catalysis.
ABSTRACT: Tauhe beta-phosphoglucomutase (beta-PGM) of the haloacid dehalogenase enzyme superfamily (HADSF) catalyzes the conversion of beta-glucose 1-phosphate (betaG1P) to glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) using Asp8 of the core domain active site to mediate phosphoryl transfer from beta-glucose 1,6-(bis)phosphate (betaG1,6bisP) to betaG1P. Herein, we explore the mechanism by which hydrolysis of the beta-PGM phospho-Asp8 is avoided during the time that the active site must remain open to solvent to allow the exchange of the bound product G6P with the substrate betaG1P. On the basis of structural information, a model of catalysis is proposed in which the general acid/base (Asp10) side chain moves from a position where it forms a hydrogen bond to the Thr16-Ala17 portion of the domain-domain linker to a functional position where it forms a hydrogen bond to the substrate leaving group O and a His20-Lys76 pair of the cap domain. This repositioning of the general acid/base within the core domain active site is coordinated with substrate-induced closure of the cap domain over the core domain. The model predicts that Asp10 is required for general acid/base catalysis and for stabilization of the enzyme in the cap-closed conformation. It also predicts that hinge residue Thr16 plays a key role in productive domain-domain association, that hydrogen bond interaction with the Thr16 backbone amide NH group is required to prevent phospho-Asp8 hydrolysis in the cap-open conformation, and that the His20-Lys76 pair plays an important role in substrate-induced cap closure. The model is examined via kinetic analyses of Asp10, Thr16, His20, and Lys76 site-directed mutants. Replacement of Asp10 with Ala, Ser, Cys, Asn, or Glu resulted in no observable activity. The kinetic consequences of the replacement of linker residue Thr16 with Pro include a reduced rate of Asp8 phosphorylation by betaG1,6bisP, a reduced rate of cycling of the phosphorylated enzyme to convert betaG1P to G6P, and an enhanced rate of phosphoryl transfer from phospho-Asp8 to water. The X-ray crystal structure of the T16P mutant at 2.7 A resolution provides a snapshot of the enzyme in an unnatural cap-open conformation where the Asp10 side chain is located in the core domain active site. The His20 and Lys76 site-directed mutants exhibit reduced activity in catalysis of the Asp8-mediated phosphoryl transfer between betaG1,6bisP and betaG1P but no reduction in the rate of phospho-Asp8 hydrolysis. Taken together, the results support a substrate induced-fit model of catalysis in which betaG1P binding to the core domain facilitates recruitment of the general acid/base Asp10 to the catalytic site and induces cap closure.
Project description:β-Phosphoglucomutase (βPGM) catalyzes isomerization of β-D-glucose 1-phosphate (βG1P) into D-glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) via sequential phosphoryl transfer steps using a β-D-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate (βG16BP) intermediate. Synthetic fluoromethylenephosphonate and methylenephosphonate analogs of βG1P deliver novel step 1 transition state analog (TSA) complexes for βPGM, incorporating trifluoromagnesate and tetrafluoroaluminate surrogates of the phosphoryl group. Within an invariant protein conformation, the β-D-glucopyranose ring in the βG1P TSA complexes (step 1) is flipped over and shifted relative to the G6P TSA complexes (step 2). Its equatorial hydroxyl groups are hydrogen-bonded directly to the enzyme rather than indirectly via water molecules as in step 2. The (C)O-P bond orientation for binding the phosphate in the inert phosphate site differs by ∼ 30° between steps 1 and 2. By contrast, the orientations for the axial O-Mg-O alignment for the TSA of the phosphoryl group in the catalytic site differ by only ∼ 5°, and the atoms representing the five phosphorus-bonded oxygens in the two transition states (TSs) are virtually superimposable. The conformation of βG16BP in step 1 does not fit into the same invariant active site for step 2 by simple positional interchange of the phosphates: the TS alignment is achieved by conformational change of the hexose rather than the protein.
