A dominant negative form of the transcription factor c-Jun affects genes that have opposing effects on lipid homeostasis in mice.
ABSTRACT: c-Jun is a transcription factor activated by phosphorylation by the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway in response to extracellular signals and cytokines. We show that adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the dominant negative form of c-Jun (dn-c-Jun) in C57BL/6 mice increased greatly apoE hepatic mRNA and plasma levels, increased plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and very low density lipoprotein levels, and resulted in the accumulation of discoidal high density lipoprotein particles. A similar but more severe phenotype was generated by overexpression of the mouse apoE in C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that dyslipidemia induced by dn-c-Jun was the result of apoE overexpression. Unexpectedly, infection of apoE(-/-) mice with adenovirus expressing dn-c-Jun reduced plasma cholesterol by 70%, suggesting that dn-c-Jun affected other genes that control plasma cholesterol levels. To identify these genes, we performed whole genome expression analysis (34,000 genes) of isolated livers from two groups of five apoE(-/-) mice, infected with adenoviruses expressing either the dn-c-Jun or the green fluorescence protein. Bioinformatic analysis and Northern blotting validation revealed that dn-c-Jun increased 40-fold the apoE mRNA and reduced by 70% the Scd-1 (stearoyl-CoA-desaturase 1) mRNA. The involvement of Scd-1 in lowering plasma cholesterol was confirmed by restoration of high cholesterol levels of apoE(-/-) mice following coinfection with adenoviruses expressing dn-c-Jun and Scd-1. In conclusion, dn-c-Jun appears to trigger two opposing events in mice that affect plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels as follows: one results in apoE overexpression and triggers dyslipidemia and the other results in inhibition of Scd-1 and offsets dyslipidemia.
Project description:Obstructive sleep apnea leads to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and is associated with atherosclerosis. We have previously shown that C57BL/6J mice exposed to CIH and a high-cholesterol diet develop dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis of the aorta, and upregulation of a hepatic enzyme of lipoprotein secretion, stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD-1). We hypothesized that (1) SCD-1 deficiency will prevent dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis during CIH; and (2) human OSA is associated with dyslipidemia and upregulation of hepatic SCD. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to CIH or normoxia for 10 weeks while being treated with either SCD-1 or control antisense oligonucleotides. Obese human subjects underwent sleep study and bariatric surgery with intraoperative liver biopsy. In mice, hypoxia increased hepatic SCD-1 and plasma very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and induced atherosclerosis lesions in the ascending aorta (the cross-section area of 156514+/-57408 microm(2)), and descending aorta (7.0+/-1.2% of the total aortic surface). In mice exposed to CIH and treated with SCD-1 antisense oligonucleotides, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in the ascending aorta were abolished, whereas lesions in the descending aorta showed 56% reduction. None of the mice exposed to normoxia developed atherosclerosis. In human subjects, hepatic SCD mRNA levels correlated with the degree of nocturnal hypoxemia (r=0.68, P=0.001). Patients exhibiting oxyhemoglobin desaturations at night showed higher plasma triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, compared to subjects without hypoxemia. In conclusion, CIH is associated with dyslipidemia and overexpression of hepatic SCD in both humans and mice alike; SCD-1 deficiency attenuates CIH-induced dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in mice.
Project description:cJun is a transcription factor activated by phosphorylation by SAPK/JNK MAP kinase pathway that has been linked to atherosclerosis. Adenovirus mediated gene transfer of a dominant negative form of cJun in C57BL/6 mice increased greatly the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) mRNA and plasma apoE levels and induced dyslipidmia, characterized by increased plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL levels and accumulation of discoidal HDL particles. Unexpectedly, infection of ApoE-/- mice with adenovirus expressing dn-cJun reduced by 50% plasma cholesterol, suggesting that the dn-cJun affected other genes that control plamsa cholesterol. To determine the molecular pathways implicated in this process we performed whole genome expression profiling using total RNA from the liver of infected ApoE-/- mice. Keywords: disease Overall design: We extracted total RNA from 5 ApoE-/- mice infected with an adenovirus expressing dominant negative cJun and 5 ApoE-/- mice infected with a control adenovirus expressing GFP. Each RNA sample was hybridized to a different Affymetrix 430 2.0 array.
