Novel microtubule polymerization inhibitor with potent antiproliferative and antitumor activity.
ABSTRACT: Microtubule-stabilizing and microtubule-destabilizing agents are commonly used as anticancer agents. Although highly effective, success with these agents has been limited due to their relative insolubility, cumbersome synthesis/purification, toxic side effects, and development of multidrug resistance. Hence, the identification of improved agents that circumvent one or more of these problems is warranted. We recently described the rational design of a series of triazole-based compounds as antimitotic agents. Members of this N-substituted 1,2,4-triazole family of compounds exhibit potent tubulin polymerization inhibition and broad spectrum cellular cytotoxicity. Here, we extensively characterize the in vitro and in vivo effects of our lead compound from the series 1-methyl-5-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-4-yl)-1H-indole, designated T115. We show that T115 competes with colchicine for its binding pocket in tubulin, produces robust inhibition of tubulin polymerization, and disrupts the microtubule network system inside the cells. In addition, T115 arrests human cancer cells in the G(2)-M phase of cell cycling, a hallmark of microtubule destabilizing drugs. T115 also inhibits cell viability of several cancer cell lines, including multidrug-resistant cell lines, in the low nanomolar range. No cytotoxicity was observed by T115 against normal human skin fibroblasts cell lines, and acute toxicity studies in normal nontumor-bearing mice indicated that T115 is well-tolerated in vivo (maximum total tolerated dose, 400 mg/kg). In a mouse xenograft model using human colorectal (HT-29) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells, T115 significantly inhibited tumor growth when administered i.p. Taken together, our results suggest that T115 is a potential drug candidate for cancer chemotherapy.
Project description:We describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of tubulin polymerization inhibitors that contain the 1,2,4-triazole ring to retain the bioactive configuration afforded by the cis double bond in combretastatin A-4 (CA-4). Several of the subject compounds exhibited potent tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity as well as cytotoxicity against a variety of cancer cells including multi-drug-resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines. Attachment of the N-methyl-5-indolyl moiety to the 1,2,4-triazole core, as exemplified by compound 7, conferred optimal properties among this series. Computer docking and molecular simulations of 7 inside the colchicine binding site of tubulin enabled identification of residues most likely to interact strongly with these inhibitors and explain their potent anti-tubulin activity and cytotoxicity. It is hoped that results presented here will stimulate further examination of these substituted 1,2,4-triazoles as potential anti-cancer therapeutic agents.
Project description:Quinolin-6-yloxyacetamides (QAs) are a chemical class of tubulin polymerization inhibitors that were initially identified as fungicides. Here, we report that QAs are potent anti-proliferative agents against human cancer cells including ones that are drug-resistant. QAs act by disrupting the microtubule cytoskeleton and by causing severe mitotic defects. We further demonstrate that QAs inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro. The high resolution crystal structure of the tubulin-QA complex revealed that QAs bind to the colchicine site on tubulin, which is targeted by microtubule-destabilizing agents such as colchicine and nocodazole. Together, our data establish QAs as colchicine-site ligands and explain the molecular mechanism of microtubule destabilization by this class of compounds. They further extend our structural knowledge on antitubulin agents and thus should aid in the development of new strategies for the rational design of ligands against multidrug-resistant cancer cells.
Project description:A series of 5-aryl-4-(4-arylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)-2H-1,2,3-triazol derivatives were designed as potential microtubule targeting agents. The regioselective alkylation of 5-aryl-4-(4-arylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole was predicted by computations and confirmed by an unambiguous synthetic route. The antiproliferative activity of the synthesized compounds was tested in vitro using three human cancer cell lines and some compounds exhibited significant antiproliferative activity, which suggested the reasonability of introduction of the 1,2,3-triazole fragment. Among them, compound 7p showed highest activity with the IC50 values at nanomolar level towards all three cell lines, which were comparable to the positive control, CA-4. Tubulin polymerization assay, immunofluorescence studies, cell cycle analysis and competitive tubulin-binding assay strongly proved that 7p is a colchicine binding site inhibitor of tubulin. Thus, 7p was identified as a promising drug candidate for further development of colchicine binding site inhibitors.