Project description:Histidine acid phosphatases catalyze the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphomonoesters to water at acidic pH using an active-site histidine. The histidine acid phosphatase from the category A pathogen Francisella tularensis (FtHAP) has been implicated in intramacrophage survival and virulence, motivating interest in understanding the structure and mechanism of this enzyme. Here, we report a structure-based study of ligand recognition by FtHAP. The 1.70-A-resolution structure of FtHAP complexed with the competitive inhibitor l(+)-tartrate was solved using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing. Structures of the ligand-free enzyme and the complex with inorganic phosphate were determined at resolutions of 1.85 and 1.70 A, respectively. The structure of the Asp261Ala mutant enzyme complexed with the substrate 3'-AMP was determined at 1.50 A resolution to gain insight into substrate recognition. FtHAP exhibits a two-domain fold similar to that of human prostatic acid phosphatase, consisting of an alpha/beta core domain and a smaller domain that caps the core domain. The structures show that the core domain supplies the phosphoryl binding site, catalytic histidine (His17), and an aspartic acid residue (Asp261) that protonates the leaving group, while the cap domain contributes residues that enforce substrate preference. FtHAP and human prostatic acid phosphatase differ in the orientation of the crucial first helix of the cap domain, implying differences in the substrate preferences of the two enzymes. 3'-AMP binds in one end of a 15-A-long tunnel, with the adenine clamped between Phe23 and Tyr135, and the ribose 2'-hydroxyl interacting with Gln132. The importance of the clamp is confirmed with site-directed mutagenesis; mutation of Phe23 and Tyr135 individually to Ala increases K(m) by factors of 7 and 10, respectively. The structural data are consistent with a role for FtHAP in scavenging phosphate from small molecules present in host macrophage cells.
Project description:PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domains are protein-protein interaction modules often regulated by ligand phosphorylation. Here, we investigated the specificity, structure, and dynamics of Tiam1 PDZ domain/ligand interactions. We show that the PDZ domain specifically binds syndecan1 (SDC1), phosphorylated SDC1 (pSDC1), and SDC3 but not other syndecan isoforms. The crystal structure of the PDZ/SDC1 complex indicates that syndecan affinity is derived from amino acids beyond the four C-terminal residues. Remarkably, the crystal structure of the PDZ/pSDC1 complex reveals a binding pocket that accommodates the phosphoryl group. Methyl relaxation experiments of PDZ/SCD1 and PDZ/pSDC1 complexes reveal that PDZ-phosphoryl interactions dampen dynamic motions in a distal region of the PDZ domain by decoupling them from the ligand-binding site. Our data are consistent with a selection model by which specificity and phosphorylation regulate PDZ/syndecan interactions and signaling events. Importantly, our relaxation data demonstrate that PDZ/phospho-ligand interactions regulate protein dynamics and their coupling to distal sites.
Project description:The structural and thermodynamic impact of phosphorylation on the interaction of the N-terminal domain of enzyme I (EIN) and the histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), the two common components of all branches of the bacterial phosphotransferase system, have been examined using NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. His-189 is located at the interface of the alpha and alphabeta domains of EIN, resulting in rather widespread chemical shift perturbation upon phosphorylation, in contrast to the highly localized perturbations seen for HPr, where His-15 is fully exposed to solvent. Residual dipolar coupling measurements, however, demonstrate unambiguously that no significant changes in backbone conformation of either protein occur upon phosphorylation: for EIN, the relative orientation of the alpha and alphabeta domains remains unchanged; for HPr, the backbone /Psi torsion angles of the active site residues are unperturbed within experimental error. His --> Glu/Asp mutations of the active site histidines designed to mimic the phosphorylated states reveal binding equilibria that favor phosphoryl transfer from EIN to HPr. Although binding of phospho-EIN to phospho-HPr is reduced by a factor of approximately 21 relative to the unphosphorylated complex, residual dipolar coupling measurements reveal that the structures of the unphosphorylated and biphosphorylated complexes are the same. Hence, the phosphorylation states of EIN and HPr shift the binding equilibria predominantly by modulating intermolecular electrostatic interactions without altering either the backbone scaffold or binding interface. This facilitates highly efficient phosphoryl transfer between EIN and HPr, which is estimated to occur at a rate of approximately 850 s(-1) from exchange spectroscopy.