Project description:We have used adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in apolipoprotein (apo)E(-/-) mice to elucidate the molecular etiology of a dominant form of type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) caused by the R142C substitution in apoE4. It was found that low doses of adenovirus expressing apoE4 cleared cholesterol, whereas comparable doses of apoE4[R142C] greatly increased plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and apoE levels, caused accumulation of apoE in VLDL/IDL/LDL region, and promoted the formation of discoidal HDL. Co-expression of apoE4[R142C] with lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) or lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in apoE(-/-) mice partially corrected the apoE4[R142C]-induced dyslipidemia. High doses of C-terminally truncated apoE4[R142C]-202 partially cleared cholesterol in apoE(-/-) mice and promoted formation of discoidal HDL. The findings establish that apoE4[R142C] causes accumulation of apoE in VLDL/IDL/LDL region and affects in vivo the activity of LCAT and LPL, the maturation of HDL, and the clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The prevention of apoE4[R142C]-induced dyslipidemia by deletion of the 203-299 residues suggests that, in the full-length protein, the R142C substitution may have altered the conformation of apoE bound to VLDL/IDL/LDL in ways that prevent triglyceride hydrolysis, cholesterol esterification, and receptor-mediated clearance in vivo.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Patients with dyslipidemia have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and diabetic patients often have dyslipidemia. Potential genetic connections of fasting plasma glucose with plasma lipid profile were evaluated using hyperlipidemic mice.<h4>Methods</h4>225 male F2 mice were generated from BALB/cJ (BALB) and SM/J(SM) Apoe-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice and fed a Western diet for 5 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose and lipid levels of F2 mice were measured before and after 5 weeks of Western diet and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed using data collected from these two time points. 144 SNP(single nucleotide polymorphism) markers across the entire genome were typed.<h4>Results</h4>One major QTL (logarithm of odds ratio (LOD): 6.46) peaked at 12.7 cM on chromosome 9,Bglu16, and 3 suggestive QTLs on chromosomes 15, 18 and X were identified for fasting glucose, and over 10 loci identified for lipid traits. Bglu16 was adjacent to a major QTL, Hdlq17, for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (LOD: 6.31, peak: 19.1 cM). A congenic strain with a donor chromosomal region harboring Bglu16 and Hdlq17 on the Apoe-/- background showed elevations in plasma glucose and HDL levels. Fasting glucose levels were significantly correlated with non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, especially on the Western diet, but only marginally correlated with HDL levels in F2 mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We have demonstrated a correlative relationship between fasting glucose and plasma lipids in a segregating F2 population under hyperlipidemic conditions, and this correlation is partially due to genetic linkage between the two disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Management of blood cholesterol is a major focus of efforts to prevent cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate how the gut microbiota affects host cholesterol homeostasis at the organism scale. RESULTS:We depleted the intestinal microbiota of hypercholesterolemic female Apoe-/- mice using broad-spectrum antibiotics. Measurement of plasma cholesterol levels as well as cholesterol synthesis and fluxes by complementary approaches showed that the intestinal microbiota strongly regulates plasma cholesterol level, hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and enterohepatic circulation. Moreover, transplant of the microbiota from humans harboring elevated plasma cholesterol levels to recipient mice induced a phenotype of high plasma cholesterol levels in association with a low hepatic cholesterol synthesis and high intestinal absorption pattern. Recipient mice phenotypes correlated with several specific bacterial phylotypes affiliated to Betaproteobacteria, Alistipes, Bacteroides, and Barnesiella taxa. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that the intestinal microbiota determines the circulating cholesterol level and may thus represent a novel therapeutic target in the management of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Adenoviruses are very efficient vectors for delivering therapeutic genes in preclinical and clinical trials. However, randomized controlled human trials have often been lacking clear clinically relevant results. We hypothesized that high lipid levels and specific lipoproteins could significantly decrease adenoviral transduction efficiency in vivo. Here we demonstrate that mice on a high fat diet have lower transgene expression compared to mice on a regular chow. In addition, on a high fat diet, ApoE<sup>-/-</sup> mice have much higher plasma transgene levels compared to LDLR-deficient mice. We also found that specific lipoprotein receptors play an important role in adenoviral transduction. These findings suggest that high plasma lipid levels, especially apoE-containing lipoproteins, reduce efficacy of adenoviral transduction in mice, which implies that high cholesterol levels in humans could be protective against viral infections and also lead to insufficient transgene expression in clinical trials using adenoviral vectors.
Project description:AIMS: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most important causes of chronic renal disease, and the incidence of DN is increasing worldwide. Considering our previous report (Gomes et al., 2014) indicating that chronic treatment with oral low-dose quercetin (10 mg/Kg) demonstrated anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and renoprotective effects in the C57BL/6J model of DN, we investigated whether this flavonoid could also have beneficial effects in concurrent DN and spontaneous atherosclerosis using the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse (apoE(-/-)). METHODS: Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes (100 mg/kg/day, 3 days) in male apoE(-/-) mice (8 week-old). After 6 weeks, the mice were randomly separated into DQ: diabetic apoE(-/-) mice treated with quercetin (10 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks, n = 8), DV: diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice treated with vehicle (n = 8) and ND: non-treated non-diabetic mice (n = 8). RESULTS: Quercetin treatment diminished polyuria (~30%; p < 0.05), glycemia (~25%, p < 0.05), normalized the hypertriglyceridemia. Moreover, this bioflavonoid diminished creatininemia (~30%, p < 0.01) and reduced proteinuria but not to normal levels. We also observed protective effects on the renal structural changes, including normalization of the index of glomerulosclerosis and kidney weight/body weight. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that quercetin treatment significantly reduced DN in hypercholesterolemic mice by inducing biochemical changes (decrease in glucose and triglycerides serum levels) and reduction of glomerulosclerosis. Thus, this study highlights the relevance of quercetin as an alternative therapeutic option for DN, including in diabetes associated with dyslipidemia.
