The mechanism of ubiquitination in the cullin-RING E3 ligase machinery: conformational control of substrate orientation.
ABSTRACT: In cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases, substrate binding proteins, such as VHL-box, SOCS-box or the F-box proteins, recruit substrates for ubiquitination, accurately positioning and orienting the substrates for ubiquitin transfer. Yet, how the E3 machinery precisely positions the substrate is unknown. Here, we simulated nine substrate binding proteins: Skp2, Fbw7, beta-TrCP1, Cdc4, Fbs1, TIR1, pVHL, SOCS2, and SOCS4, in the unbound form and bound to Skp1, ASK1 or Elongin C. All nine proteins have two domains: one binds to the substrate; the other to E3 ligase modules Skp1/ASK1/Elongin C. We discovered that in all cases the flexible inter-domain linker serves as a hinge, rotating the substrate binding domain, optimally and accurately positioning it for ubiquitin transfer. We observed a conserved proline in the linker of all nine proteins. In all cases, the prolines pucker substantially and the pucker is associated with the backbone rotation toward the E2/ubiquitin. We further observed that the linker flexibility could be regulated allosterically by binding events associated with either domain. We conclude that the flexible linker in the substrate binding proteins orients the substrate for the ubiquitin transfer. Our findings provide a mechanism for ubiquitination and polyubiquitination, illustrating that these processes are under conformational control.
Project description:The ARABIDOPSIS SKP1-LIKE1 (ASK1) protein functions as a subunit of SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligases. Previous genetic studies showed that ASK1 plays important roles in Arabidopsis flower development and male meiosis. However, the molecular impact of ASK1-containing SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases (ASK1-E3s) on the floral proteome and transcriptome is unknown.Here we identified proteins that are potentially regulated by ASK1-E3s by comparing floral bud proteomes of wild-type and the ask1 mutant plants. More than 200 proteins were detected in the ask1 mutant but not in wild-type and >300 were detected at higher levels in the ask1 mutant than in wild-type, but their RNA levels were not significantly different between wild-type and ask1 floral buds as shown by transcriptomics analysis, suggesting that they are likely regulated at the protein level by ASK1-E3s. Integrated analyses of floral proteomics and transcriptomics of ask1 and wild-type uncovered several potential aspects of ASK1-E3 functions, including regulation of transcription regulators, kinases, peptidases, and ribosomal proteins, with implications on possible mechanisms of ASK1-E3 functions in floral development.Our results suggested that ASK1-E3s play important roles in Arabidopsis protein degradation during flower development. This study opens up new possibilities for further functional studies of these candidate E3 substrates.
Project description:The degradation of proteins by the 26S proteasome is initiated by protein polyubiquitination mediated by a three-step cascade. The specific ubiquitination of different target proteins is mediated by different classes of E3 ubiquitin ligases, among which the best known are Skp1-Cullin-F-box complexes. Whereas protists, fungi and some vertebrates have a single SKP1 gene, many animal and plant species possess multiple SKP1 homologues. In this paper, we report on the structure, phylogeny and expression of the complete set of rice SKP1 genes (OSKs, Oryza sativa SKP1-like genes). Our analyses indicated that OSK1 and OSK20 belong to a class of SKP1 genes that contain one intron at a conserved position and are highly expressed. In addition, our yeast two-hybrid results revealed that OSK proteins display a differing ability to interact with F-box proteins. However, OSK1 and OSK20 seemed to interact with most of the nine F-box proteins tested. We suggest that rice OSK1 and OSK20 are likely to have functions similar to the Arabidopsis ASK1 and ASK2 genes.
Project description:Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) E3 ligases play key roles in multiple cellular processes through ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of substrate proteins. Although Skp1 and Cul1 are invariant components of all SCF complexes, the 69 different human F-box proteins are variable substrate binding modules that determine specificity. SCF E3 ligases are activated in many cancers and inhibitors could have therapeutic potential. Here, we used phage display to develop specific ubiquitin-based inhibitors against two F-box proteins, Fbw7 and Fbw11. Unexpectedly, the ubiquitin variants bind at the interface of Skp1 and F-box proteins and inhibit ligase activity by preventing Cul1 binding to the same surface. Using structure-based design and phage display, we modified the initial inhibitors to generate broad-spectrum inhibitors that targeted many SCF ligases, or conversely, a highly specific inhibitor that discriminated between even the close homologs Fbw11 and Fbw1. We propose that most F-box proteins can be targeted by this approach for basic research and for potential cancer therapies.