Project description:The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) sugar phosphotransferase system mediates sugar uptake and controls the carbon metabolism in response to carbohydrate availability. Enzyme I (EI), the first component of the phosphotransferase system, consists of an N-terminal protein binding domain (EIN) and a C-terminal PEP binding domain (EIC). EI transfers phosphate from PEP by double displacement via a histidine residue on EIN to the general phosphoryl carrier protein HPr. Here we report the 2.4 A crystal structure of the homodimeric EI from Staphylococcus aureus. EIN consists of the helical hairpin HPr binding subdomain and the phosphorylatable betaalpha phospho-histidine (P-His) domain. EIC folds into an (betaalpha)(8) barrel. The dimer interface of EIC buries 1833 A(2) of accessible surface per monomer and contains two Ca(2+) binding sites per dimer. The structures of the S. aureus and Escherichia coli EI domains (Teplyakov, A., Lim, K., Zhu, P. P., Kapadia, G., Chen, C. C., Schwartz, J., Howard, A., Reddy, P. T., Peterkofsky, A., and Herzberg, O. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 16218-16223) are very similar. The orientation of the domains relative to each other, however, is different. In the present structure the P-His domain is docked to the HPr binding domain in an orientation appropriate for in-line transfer of the phosphate to the active site histidine of the acceptor HPr. In the E. coli structure the phospho-His of the P-His domain projects into the PEP binding site of EIC. In the S. aureus structure the crystallographic temperature factors are lower for the HPr binding domain in contact with the P-His domain and higher for EIC. In the E. coli structure it is the reverse.
Project description:In two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), responses to stimuli are mediated through phosphotransfer between protein components. Canonical TCSs use His ? Asp phosphotransfer in which phosphoryl groups are transferred from a conserved His on a sensory histidine kinase (HK) to a conserved Asp on a response regulator (RR). RRs contain the catalytic core of His ? Asp phosphotransfer, evidenced by the ability of RRs to autophosphorylate with small molecule analogues of phospho-His proteins. Phosphorelays are a more complex variation of TCSs that additionally utilize Asp ? His phosphotransfer through the use of an additional component, the histidine-containing phosphotransfer domain (Hpt), which reacts with RRs both as phosphodonors and phosphoacceptors. Here we show that imidazole has features of a rudimentary Hpt. Imidazole acted as a nucleophile and attacked phosphorylated RRs (RR-P) to produce monophosphoimidazole (MPI) and unphosphorylated RR. Phosphotransfer from RR-P to imidazole required the intact RR active site, indicating that the RR provided the core catalytic machinery for Asp ? His phosphotransfer. Imidazole functioned in an artificial phosphorelay to transfer phosphoryl groups between unrelated RRs. The X-ray crystal structure of an activated RR·imidazole complex showed imidazole oriented in the RR active site similarly to the His of an Hpt. Imidazole interacted with RR nonconserved active site residues, which influenced the relative reactivity of RR-P with imidazole versus water. Rate constants for reaction of imidazole or MPI with chimeric RRs suggested that the RR active site contributes to the kinetic preferences exhibited by the YPD1 Hpt.
