The hydrolethalus syndrome protein HYLS-1 links core centriole structure to cilia formation.
ABSTRACT: Centrioles are subcellular organelles composed of a ninefold symmetric microtubule array that perform two important functions: (1) They build centrosomes that organize the microtubule cytoskeleton, and (2) they template cilia, microtubule-based projections with sensory and motile functions. We identified HYLS-1, a widely conserved protein, based on its direct interaction with the core centriolar protein SAS-4. HYLS-1 localization to centrioles requires SAS-4 and, like SAS-4, HYLS-1 is stably incorporated into the outer centriole wall. Unlike SAS-4, HYLS-1 is dispensable for centriole assembly and centrosome function in cell division. Instead, HYLS-1 plays an essential role in cilia formation that is conserved between Caenorhabditis elegans and vertebrates. A single amino acid change in human HYLS1 leads to a perinatal lethal disorder termed hydrolethalus syndrome, and we show that this mutation impairs HYLS-1 function in ciliogenesis. HYLS-1 is required for the apical targeting/anchoring of centrioles at the plasma membrane but not for the intraflagellar transport-dependent extension of the ciliary axoneme. These findings classify hydrolethalus syndrome as a severe human ciliopathy and shed light on the dual functionality of centrioles, defining the first stably incorporated centriolar protein that is not required for centriole assembly but instead confers on centrioles the capacity to initiate ciliogenesis.
Project description:Cilia and flagella are conserved subcellular organelles, which arise from centrioles and play critical roles in development and reproduction of eukaryotes. Dysfunction of cilia leads to life-threatening ciliopathies. HYLS1 is an evolutionarily conserved centriole protein, which is critical for ciliogenesis, and its mutation causes ciliopathy-hydrolethalus syndrome. However, the molecular function of HYLS1 remains elusive. Here, we investigated the function of HYLS1 in cilia formation using the Drosophila model. We demonstrated that Drosophila HYLS1 is a conserved centriole and basal body protein. Deletion of HYLS1 led to sensory cilia dysfunction and spermatogenesis abnormality. Importantly, we found that Drosophila HYLS1 is essential for giant centriole/basal body elongation in spermatocytes and is required for spermatocyte centriole to efficiently recruit pericentriolar material and for spermatids to assemble the proximal centriole-like structure (the precursor of the second centriole for zygote division). Hence, by taking advantage of the giant centriole/basal body of Drosophila spermatocyte, we uncover previously uncharacterized roles of HYLS1 in centriole elongation and assembly.
Project description:Cilia are cellular projections that assemble on centriole-derived basal bodies. While cilia assembly is absolutely dependent on centrioles, it is not known to what extent they contribute to downstream events. The nematode C. elegans provides a unique opportunity to address this question, as centrioles do not persist at the base of mature cilia. Using fluorescence microscopy and electron tomography, we find that centrioles degenerate early during ciliogenesis. The transition zone and axoneme are not completely formed at this time, indicating that cilia maturation does not depend on intact centrioles. The hydrolethalus syndrome protein HYLS-1 is the only centriolar protein known to remain at the base of mature cilia and is required for intraflagellar transport trafficking. Surprisingly, targeted degradation of HYLS-1 after initiation of ciliogenesis does not affect ciliary structures. Taken together, our results indicate that while centrioles are essential to initiate cilia formation, they are dispensable for cilia maturation and maintenance.
Project description:Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles that organize the microtubule network and seed the formation of cilia and flagella. New centrioles assemble through a stepwise process dependent notably on the centriolar protein SAS-5 in Caenorhabditis elegans SAS-5 and its functional homologues in other species form oligomers that bind the centriolar proteins SAS-6 and SAS-4, thereby forming an evolutionarily conserved structural core at the onset of organelle assembly. Here, we report a novel interaction of SAS-5 with microtubules. Microtubule binding requires SAS-5 oligomerization and a disordered protein segment that overlaps with the SAS-4 binding site. Combined in vitro and in vivo analysis of select mutants reveals that the SAS-5-microtubule interaction facilitates centriole assembly in C. elegans embryos. Our findings lead us to propose that the interdependence of SAS-5 oligomerization and microtubule binding reflects an avidity mechanism, which also strengthens SAS-5 associations with other centriole components and, thus, promotes organelle assembly.
Project description:Cilia are found on most human cells and exist as motile cilia or non-motile primary cilia. Primary cilia play sensory roles in transducing various extracellular signals, and defective ciliary functions are involved in a wide range of human diseases. Centrosomes are the principal microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells and contain two centrioles. We observed that DNA damage causes centriole splitting in non-transformed human cells, with isolated centrioles carrying the mother centriole markers CEP170 and ninein but not kizuna or cenexin. Loss of centriole cohesion through siRNA depletion of C-NAP1 or rootletin increased radiation-induced centriole splitting, with C-NAP1-depleted isolated centrioles losing mother markers. As the mother centriole forms the basal body in primary cilia, we tested whether centriole splitting affected ciliogenesis. While irradiated cells formed apparently normal primary cilia, most cilia arose from centriolar clusters, not from isolated centrioles. Furthermore, C-NAP1 or rootletin knockdown reduced primary cilium formation. Therefore, the centriole cohesion apparatus at the proximal end of centrioles may provide a target that can affect primary cilium formation as part of the DNA damage response.