Project description:Selective protein degradation targeted by members of the F-box protein family plays pivotal roles in cell biology. It is widely accepted that an F-box protein directs substrate ubiquitination within a Skp1.CUL1.F-box protein.ROC1 (SCF-ROC1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. This assembly utilizes the CUL1 molecular scaffold, allowing the F-box protein to position its bound substrate for ubiquitination by a ROC1-recruited E2-conjugating enzyme. Here, we describe an alternative mechanism for assembling an F-box protein-based E3 complex through a previously uncharacterized cullin, CUL7, identified by mass spectrometry as a ROC1-interacting protein. CUL7 is a large polypeptide containing a cullin domain, which is responsible for ROC1 binding, and a DOC domain, which is also present in the anaphase-promoting complex. Remarkably, CUL7 assembles an SCF-ROC1-like E3 ubiquitin ligase complex consisting of Skp1, CUL7, the Fbx29 F-box protein, and ROC1. In contrast to CUL1 that binds Skp1 by itself, CUL7 interacts with the Skp1.Fbx29 complex, but not with Skp1 alone. Strikingly, CUL7 selectively interacts with Skp1.Fbx29 but not with Skp1.betaTRCP2 or Skp1.Skp2. Thus, CUL7 may define a previously uncharacterized, Fbx29-mediated, and ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis pathway.
Project description:The Elongin BC complex was identified initially as a positive regulator of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation factor Elongin A and subsequently as a component of the multiprotein von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor complex, in which it participates in both tumor suppression and negative regulation of hypoxia-inducible genes. Elongin B is a ubiquitin-like protein, and Elongin C is a Skp1-like protein that binds to a BC-box motif that is present in both Elongin A and VHL and is distinct from the conserved F-box motif recognized by Skp1. In this report, we demonstrate that the Elongin BC complex also binds to a functional BC box present in the SOCS box, a sequence motif identified recently in the suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) protein, as well as in a collection of additional proteins belonging to the SOCS, ras, WD-40 repeat, SPRY domain, and ankyrin repeat families. In addition, we present evidence (1) that the Elongin BC complex is a component of a multiprotein SOCS-1 complex that attenuates Jak/STAT signaling by binding to Jak2 and inhibiting Jak2 kinase, and (2) that by interacting with the SOCS box, the Elongin BC complex can increase expression of the SOCS-1 protein by inhibiting its degradation. These results suggest that Elongin BC is a multifunctional regulatory complex capable of controlling multiple pathways in the cell through interaction with a short degenerate sequence motif found in many different proteins.
Project description:ARABIDOPSIS SKP1-LIKE1 (ASK1) protein is involved in regulating flower development. We have compared ask1 mutant floral transcriptome with wild-type Ler to identify the role of ASK1-containing E3 ubiquitin ligases in regulating flower transcriptome. In this dataset, we include the expression data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana Ler and ask1 mutant flower buds. We identified 42 genes and 74 genes that are down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively. Totally 5 samples were analyzed: 3 samples of ask1 and 2 samples of Ler. The average values were compared between ask1 and Ler.
Project description:Skp1-Cdc53/Cul1-F-box (SCF) complexes constitute a class of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Recently, a multiprotein complex containing pVHL, elongin C and Cul2 (VEC) was shown to structurally and functionally resemble SCF complexes. Cdc53 and the Cullins can become covalently linked to the ubiquitin-like molecule Rub1/NEDD8. Inhibition of neddylation inhibits SCF function in vitro and in yeast and plants. Here we show that ongoing neddylation is likewise required for VEC function in vitro and for the degradation of SCF and VEC targets in mammalian cells. Thus, neddylation regulates the activity of two specific subclasses of mammalian ubiquitin ligases.