Project description:Microtubule targeting agents are among the most widely used chemotherapeutics for both solid and hematological malignancies. This study characterizes the diaryl-oxazole based anticancer agent PC-046, which was originally identified for development based on selective activity in deleted in pancreas cancer locus 4 (DPC4/SMAD4) deficient tumors. PC-046 has growth inhibitory activity in a variety of tumor types in vitro, and efficacy in SCID mice was shown in human tumor xenografts of MV-4-11 acute myeloid leukemia, MM.1S multiple myeloma, and DU-145 prostate cancer. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated relatively high oral bioavailability (71%) with distribution to both plasma and bone marrow. No myelosuppression was seen in non-tumor bearing SCID mice given a single dose just under the acute lethal dose. The COMPARE algorithm in the NCI-60 cell line panel demonstrated that PC-046 closely correlated to other known tubulin destabilizing agents (correlation coefficients ?0.7 for vincristine and vinblastine). Mechanism of action studies showed cell cycle arrest in metaphase and inhibition of tubulin polymerization. Overall, these studies show that PC-046 is a synthetically-derived, small molecule microtubule destabilizing agent. Advantages over existing microtubule destabilizing agents include ease of synthesis, lack of MDR cross-resistance, good oral bioavailability and the lack of acute myelotoxicity.
Project description:Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the USA. Among the known classes of anticancer agents, the microtubule-targeted antimitotic drugs are considered to be one of the most important. They are usually classified into microtubule-destabilizing (e.g., Vinca alkaloids) and microtubule-stabilizing (e.g., paclitaxel) agents. Combretastatin A4 (CA-4), which is a natural stilbene isolated from Combretum caffrum, is a microtubule-destabilizing agent that binds to the colchicine domain on ?-tubulin and exhibits a lower toxicity profile than paclitaxel or the Vinca alkaloids. In this paper, we describe the docking study, synthesis, antiproliferative activity and selectivity index of the N-acylhydrazone derivatives (5a-r) designed as CA-4 analogues. The essential structural requirements for molecular recognition by the colchicine binding site of ?-tubulin were recognized, and several compounds with moderate to high antiproliferative potency (IC50 values ?18 µM and ?4 nM) were identified. Among these active compounds, LASSBio-1586 (5b) emerged as a simple antitumor drug candidate, which is capable of inhibiting microtubule polymerization and possesses a broad in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative profile, as well as a better selectivity index than the prototype CA-4, indicating improved selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells.
Project description:Tubulin-targeting molecules are widely used cancer therapeutic agents. They inhibit microtubule-based structures, including the mitotic spindle, ultimately preventing cell division. The final fates of microtubule-inhibited cells are however often heterogeneous and difficult to predict. While recent work has provided insight into the cell response to inhibitors of microtubule dynamics (taxanes), the cell response to tubulin polymerization inhibitors remains less well characterized. Arylthioindoles (ATIs) are recently developed tubulin inhibitors. We previously identified ATI members that effectively inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro and cancer cell growth in bulk cell viability assays. Here we characterise in depth the response of cancer cell lines to five selected ATIs. We find that all ATIs arrest mitotic progression, yet subsequently yield distinct cell fate profiles in time-lapse recording assays, indicating that molecules endowed with similar tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity in vitro can in fact display differential efficacy in living cells. Individual ATIs induce cytological phenotypes of increasing severity in terms of damage to the mitotic apparatus. That differentially triggers MCL-1 down-regulation and caspase-3 activation, and underlies the terminal fate of treated cells. Collectively, these results contribute to define the cell response to tubulin inhibitors and pinpoint potentially valuable molecules that can increase the molecular diversity of tubulin-targeting agents.
Project description:Dysregulation of microtubules and tubulin homeostasis has been linked to developmental disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In general, both microtubule-stabilizing and destabilizing agents have been powerful tools for studies of microtubule cytoskeleton and as clinical agents in oncology. However, many cancers develop resistance to these agents, limiting their utility. We sought to address this by developing a different kind of agent: tubulin-targeted small molecule degraders. Degraders (also known as proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs)) are compounds that recruit endogenous E3 ligases to a target of interest, resulting in the target's degradation. We developed and examined several series of ?- and ?-tubulin degraders, based on microtubule-destabilizing agents. Our results indicate, that although previously reported covalent tubulin binders led to tubulin degradation, in our hands, cereblon-recruiting PROTACs were not efficient. In summary, while we consider tubulin degraders to be valuable tools for studying the biology of tubulin homeostasis, it remains to be seen whether the PROTAC strategy can be applied to this target of high clinical relevance.
