A computational study of the hydrolysis of dGTP analogues with halomethylene-modified leaving groups in solution: implications for the mechanism of DNA polymerases.
ABSTRACT: DNA polymerases make up a family of enzymes responsible for regulating DNA replication and repair, which in turn maintains the integrity of the genome. However, despite intensive kinetic, crystallographic, and computational studies, elucidation of the detailed enzymatic mechanism still presents a significant challenge. We recently developed an alternative strategy for exploring the fidelity and mechanism of DNA polymerases, by probing leaving group effects on nucleotidyl transfer using a series of dGTP bisphosphonate analogues in which the beta,gamma-bridging oxygen was replaced by a series of substituted methylene groups (X = CYZ, where Y and Z = H, halogen, or another substituent). Pre-steady state kinetic measurements of DNA polymerase-catalyzed incorporation of correctly base paired (R) and mispaired (W) analogues demonstrated a strong linear free energy relationship (LFER) between the polymerase rate constant (k(pol)) and the highest pK(a) of the free bisphosphonic acid corresponding to the leaving group. However, unexpectedly, the data segregated into two distinctly different linear correlations depending on the nature of the substituent. The discrepancy between the two lines was considerably greater when the dGTP analogue formed an incorrect (G.T) rather than a correct (G.C) base pair, although the reason for this phenomenon remains unexplained. Here, we have evaluated the complete free energy surfaces for bisphosphonate hydrolysis in aqueous solution and evaluated the corresponding LFER. Our study, which employs several alternative solvation models, finds a split of the calculated LFER for the mono- and dihalogen compounds into two parallel lines, reflecting their behavior in the polymerase-catalyzed condensation reaction. We suggest that the division into two linear subsets may be a generalized solvation phenomenon involving the overall electrostatic interaction between the substrates and their surroundings and would also be observed in polar solvents in the absence of the enzyme, if the reaction in solvent is in fact identical to that of the enzyme. However, the amplified differences between the LFER lines for the incorporation of matched and mismatched deoxynucleotides probably reflects the differences in the electrostatic interaction between the TS charges in the polymerase active site. An understanding of the mechanism of this reaction in solution could thereby provide a steppingstone for understanding the factors governing the fidelity of DNA polymerases.
Project description:Deoxynucleotide misincorporation efficiencies can span a wide 104-fold range, from ?10-2 to ?10-6, depending principally on polymerase (pol) identity and DNA sequence context. We have addressed DNA pol fidelity mechanisms from a transition-state (TS) perspective using our "tool-kit" of dATP- and dGTP-?,? substrate analogues in which the pyrophosphate leaving group (p Ka4 = 8.9) has been replaced by a series of bisphosphonates covering a broad acidity range spanning p Ka4 values from 7.8 (CF2) to 12.3 [C(CH3)2]. Here, we have used a linear free energy relationship (LFER) analysis, in the form of a Brønsted plot of log( kpol) versus p Ka4, for Y-family error-prone pol ? and X-family pols ? and ? to determine the extent to which different electrostatic active site environments alter kpol values. The apparent chemical rate constant ( kpol) is the rate-determining step for the three pols. The pols each exhibit a distinct catalytic signature that differs for formation of right (A·T) and wrong (G·T) incorporations observed as changes in slopes and displacements of the Brønsted lines, in relation to a reference LFER. Common to this signature among all three pols is a split linear pattern in which the analogues containing two halogens show kpol values that are systematically lower than would be predicted from their p Ka4 values measured in aqueous solution. We discuss how metal ions and active site amino acids are responsible for causing "effective" p Ka4 values that differ for dihalo and non-dihalo substrates as well as for individual R and S stereoisomers for CHF and CHCl.
Project description:We examine the DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) transition state (TS) from a leaving group pre-steady-state kinetics perspective by measuring the rate of incorporation of dNTPs and corresponding novel ?,?-CXY-dNTP analogues, including individual ?,?-CHF and -CHCl diastereomers with defined stereochemistry at the bridging carbon, during the formation of right (R) and wrong (W) base pairs. Brønsted plots of log kpol versus p Ka4 of the leaving group bisphosphonic acids are used to interrogate the effects of the base identity, the dNTP analogue leaving group basicity, and the precise configuration of the C-X atom in R and S stereoisomers on the rate-determining step ( kpol). The dNTP analogues provide a range of leaving group basicity and steric properties by virtue of monohalogen, dihalogen, or methyl substitution at the carbon atom bridging the ?,?-bisphosphonate that mimics the natural pyrophosphate leaving group in dNTPs. Brønsted plot relationships with negative slopes are revealed by the data, as was found for the dGTP and dTTP analogues, consistent with a bond-breaking component to the TS energy. However, greater multiplicity was shown in the linear free energy relationship, revealing an unexpected dependence on the nucleotide base for both A and C. Strong base-dependent perturbations that modulate TS relative to ground-state energies are likely to arise from electrostatic effects on catalysis in the pol active site. Deviations from a uniform linear Brønsted plot relationship are discussed in terms of insights gained from structural features of the prechemistry DNA polymerase active site.
