Toll-like receptor 4-mediated regulation of spontaneous Helicobacter-dependent colitis in IL-10-deficient mice.
ABSTRACT: The commensal microbiota is believed to have an important role in regulating immune responsiveness and preventing intestinal inflammation. Intestinal microbes produce signals that regulate inflammation via Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, but the mechanisms of this process are poorly understood. We investigated the role of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in this signaling pathway using a mouse model of colitis.Clinical, histopathologic, and functional parameters of intestinal inflammation were evaluated in TLR4(-/-), IL-10(-/-), and TLR4(-/-) x IL-10(-/-) mice that were free of specific pathogens and in TLR4(-/-) x IL-10(-/-) mice following eradication and reintroduction of Helicobacter hepaticus. Regulatory T-cell (Treg) function was evaluated by crossing each of the lines with transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein under control of the endogenous regulatory elements of Foxp3. Apoptotic cells in the colonic lamina propria were detected by a TUNEL assay.TLR4-mediated signals have 2 interrelated roles in promoting inflammation in TLR4(-/-) x IL-10(-/-) mice. In the absence of TLR4-mediated signals, secretion of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines is dysregulated. Tregs (Foxp3(+)) that secrete interferon-gamma and IL-17 accumulate in the colonic lamina propria of TLR4(-/-) x IL-10(-/-) mice and do not prevent inflammation. Aberrant control of epithelial cell turnover results in the persistence of antigen-presenting cells that contain apoptotic epithelial fragments in the colonic lamina propria of Helicobacter-infected TLR4(-/-) mice.In mice that lack both IL-10- and TLR4-mediated signals, aberrant regulatory T-cell function and dysregulated control of epithelial homeostasis combine to exacerbate intestinal inflammation.
Project description:We have demonstrated previously that IFN-? plays a protective role in the initiation of chronic intestinal inflammation through attenuation of Toll-like receptor-mediated IL-23 induction in macrophages. Here, an interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) is identified in a region of conserved nucleotide sequences in the Il23a promoter. This ISRE mediated, in part, Il23a promoter induction by LPS and inhibition of LPS-induced activity by IFN-?. LPS and IFN-? recruit interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) to the Il23a ISRE in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Functionally, IRF-1 is a negative regulator of Il23a in LPS-stimulated BMMs. IRF-1(-/-) BMMs demonstrated enhanced LPS-induced Il23a expression compared with WT BMMs. Moreover, IRF-1 deficiency resulted in prolonged occupancy of RelA on the Il23a promoter. Consequently, IRF-1(-/-) mice were more susceptible to colonic injury by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, and IL-10/IRF-1 double-deficient (IL-10/IRF-1(-/-)) mice demonstrated more severe colonic inflammation compared with IL-10(-/-) mice. The severity of colitis in both models correlated with increased colonic IL-23. CD11b(+) lamina propria mononuclear cells, comprising predominantly macrophages, were identified as the major source of IL-23 in colitis-prone mice. Basal and heat-killed Escherichia coli-stimulated levels of Il23a were increased in IL-10/IRF-1(-/-) compared with WT and IL-10(-/-) colonic CD11b(+) lamina propria mononuclear cells. In conclusion, these experiments characterize IRF-ISRE interactions on the Il23a promoter, which have in vivo relevance as a homeostatic checkpoint in chronic intestinal inflammation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:CD5+ B cells are a type of regulatory immune cells, though the involvement of this B cell subset in intestinal inflammation and immune regulation is not fully understood. METHODS:We examined the distribution of CD5+ B cells in various mouse organs. Expression levels of CD11b, IgM, and toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and -9 in B cells were evaluated. In vitro, TLR-stimulated IL-10 production by colonic lamina propria (LP) CD5+ and CD5- B cells was measured. In vivo, mice with acute or chronic dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colonic injury were examined, and the frequency of colonic LP CD5+ B cells in those was assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS:The expression level of TLR9 was higher in colonic LP CD5+ B cells as compared to CD5- B cells. Colonic LP CD5+ B cells produced greater amounts of IL-10 following stimulation with TLR ligands, especially TLR9, as compared with the LP CD5- B cells. Acute intestinal inflammation transiently decreased the frequency of colonic LP CD5+ B cells, while chronic inflammation induced a persistent decrease in colonic LP CD5+ B cells and led to a CD5- B cell-dominant condition. CONCLUSION:A persistent altered mucosal B cell population caused by chronic gut inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Project description:A crosstalk between commensals, gut immune cells, and colonic epithelia is required for a proper function of intestinal mucosal barrier. Here we investigated the importance of two distinct intestinal dendritic cell (DC) subsets in controlling intestinal inflammation. We show that Clec9A-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) mice after depletion of CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs developed severe, low-dose dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, whereas the lack of CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs in Clec4a4-DTR mice did not exacerbate intestinal inflammation. The CD103(+)CD11b(-) DC subset has gained a functional specialization that able them to repress inflammation via several epithelial interferon-? (IFN-?)-induced proteins. Among others, we identified that epithelial IDO1 and interleukin-18-binding protein (IL-18bp) were strongly modulated by CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs. Through its preferential property to express IL-12 and IL-15, this particular DC subset can induce lymphocytes in colonic lamina propria and in epithelia to secrete IFN-? that then can trigger a reversible early anti-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells.