Project description:Ciliated epithelial cells have the unique ability to generate hundreds of centrioles during differentiation. We used centrosomal proteins as molecular markers in cultured mouse tracheal epithelial cells to understand this process. Most centrosomal proteins were up-regulated early in ciliogenesis, initially appearing in cytoplasmic foci and then incorporated into centrioles. Three candidate proteins were further characterized. The centrosomal component SAS-6 localized to basal bodies and the proximal region of the ciliary axoneme, and depletion of SAS-6 prevented centriole assembly. The intraflagellar transport component polaris localized to nascent centrioles before incorporation into cilia, and depletion of polaris blocked axoneme formation. The centriolar satellite component PCM-1 colocalized with centrosomal components in cytoplasmic granules surrounding nascent centrioles. Interfering with PCM-1 reduced the amount of centrosomal proteins at basal bodies but did not prevent centriole assembly. This system will help determine the mechanism of centriole formation in mammalian cells and how the limitation on centriole duplication is overcome in ciliated epithelial cells.
Project description:Neuronal cilia that are formed at the dendritic endings of sensory neurons are essential for sensory perception. However, it remains unclear how the centriole-derived basal body is positioned to form a template for cilium formation. Using fluorescence time-lapse microscopy, we show that the centriole translocates from the cell body to the dendrite tip in the <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> sensory neurons. The centriolar protein SAS-5 interacts with the dynein light-chain LC8 and conditional mutations of cytoplasmic dynein-1 block centriole translocation and ciliogenesis. The components of the central tube are essential for the biogenesis of centrioles, which later drive ciliogenesis in the dendrite; however, the centriole loses these components at the late stage of centriole translocation and subsequently recruits transition zone and intraflagellar transport proteins. Together, our results provide a comprehensive model of ciliogenesis in sensory neurons and reveal the importance of the dynein-dependent centriole translocation in this process.
Project description:Centrioles are surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM), which is proposed to promote new centriole assembly by concentrating gamma-tubulin. Here, we quantitatively monitor new centriole assembly in living Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, focusing on the conserved components SAS-4 and SAS-6. We show that SAS-4 and SAS-6 are coordinately recruited to the site of new centriole assembly and reach their maximum levels during S phase. Centriolar SAS-6 is subsequently reduced by a mechanism intrinsic to the early assembly pathway that does not require progression into mitosis. Centriolar SAS-4 remains in dynamic equilibrium with the cytoplasmic pool until late prophase, when it is stably incorporated in a step that requires gamma-tubulin and microtubule assembly. These results indicate that gamma-tubulin in the PCM stabilizes the nascent daughter centriole by promoting microtubule addition to its outer wall. Such a mechanism may help restrict new centriole assembly to the vicinity of preexisting parent centrioles that recruit PCM.
Project description:Centrioles form cilia and centrosomes, organelles whose dysfunction is increasingly linked to human disease. Centriole duplication relies on a few conserved proteins (ZYG-1/Sak/Plk4, SAS-6, SAS-5/Ana2, and SAS-4), and is often initiated by the formation of an inner "cartwheel" structure. Here, we show that overexpressed Drosophila Sas-6 and Ana2 coassemble into extended tubules (SAStubules) that bear a striking structural resemblance to the inner cartwheel of the centriole. SAStubules specifically interact with centriole proximal ends, but extra DSas-6/Ana2 is only recruited onto centrioles when Sak/Plk4 kinase is also overexpressed. This extra centriolar DSas-6/Ana2 induces centriole overduplication and, surprisingly, increased centriole cohesion. Intriguingly, we observe tubules that are structurally similar to SAStubules linking the engaged centrioles in normal wild-type cells. We conclude that DSas-6 and Ana2 normally cooperate to drive the formation of the centriole inner cartwheel and that they promote both centriole duplication and centriole cohesion in a Sak/Plk4-dependent manner.
Project description:Centrosomes are major microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells that consist of two centrioles. In mitotic cells, centrosomes are duplicated to serve as the poles of the mitotic spindle, while in quiescent cells, centrosomes move to the apical membrane where the oldest centriole is transformed into a basal body to assemble a primary cilium. We recently showed that mitochondrial outer membrane porin VDAC3 localizes to centrosomes where it negatively regulates ciliogenesis. We show here that the other two family members, VDAC1 and VDAC2, best known for their function in mitochondrial bioenergetics, are also found at centrosomes. Like VDAC3, centrosomal VDAC1 is predominantly localized to the mother centriole, while VDAC2 localizes to centriolar satellites in a microtubule-dependent manner. Down-regulation of VDAC1 leads to inappropriate ciliogenesis, while its overexpression suppresses cilia formation, suggesting that VDAC1 and VDAC3 both negatively regulate ciliogenesis. However, this negative effect on ciliogenesis is not shared by VDAC2, which instead appears to promote maturation of primary cilia. Moreover, because overexpression of VDAC3 cannot compensate for depletion of VDAC1, our data suggest that while the entire VDAC family localizes to centrosomes, they have non-redundant functions in cilogenesis.
Project description:KIAA0586, the human ortholog of chicken TALPID3, is a centrosomal protein that is essential for primary ciliogenesis. Its disruption in animal models causes defects attributed to abnormal hedgehog signaling; these defects include polydactyly and abnormal dorsoventral patterning of the neural tube. Here, we report homozygous mutations of KIAA0586 in four families affected by lethal ciliopathies ranging from a hydrolethalus phenotype to short-rib polydactyly. We show defective ciliogenesis, as well as abnormal response to SHH-signaling activation in cells derived from affected individuals, consistent with a role of KIAA0586 in primary cilia biogenesis. Whereas centriolar maturation seemed unaffected in mutant cells, we observed an abnormal extended pattern of CEP290, a centriolar satellite protein previously associated with ciliopathies. Our data show the crucial role of KIAA0586 in human primary ciliogenesis and subsequent abnormal hedgehog signaling through abnormal GLI3 processing. Our results thus establish that KIAA0586 mutations cause lethal ciliopathies.