Project description:Growing evidence continues to point toward the critical role of beta tubulin isotypes in regulating some intracellular functions. Changes that were observed in the microtubules' intrinsic dynamics, the way they interact with some chemotherapeutic agents, or differences on translocation specifications of some molecular motors along microtubules, were associated to their structural uniqueness in terms of beta tubulin isotype distributions. These findings suggest that the effects of microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) may also vary on structurally different microtubules. Among different microtubule associated proteins, Tau proteins, which are known as neuronal MAPs, bind to beta tubulin, stabilize microtubules, and consequently promote their polymerizations. In this study, in a set of well controlled experiments, the direct effect of Tau proteins on the polymerization of two structurally different microtubules, porcine brain and breast cancer (MCF7), were tested and compared. Remarkably, we found that in contrast with the promoted effect of Tau proteins on brain microtubules' polymerization, MCF7 expressed a demoted polymerization while interacting with Tau proteins. This finding can potentially be a novel insight into the mechanism of drug resistance in some breast cancer cells. It has been reported that microtubules show destabilizing behavior in some MCF7 cells with overexpression of Tau protein when treated with a microtubules' stabilizing agent, Taxol. This behavior has been classified by others as drug resistance, but it may instead be potentially caused by a competition between the destabilizing effect of the Tau protein and the stabilizing effect of the drug on MCF7 microtubules. Also, we quantified the polarization coefficient of MCF7 microtubules in the presence and absence of Tau proteins by the electro-orientation method and compared the values. The two significantly different values obtained can possibly be one factor considered to explain the effect of Tau proteins on the polymerization of MCF7 microtubules.
Project description:A series of 3,6-diaryl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazines were designed as a class of vinylogous CA-4 analogues. The easily isomerized (Z,E)-butadiene linker of vinylogous CA-4 was replaced by a rigid [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine scaffold. Twenty-one target compounds were synthesized and exhibited moderate to potent antiproliferative activity. The compound 4q with a 3-amino-4-methoxyphenyl moiety as the B-ring, comparable to CA-4 (IC50 = 0.009-0.012 ?M), displayed the highly active antiproliferative activity against SGC-7901, A549, and HT-1080 cell lines with IC50 values of 0.014, 0.008, and 0.012 ?M, respectively. Tubulin polymerization experiments indicated that 4q effectively inhibited tubulin polymerization, and immunostaining assay revealed that 4q significantly disrupted tubulin microtubule dynamics. Moreover, cell cycle studies revealed that compound 4q dramatically arrested cell cycle progression at G2/M phase in A549 cells. Molecular modeling studies showed that 4q could bind to the colchicine binding site on microtubules.
Project description:A novel series of 3,6-diaryl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazines were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated as vinylogous CA-4 analogues, which involved a rigid [1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazine scaffold to fix the configuration of (Z,E)-butadiene linker of A-ring and B-ring. Among these rigidly vinylogous CA-4 analogues, compounds 4d, 5b, 5i, 6c, 6e, 6g, 6i and 6k showed excellent antiproliferative activities against SGC-7901, A549 and HT-1080 cell lines with IC50 values at the nanomolar level. Compound 6i showed the most highly active antiproliferative activity against the three human cancer cell lines with an IC50 values of 0.011-0.015?µM, which are comparable to those of CA-4 (IC50?=?0.009-0.013?µM). Interestingly, SAR studies revealed that 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl, 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl, 3-methoxyphenyl and 4-methoxyphenyl could replace the classic 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl in CA-4 structure and keep antiproliferative activity in this series of designed compounds. Tubulin polymerization experiments showed that 6i could effectively inhibit tubulin polymerization, which was corresponded with CA-4, and immunostaining experiments suggested that 6i significantly disrupted microtubule/tubulin dynamics. Furthermore, 6i potently induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in SGC-7901 cells. Competitive binding assays and docking studies suggested that compound 6i binds to the tubulin perfectly at the colchicine binding site. Taken together, these results revealed that 6i may become a promising lead compound for new anticancer drugs discovery.