Project description:Structure-based protein sequence alignments of family B DNA polymerases revealed a conserved motif that is formed from interacting residues between loops from the N-terminal and palm domains and between the N-terminal loop and a conserved proline residue. The importance of the motif for function of the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase was revealed by suppressor analysis. T4 DNA polymerases that form weak replicating complexes cannot replicate DNA when the dGTP pool is reduced. The conditional lethality provides the means to identify amino acid substitutions that restore replication activity under low-dGTP conditions either by correcting the defect produced by the first amino acid substitution or by generally increasing the stability of polymerase complexes; the second type are global suppressors that can effectively counter the reduced stability caused by a variety of amino acid substitutions. Some amino acid substitutions that increase the stability of polymerase complexes produce a new phenotype-sensitivity to the antiviral drug phosphonoacetic acid. Amino acid substitutions that confer decreased ability to replicate DNA under low-dGTP conditions or drug sensitivity were identified in the new motif, which suggests that the motif functions in regulating the stability of polymerase complexes. Additional suppressor analyses revealed an apparent network of interactions that link the new motif to the fingers domain and to two patches of conserved residues that bind DNA. The collection of mutant T4 DNA polymerases provides a foundation for future biochemical studies to determine how DNA polymerases remain stably associated with DNA while waiting for the next available dNTP, how DNA polymerases translocate, and the biochemical basis for sensitivity to antiviral drugs.
Project description:4,6-Diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine (Fapy•dG) is an abundant form of oxidative DNA damage that is mutagenic and contributes to the pathogenesis of human disease. When Fapy•dG is in its nucleotide triphosphate form, Fapy•dGTP, it is inefficiently cleansed from the nucleotide pool by the responsible enzyme in Escherichia coli MutT and its mammalian homolog MTH1. Therefore, under oxidative stress conditions, Fapy•dGTP could become a pro-mutagenic substrate for insertion into the genome by DNA polymerases. Here, we evaluated insertion kinetics and high-resolution ternary complex crystal structures of a configurationally stable Fapy•dGTP analog, ?-C-Fapy•dGTP, with DNA polymerase ?. The crystallographic snapshots and kinetic data indicate that binding of ?-C-Fapy•dGTP impedes enzyme closure, thus hindering insertion. The structures reveal that an active site residue, Asp276, positions ?-C-Fapy•dGTP so that it distorts the geometry of critical catalytic atoms. Removal of this guardian side chain permits enzyme closure and increases the efficiency of ?-C-Fapy•dG insertion opposite dC. These results highlight the stringent requirements necessary to achieve a closed DNA polymerase active site poised for efficient nucleotide incorporation and illustrate how DNA polymerase ? has evolved to hinder Fapy•dGTP insertion.
Project description:Phosphate and sulfate esters have important roles in regulating cellular processes. However, while there has been substantial experimental and computational investigation of the mechanisms and the transition states involved in phosphate ester hydrolysis, there is far less work on sulfate ester hydrolysis. Here, we report a detailed computational study of the alkaline hydrolysis of diaryl sulfate diesters, using different DFT functionals as well as mixed implicit/explicit solvation with varying numbers of explicit water molecules. We consider the impact of the computational model on computed linear free-energy relationships (LFER) and the nature of the transition states (TS) involved. We obtain good qualitative agreement with experimental LFER data when using a pure implicit solvent model and excellent agreement with experimental kinetic isotope effects for all models used. Our calculations suggest that sulfate diester hydrolysis proceeds through loose transition states, with minimal bond formation to the nucleophile and bond cleavage to the leaving group already initiated. Comparison to prior work indicates that these TS are similar in nature to those for the alkaline hydrolysis of neutral arylsulfonate monoesters or charged phosphate diesters and fluorophosphates. Obtaining more detailed insights into the transition states involved assists in understanding the selectivity of enzymes that hydrolyze these reactions.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species generate the genotoxic 8-oxoguanine (oxoG) and 8-oxoadenine (oxoA) as major oxidative lesions. The mutagenicity of oxoG is attributed to the lesion's ability to evade the geometric discrimination of DNA polymerases by adopting Hoogsteen base pairing with adenine in a Watson-Crick-like geometry. Compared with oxoG, the mutagenesis mechanism of oxoA, which preferentially induces A-to-C mutations, is poorly understood. In the absence of protein contacts, oxoA:G forms a wobble conformation, the formation of which is suppressed in the catalytic site of most DNA polymerases. Interestingly, human DNA polymerase ? (pol?) proficiently incorporates dGTP opposite oxoA, suggesting the nascent oxoA:dGTP overcomes the geometric discrimination of pol?. To gain insights into oxoA-mediated mutagenesis, we determined crystal structures of pol? bypassing oxoA. When paired with dGTP, oxoA adopted a syn-conformation and formed Hoogsteen pairing while in a wobble geometry, which was stabilized by Gln38-mediated minor groove contacts to oxoA:dGTP. Gln38Ala mutation reduced misinsertion efficiency ?55-fold, indicating oxoA:dGTP misincorporation was promoted by minor groove interactions. Also, the efficiency of oxoA:dGTP insertion by the X-family pol? decreased ?380-fold when Asn279-mediated minor groove contact to dGTP was abolished. Overall, these results suggest that, unlike oxoG, oxoA-mediated mutagenesis is greatly induced by minor groove interactions.