Project description:The ?-kinases are a family of a typical protein kinases present in organisms ranging from protozoa to mammals. Here we report an autoinhibited conformation for the ?-kinase domain of Dictyostelium myosin-II heavy chain kinase A (MHCK-A) in which nucleotide binding to the catalytic cleft, located at the interface between an N-terminal and C-terminal lobe, is sterically blocked by the side chain of a conserved arginine residue (Arg592). Previous ?-kinase structures have shown that an invariant catalytic aspartic acid residue (Asp766) is phosphorylated. Unexpectedly, in the autoinhibited conformation the phosphoryl group is transferred to the adjacent Asp663, creating an interaction network that stabilizes the autoinhibited state. The results suggest that Asp766 phosphorylation may play both catalytic and regulatory roles. The autoinhibited structure also provides the first view of a phosphothreonine residue docked into the phospho-specific allosteric binding site (Pi-pocket) in the C-lobe of the ?-kinase domain.
Project description:Rab8a is associated with the dynamic regulation of membrane protrusions in polarized cells. Rab8a is one of several Rab GTPases that are substrates of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), a serine/threonine kinase that is linked to Parkinson's disease. Rab8a is phosphorylated at T72 (pT72) in its switch 2 helix and recruits the phospho-specific effector RILPL2, which subsequently regulates ciliogenesis. Here, we report the crystal structure of phospho-Rab8a (pRab8a) in complex with the RH2 (RILP homology) domain of RILPL2. The complex is a heterotetramer with RILPL2 forming a central ?-helical dimer that bridges two pRab8a molecules. The N termini of the ? helices cross over, forming an X-shaped cap (X-cap) that orients Arg residues from RILPL2 toward pT72. X-cap residues critical for pRab8a binding are conserved in JIP3 and JIP4, which also interact with LRRK2-phosphorylated Rab10. We propose a general mode of recognition for phosphorylated Rab GTPases by this family of phospho-specific effectors.
Project description:Changes in the phosphorylation status of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) correlate with the process of eukaryotic transcription. The yeast protein regulator of transcription 1 (Rtr1) and the human homolog RNAPII-associated protein 2 (RPAP2) may function as CTD phosphatases; however, crystal structures of Kluyveromyces lactis Rtr1 lack a consensus active site. We identified a phosphoryl transfer domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtr1 by obtaining and characterizing a 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure. We identified a putative substrate-binding pocket in a deep groove between the zinc finger domain and a pair of helices that contained a trapped sulfate ion. Because sulfate mimics the chemistry of a phosphate group, this structural data suggested that this groove represents the phosphoryl transfer active site. Mutagenesis of the residues lining this groove disrupted catalytic activity of the enzyme assayed in vitro with a fluorescent chemical substrate, and expression of the mutated Rtr1 failed to rescue growth of yeast lacking Rtr1. Characterization of the phosphatase activity of RPAP2 and a mutant of the conserved putative catalytic site in the same chemical assay indicated a conserved reaction mechanism. Our data indicated that the structure of the phosphoryl transfer domain and reaction mechanism for the phosphoryl transfer activity of Rtr1 is distinct from those of other phosphatase families.
Project description:Phosphorylation of intrinsically disordered eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BPs) regulates cap-dependent translation by weakening their ability to compete with eIF4G for eIF4E binding within the translation initiation complex. We previously showed that phosphorylation of T37 and T46 in 4E-BP2 induces folding of a four-stranded beta-fold domain, partially sequestering the canonical eIF4E-binding helix. The C-terminal intrinsically disordered region (C-IDR), remaining disordered after phosphorylation, contains the secondary eIF4E-binding site and three other phospho-sites, whose mechanisms in inhibiting binding are not understood. Here we report that the domain is non-cooperatively folded, with exchange between beta strands and helical conformations. C-IDR phosphorylation shifts the conformational equilibrium, controlling access to eIF4E binding sites. The hairpin turns formed by pT37/pT46 are remarkably stable and function as transplantable units for phospho-regulation of stability. These results demonstrate how non-cooperative folding and conformational exchange leads to graded inhibition of 4E-BP2:eIF4E binding, shifting 4E-BP2 into an eIF4E binding-incompatible conformation and regulating translation initiation.