Project description:Arabidopsis Snf1-related protein kinases (SnRKs) are implicated in pleiotropic regulation of metabolic, hormonal and stress responses through their interaction with the kinase inhibitor PRL1 WD-protein. Here we show that SKP1/ASK1, a conserved SCF (Skp1-cullin-F-box) ubiquitin ligase subunit, which suppresses the skp1-4 mitotic defect in yeast, interacts with the PRL1-binding C-terminal domains of SnRKs. The same SnRK domains recruit an SKP1/ASK1-binding proteasomal protein, alpha4/PAD1, which enhances the formation of a trimeric SnRK complex with SKP1/ASK1 in vitro. By contrast, PRL1 reduces the interaction of SKP1/ASK1 with SnRKs. SKP1/ASK1 is co-immunoprecipitated with a cullin SCF subunit (AtCUL1) and an SnRK kinase, but not with PRL1 from Arabidopsis cell extracts. SKP1/ASK1, cullin and proteasomal alpha-subunits show nuclear co-localization in differentiated Arabidopsis cells, and are observed in association with mitotic spindles and phragmoplasts during cell division. Detection of SnRK in purified 26S proteasomes and co-purification of epitope- tagged SKP1/ASK1 with SnRK, cullin and proteasomal alpha-subunits indicate that the observed protein interactions between SnRK, SKP1/ASK1 and alpha4/PAD1 are involved in proteasomal binding of an SCF ubiquitin ligase in Arabidopsis.
Project description:The F-box proteins (FBPs) TIR1/AFBs are the substrate recognition subunits of SKP1-cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complexes and together with Aux/IAAs form the auxin co-receptor. Although tremendous knowledge on auxin perception and signaling has been gained in the last years, SCFTIR1/AFBs complex assembly and stabilization are emerging as new layers of regulation. Here, we investigated how nitric oxide (NO), through S-nitrosylation of ASK1 is involved in SCFTIR1/AFBs assembly. We demonstrate that ASK1 is S-nitrosylated and S-glutathionylated in cysteine (Cys) 37 and Cys118 residues in vitro. Both, in vitro and in vivo protein-protein interaction assays show that NO enhances ASK1 binding to CUL1 and TIR1/AFB2, required for SCFTIR1/AFB2 assembly. In addition, we demonstrate that Cys37 and Cys118 are essential residues for proper activation of auxin signaling pathway in planta. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Cys37 residue is only conserved in SKP proteins in Angiosperms, suggesting that S-nitrosylation on Cys37 could represent an evolutionary adaption for SKP1 function in flowering plants. Collectively, these findings indicate that multiple events of redox modifications might be part of a fine-tuning regulation of SCFTIR1/AFBs for proper auxin signal transduction.
Project description:The social amoeba Dictyostelium expresses a hypoxia inducible factor-? (HIF?) type prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H1) and an ?-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (Gnt1) that sequentially modify proline-143 of Skp1, a subunit of the SCF (Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein) class of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Prior genetic studies have implicated Skp1 and its modification by these enzymes in O(2) regulation of development, suggesting the existence of an ancient O(2)-sensing mechanism related to modification of the transcription factor HIF? by animal prolyl 4-hydroxylases (PHDs). To better understand the role of Skp1 in P4H1-dependent O(2) signaling, biochemical and biophysical studies were conducted to characterize the reaction product and the basis of Skp1 substrate selection by P4H1 and Gnt1. (1)H NMR demonstrated formation of 4(trans)-hydroxyproline as previously found for HIF?, and highly purified P4H1 was inhibited by Krebs cycle intermediates and other compounds that affect animal P4Hs. However, in contrast to hydroxylation of HIF? by PHDs, P4H1 depended on features of full-length Skp1, based on truncation, mutagenesis, and competitive inhibition studies. These features are conserved during animal evolution, as even mammalian Skp1, which lacks the target proline, became a good substrate upon its restoration. P4H1 recognition may depend on features conserved for SCF complex formation as heterodimerization with an F-box protein blocked Skp1 hydroxylation. The hydroxyproline-capping enzyme Gnt1 exhibited similar requirements for Skp1 as a substrate. These and other findings support a model in which the protist P4H1 conditionally hydroxylates Skp1 of E3(SCF)ubiquitin ligases to control half-lives of multiple targets, rather than the mechanism of animal PHDs where individual proteins are hydroxylated leading to ubiquitination by the evolutionarily related E3(VBC)ubiquitin ligases.