Project description:Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell development in the intestine. B. breve, but not L. casei, induced development of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells that express cMaf, IL-21, and Ahr in the large intestine. Intestinal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) mediated B. breve-induced development of IL-10-producing T cells. CD103(+) DCs from Il10(-/-), Tlr2(-/-), and Myd88(-/-) mice showed defective B. breve-induced Tr1 cell development. B. breve-treated CD103(+) DCs failed to induce IL-10 production from co-cultured Il27ra(-/-) T cells. B. breve treatment of Tlr2(-/-) mice did not increase IL-10-producing T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Thus, B. breve activates intestinal CD103(+) DCs to produce IL-10 and IL-27 via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway thereby inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the large intestine. Oral B. breve administration ameliorated colitis in immunocompromised mice given naïve CD4(+) T cells from wild-type mice, but not Il10(-/-) mice. These findings demonstrate that B. breve prevents intestinal inflammation through the induction of intestinal IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.
Project description:IL-10 is an immunoregulatory cytokine expressed by numerous cell types. Studies in mice confirm that different IL-10-expressing cell subsets contribute differentially to disease phenotypes. However, little is known about the relationship between cell- or tissue-specific IL-10 expression and disease susceptibility in humans. In this study, we used the previously described human (h)IL10BAC transgenic model to examine the role of hIL-10 in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Genomically controlled hIL-10 expression rescued Il10(-/-) mice from Helicobacter-induced colitis and was associated with control of proinflammatory cytokine expression and Th17 cell accumulation in gut tissues. Resistance to colitis was associated with an accumulation of hIL-10-expressing CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells specifically within the lamina propria but not other secondary lymphoid tissues. Cotransfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(lo) cells from Il10(-/-)/hIL10BAC mice rescued Rag1(-/-) mice from colitis, further suggesting that CD4(+) T cells represent a protective source of hIL-10 in the colon. In concordance with an enhanced capacity to express IL-10, CD4(+)CD44(+) T cells isolated from the lamina propria exhibited lower levels of the repressive histone mark H3K27Me3 and higher levels of the permissive histone mark acetylated histone H3 in both the human and mouse IL10 locus compared with the spleen. These results provide experimental evidence verifying the importance of T cell-derived hIL-10 expression in controlling inflammation within the colonic mucosa. We also provide molecular evidence suggesting the tissue microenvironment influences IL-10 expression patterns and chromatin structure in the human (and mouse) IL10 locus.
Project description:High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein in mammals. When released into the extracellular space, it acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern. This study investigates whether increased HMGB1 levels are found in the intestinal mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and whether an anti-HMGB1 neutralizing-antibody (HnAb) can inhibit the intestinal inflammation elicited by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. Because toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is implicated in HMGB1-mediated immune cell activation, DSS colitis was also elicited in TLR4-deficient mice in the presence and absence of HnAb. The expression of HMGB1 in UC patients was examined. HnAb was administered via intraperitoneal injection to TLR4 deficient mice and their wild-type littermates, both being induced to colitis with DSS. Finally, the protective effect of HnAb and TLR4 deficiency were evaluated. In UC patients, HMGB1 was up-regulated in the inflamed colon. When administered during DSS application, HnAb alleviated the severity of colitis with a lower disease activity index, limited histological damages, and reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines. This antibody also limited colonic barrier loss, decreased colonic lamina propria macrophages and partially reversed the DSS treatment-associated dysbiosis. The protective effect of this antibody was enhanced in TLR4-deficient mice in some aspects, indicating that both additional HMGB1-mediated as well as TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathways were involved in the induction of colitis by DSS. HnAb ameliorated colitis via macrophages inhibition and colonic barrier protection. It may therefore be a novel treatment option in colitis.