Project description:<i>Background.</i> Abnormal lipid homeostasis in sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by defects in plasma and erythrocyte lipids and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the lipid profile and non-HDL cholesterol level of SCD patients. <i>Methods.</i> A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 SCD patients, in the steady state, aged 8-28 years, attending the SCD clinic, and 50 healthy volunteers between the ages of 8-38 years. Serum lipids were determined by enzymatic methods and non-HDL cholesterol calculated by this formula: non-HDL-C = TC-HDL-C. <i>Results.</i> Total cholesterol (TC) (<i>p</i> = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (<i>p</i> < 0.0001) were significantly decreased in cases compared to controls. The levels of non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were similar among the participants. The levels of decrease in TC and HDL were associated with whether a patient was SCD-SS or SCD-SC. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were each significantly associated with increased VLDL [SBP, <i>p</i> = 0.01, OR: 0.74 (CI: 0.6-0.93); DBP, <i>p</i> = 0.023, OR: 1.45 (CI: 1.05-2.0)]. <i>Conclusion.</i> Dyslipidemia is common among participants in this study. It was more pronounced in the SCD-SS than in SCD-SC. This dyslipidemia was associated with high VLDL as well as increased SBP and DBP.
Project description:The dyslipidemia associated with obesity plays a major role in the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia in childhood can progress in adult stage. APOE is one of the most important genes that regulate plasma lipid transport and clearance. The study aimed to assess whether the common APOE polymorphism is associated with lipid profiles and dyslipidemia, and it could be modulated by obesity-related traits (body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio) in Vietnamese children.A case-control study was designed including 249 cases with dyslipidemia and 600 controls without dyslipidemia. Dyslipidemia is defined as elevated total or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Genotype for APOE polymorphism (rs7412 and rs429358) was determined by the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The association of APOE genotypes with plasma lipid disorders was tested by binary logistic regression analysis, taking into account the confounding factors of age, sex, residence, province and obesity-related traits.In comparison with ?3/?3 carriers, the ?4 carriers had the highest concentration of serum TC and LDL-C in cases and controls (P???0.001), while ?2 carriers had the lowest. Carriers without TT haplotype had higher serum TC than those with TT haplotype. The ?4 carriers had higher hypoalphalipoproteinemia risk than ?3/?3 carriers (OR?=?2.78, P?=?0.02) before and after adjustment for age, gender, residence and obesity-related traits.The study suggested that the APOE genotype and haplotype significantly associated with plasma TC and LDL-C level in Vietnamese children. The association of APOE genotype with hypoalphalipoproteinemia was independent of obesity-related traits.
Project description:The impact of leptin deficiency and its replacement in T1D remain unclear in the context of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. The current study has investigated the physiologic role of leptin in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in T1D.The present study has employed Ins2(+/Akita):apoE(-/-) mouse model that spontaneously develops T1D, hypercholesterolemia, and atherosclerosis. At age 13 weeks, diabetic Ins2(+/Akita):apoE(-/-) mice showed leptin deficiency by ~92% compared with nondiabetic Ins2(+/+):apoE(-/-) mice. From 13 weeks to 25 weeks of age, diabetic Ins2(+/Akita):apoE(-/-) mice were treated with low-dose leptin (at 0.4 ?g/g body weight daily). Leptin treatment diminished food intake by 22-27% in diabetic mice without affecting body weight and lean mass throughout the experiment. Importantly, leptin therapy substantially reduced plasma cholesterol concentrations by ~41%, especially in LDL fractions, in diabetic Ins2(+/Akita):apoE(-/-) mice. Moreover, leptin therapy decreased atherosclerotic lesion in diabetic mice by ~62% comparable to that seen in nondiabetic mice. In addition, leptin restored repressed expression of hepatic sortilin-1, a receptor for LDL clearance, and reversed altered expression of several hepatic genes involved in lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis characteristic of diabetic mice. These findings were accompanied by normalization of reduced hepatic expression of Irs1 and Irs2 mRNA as well as their protein levels, and improved hepatic insulin-receptor signaling.The present findings suggest that leptin administration may be useful to improve dyslipidemia and reduce atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease in human subjects with T1D.