Project description:N2 -Alkyl-2'-deoxyguanosine triphosphate (N2 -alkyl-dGTP) derivatives with methyl, butyl, benzyl, or 4-ethynylbenzyl substituents were prepared and tested as substrates for human DNA polymerases. N2 -Benzyl-dGTP was equal to dGTP as a substrate for DNA polymerase?? (pol??), but was a poor substrate for pols??, ?, ?, ?, or ?. In?vivo reactivity was evaluated through incubation of N2 -4-ethynylbenzyl-dG with wild-type and pol?? deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. CuAAC reaction with 5(6)-FAM-azide demonstrated that only cells containing pol?? were able to incorporate N2 -4-ethynylbenzyl-dG into the nucleus. This is the first instance of a Y-family-polymerase-specific dNTP, and this method could be used to probe the activity of pol?? in?vivo.
Project description:Although the relative incorporation of incorrect nucleotide (dCTP or dGTP) into poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT) by partially purified 3-4S DNA polymerase from normal or leukaemic human cells was four to five times higher than that by the 6-7S DNA polymerase, no significant differences in the infidelity of these polymerases between normal and leukaemic cells were noted.
Project description:The known archaeal family B DNA polymerases are unable to participate in the PCR in the presence of uracil. Here, we report on a novel archaeal family B DNA polymerase from Nanoarchaeum equitans that can successfully utilize deaminated bases such as uracil and hypoxanthine and on its application to PCR. N. equitans family B DNA polymerase (Neq DNA polymerase) produced lambda DNA fragments up to 10 kb with an approximately 2.2-fold-lower error rate (5.53 x 10(-6)) than Taq DNA polymerase (11.98 x 10(-6)). Uniquely, Neq DNA polymerase also amplified lambda DNA fragments using dUTP (in place of dTTP) or dITP (partially replaced with dGTP). To increase PCR efficiency, Taq and Neq DNA polymerases were mixed in different ratios; a ratio of 10:1 efficiently facilitated long PCR (20 kb). In the presence of dUTP, the PCR efficiency of the enzyme mixture was two- to threefold higher than that of either Taq and Neq DNA polymerase alone. These results suggest that Neq DNA polymerase and Neq plus DNA polymerase (a mixture of Taq and Neq DNA polymerases) are useful in DNA amplification and PCR-based applications, particularly in clinical diagnoses using uracil-DNA glycosylase.
Project description:8-Oxo-7,8,-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP) is a major product of oxidative damage in the nucleotide pool. It is capable of mispairing with adenosine (dA), resulting in futile, mutagenic cycles of base excision repair. Therefore, it is critical that DNA polymerases discriminate against 8-oxo-dGTP at the insertion step. Because of its roles in oxidative DNA damage repair and non-homologous end joining, DNA polymerase lambda (Pol ?) may frequently encounter 8-oxo-dGTP. Here, we have studied the mechanisms of 8-oxo-dGMP incorporation and discrimination by Pol ?. We have solved high resolution crystal structures showing how Pol ? accommodates 8-oxo-dGTP in its active site. The structures indicate that when mispaired with dA, the oxidized nucleotide assumes the mutagenic syn-conformation, and is stabilized by multiple interactions. Steady-state kinetics reveal that two residues lining the dNTP binding pocket, Ala(510) and Asn(513), play differential roles in dNTP selectivity. Specifically, Ala(510) and Asn(513) facilitate incorporation of 8-oxo-dGMP opposite dA and dC, respectively. These residues also modulate the balance between purine and pyrimidine incorporation. Our results shed light on the mechanisms controlling 8-oxo-dGMP incorporation in Pol ? and on the importance of interactions with the incoming dNTP to determine selectivity in family X DNA polymerases.