Project description:The p110? subunit of class IA PI3K modulates signaling in innate immune cells. We previously demonstrated that mice harboring a kinase-dead p110? subunit (p110?(KD)) develop spontaneous colitis. Macrophages contributed to the Th1/Th17 cytokine bias in p110?(KD) mice through increased IL-12 and IL-23 expression. In this study, we show that the enteric microbiota is required for colitis development in germfree p110?(KD) mice. Colonic tissue and macrophages from p110?(KD) mice produce significantly less IL-10 compared with wild-type mice. p110?(KD) APCs cocultured with naive CD4+ Ag-specific T cells also produce significantly less IL-10 and induce more IFN-?- and IL-17A-producing CD4+ T cells compared with wild-type APCs. Illustrating the importance of APC-T cell interactions in colitis pathogenesis in vivo, Rag1(-/-)/p110?(KD) mice develop mild colonic inflammation and produced more colonic IL-12p40 compared with Rag1(-/-) mice. However, CD4+ CD45RB(high/low) T cell Rag1(-/-)/p110?(KD) recipient mice develop severe colitis with increased percentages of IFN-?- and IL-17A-producing lamina propria CD3+D4+ T cells compared with Rag1(-/-) recipient mice. Intestinal tissue samples from patients with Crohn's disease reveal significantly lower expression of PIK3CD compared with intestinal samples from non-inflammatory bowel disease control subjects (p < 0.05). PIK3CD expression inversely correlates with the ratio of IL12B:IL10 expression. In conclusion, the PI3K subunit p110? controls homeostatic APC-T cell interactions by altering the balance between IL-10 and IL-12/23. Defects in p110? expression and/or function may underlie the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel disease and lead to new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) STAT3 is required for wound healing following acute dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) injury. We hypothesized that loss of IEC STAT3 would promote the development of chronic colitis following acute DSS injury.Colitis was induced in IEC-specific STAT3-deficient mice (STAT3)[INCREMENT]IEC and littermate controls (STAT3 Flx/Flx) with 4% DSS for 7 days, followed by water consumption for 21 days. Epithelial and immune mediators and severity of colitis were determined.Survival, colon length, and histologic injury were significantly worse at day 28 in STAT3[INCREMENT]IEC mice. IEC proliferation and apoptosis did not vary by genotype at day 14 or day 28. The colonic lamina propria frequency of pSTAT3* cells was increased at day 28 and correlated with histologic injury in STAT3 [INCREMENT]IEC mice. The frequency of colonic F480* pSTAT3* macrophages and CD3* pSTAT3* T lymphocytes were increased in STAT3[INCREMENT]IEC mice as compared with STAT3 Flx/Flx controls. In STAT3[INCREMENT]IEC mice, colonic expression of STAT3 target genes Reg3? and Reg3?, which mediate epithelial restitution, were significantly decreased, whereas expression of interleukin (IL)-17a, IFN?, CXCL2, CXCL10, and CCL2 were significantly increased and correlated with the increase in histologic severity at day 28(P < 0.05). IL-17a expression also correlated with the increased lamina propria frequency of CD3* pSTAT3* T lymphocytes.Loss of intestinal epithelial STAT3 leads to more severe chronic inflammation following acute injury, which is not accounted for by a sustained defect in epithelial proliferation or apoptosis 7 or 21 days after 1 cycle of DSS but rather defective REG3 expression and expansion of pSTAT3* lymphocytes and IL-17A expression.
Project description:Deregulated activation of mucosal lamina propria T cells plays a central role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. One of the means to attenuate T cell activation is by blocking the CD28/CD80 co-stimulatory pathway. Here we investigate RhuDex®, a small molecule that binds to human CD80, for its effects on the activation of lamina propria T cells employing a gut-culture model of inflammation. To this end, lamina propria leukocytes (LPL) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were stimulated either through the CD3/T-cell-receptor complex or the CD2-receptor (CD2) employing agonistic monoclonal antibodies. Co-stimulatory signals were provided by CD80/CD86 present on lamina propria myeloid cells or LPS-activated peripheral blood monocytes. Results show that RhuDex® caused a profound reduction of LPL and PBL proliferation, while Abatacept (CTLA-4-Ig) inhibited LPL proliferation to a small degree, and had no effect on PBL proliferation. Furthermore, Abatacept significantly inhibited IL-2, TNF-?, and IFN-? release from LPL, primarily produced by CD4(+) T cells, where IL-2 blockage was surprisingly strong, suggesting a down-regulating effect on regulatory T cells. In contrast, in the presence of RhuDex®, secretion of IL-17, again mostly by CD4(+) T cells, and IFN-? was inhibited in LPL and PBL, yet IL-2 remained unaffected. Thus, RhuDex® efficiently inhibited lamina propria and peripheral blood T-cell activation in this pre-clinical study making it a promising drug candidate for the treatment of intestinal inflammation.
Project description:Although IL-10 promotes a regulatory phenotype of CD11c+ dendritic cells and macrophages in vitro, the role of IL-10 signaling in CD11c+ cells to maintain intestinal tolerance in vivo remains elusive. To this aim, we generated mice with a CD11c-specific deletion of the IL-10 receptor alpha (Cd11ccreIl10rafl/fl). In contrast to the colon, the small intestine of Cd11ccreIl10rafl/fl mice exhibited spontaneous crypt hyperplasia, increased numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria T cells, associated with elevated levels of T cell-derived IFN? and IL-17A. Whereas naive mucosal T-cell priming was not affected and oral tolerance to ovalbumin was intact, augmented T-cell function in the lamina propria was associated with elevated numbers of locally dividing T cells, expression of T-cell attracting chemokines and reduced T-cell apoptosis. Upon stimulation, intestinal IL-10R? deficient CD11c+ cells exhibited increased activation associated with enhanced IL-6 and TNF? production. Following colonization with Helicobacter hepaticus Cd11ccreIl10rafl/fl mice developed severe large intestinal inflammation characterized by infiltrating T cells and increased levels of Il17a, Ifng, and Il12p40. Altogether these findings demonstrate a critical role of IL-10 signaling in CD11c+ cells to control small intestinal immune homeostasis by limiting reactivation of local memory T cells and to protect against Helicobacter hepaticus-induced colitis.