Lipase maturation factor LMF1, membrane topology and interaction with lipase proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
ABSTRACT: Lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) is predicted to be a polytopic protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. It functions in the post-translational attainment of enzyme activity for both lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase. By using transmembrane prediction methods in mouse and human orthologs, models of LMF1 topology were constructed and tested experimentally. Employing a tagging strategy that used insertion of ectopic glycan attachment sites and terminal fusions of green fluorescent protein, we established a five-transmembrane model, thus dividing LMF1 into six domains. Three domains were found to face the cytoplasm (the amino-terminal domain and loops B and D), and the other half was oriented to the ER lumen (loops A and C and the carboxyl-terminal domain). This representative model shows the arrangement of an evolutionarily conserved domain within LMF1 (DUF1222) that is essential to lipase maturation. DUF1222 comprises four of the six domains, with the two largest ones facing the ER lumen. We showed for the first time, using several naturally occurring variants featuring DUF1222 truncations, that Lmf1 interacts physically with lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase and localizes the lipase interaction site to loop C within DUF1222. We discuss the implication of our results with regard to lipase maturation and DUF1222 domain structure.
Project description:Lipase maturation factor 1 (Lmf1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein involved in the posttranslational folding and/or assembly of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) into active enzymes. Mutations in Lmf1 are associated with diminished LPL and HL activities ("combined lipase deficiency") and result in severe hypertriglyceridemia in mice as well as in human subjects. Here, we investigate whether endothelial lipase (EL) also requires Lmf1 to attain enzymatic activity. We demonstrate that cells harboring a (cld) loss-of-function mutation in the Lmf1 gene are unable to generate active EL, but they regain this capacity after reconstitution with the Lmf1 wild type. Furthermore, we show that cellular EL copurifies with Lmf1, indicating their physical interaction in the ER. Finally, we determined that post-heparin phospholipase activity in a patient with the LMF1(W464X) mutation is reduced by more than 95% compared with that in controls. Thus, our study indicates that EL is critically dependent on Lmf1 for its maturation in the ER and demonstrates that Lmf1 is a required factor for all three vascular lipases, LPL, HL, and EL.
Project description:Lipase Maturation Factor 1 (LMF1) is a five-pass ER transmembrane protein necessary for the secretion of Hepatic, Endothelial and Lipoprotein Lipases. We sought to identify the protein-protein interactions between LMF1 and its ER partners.
Project description:Lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) is a membrane-bound protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is essential to the folding and assembly (i.e., maturation) of a selected group of lipases that include lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and endothelial lipase. The purpose of this review is to examine recent studies that have begun to elucidate the structure and function of LMF1 and to place it in the context of lipase folding and assembly.Recent studies identified mutations in LMF1 that cause combined lipase deficiency and hypertriglyceridemia in humans. These mutations result in the truncation of a large, evolutionarily conserved domain (DUF1222), which is essential for interaction with lipases and their attainment of enzymatic activity. The structural complexity of LMF1 has been further characterized by solving its topology in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Recent studies indicate that in addition to lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, the maturation of endothelial lipase is also dependent on LMF1. Based on its apparent specificity for dimeric lipases, LMF1 is proposed to play an essential role in the assembly and/or stabilization of head-to-tail lipase homodimers.LMF1 functions in the maturation of a selected group of secreted lipases that assemble into homodimers in the endoplasmic reticulum. These dimeric lipases include lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and endothelial lipase, all of which contribute significantly to plasma triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in humans. Future studies involving genetically engineered mouse models will be required to fully elucidate the role of LMF1 in normal physiology and diseases.
Project description:Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) is a secreted lipase that clears triglycerides from the blood. Proper LPL folding and exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires Lipase Maturation Factor 1 (LMF1), an ER resident trans-membrane protein, but the mechanism involved is unknown. We used proteomics to identify LMF1 binding partners necessary for LPL secretion in HEK293 cells and found these to include oxidoreductases and lectin chaperones, suggesting that LMF1 facilitates the formation of LPL's five disulfide bonds. In accordance with this role we found that LPL aggregates in LMF1-deficient cells due to the formation of incorrect intermolecular disulfide bonds. Cells lacking LMF1 were hypersensitive to depletion of glutathione, but not DTT treatment, suggesting that LMF1 helps reduce the ER. Accordingly, we found that loss of LMF1 results in a more oxidized ER. Our data show that LMF1 has a broader role than simply folding lipases and we identified fibronectin and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) as novel LMF1 clients that contain multiple, non-sequential disulfide bonds. We conclude that LMF1 is needed for secretion of some ER client proteins that require reduction of non-native disulfides during their folding.
Project description:Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a secreted lipase that clears triglycerides from the blood. Proper LPL folding and exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) require lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1), an ER-resident transmembrane protein, but the mechanism involved is unknown. We used proteomics to identify LMF1-binding partners necessary for LPL secretion in HEK293 cells and found these to include oxidoreductases and lectin chaperones, suggesting that LMF1 facilitates the formation of LPL's five disulfide bonds. In accordance with this role, we found that LPL aggregates in LMF1-deficient cells due to the formation of incorrect intermolecular disulfide bonds. Cells lacking LMF1 were hypersensitive to depletion of glutathione, but not DTT treatment, suggesting that LMF1 helps reduce the ER Accordingly, we found that loss of LMF1 results in a more oxidized ER Our data show that LMF1 has a broader role than simply folding lipases, and we identified fibronectin and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) as novel LMF1 clients that contain multiple, non-sequential disulfide bonds. We conclude that LMF1 is needed for secretion of some ER client proteins that require reduction of non-native disulfides during their folding.
Project description:Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a principal enzyme in lipoprotein metabolism, tissue lipid utilization, and energy metabolism. LPL is synthesized by parenchymal cells in adipose, heart, and muscle tissues followed by secretion to extracellular sites, where lipolyic function is exerted. The catalytic activity of LPL is attained during posttranslational maturation, which involves glycosylation, folding, and subunit assembly within the endoplasmic reticulum. A lipase-chaperone, lipase maturation factor 1 (Lmf1), has recently emerged as a critical factor in this process. Previous studies demonstrated that loss-of-function mutations of Lmf1 result in diminished lipase activity and severe hypertriglyceridemia in mice and human subjects. The objective of this study is to investigate whether, beyond its role as a required factor in lipase maturation, variation in Lmf1 expression is sufficient to modulate LPL activity in vivo.To assess the effects of Lmf1 overexpression in adipose and muscle tissues, we generated aP2-Lmf1 and Mck-Lmf1 transgenic mice. Characterization of relevant tissues revealed increased LPL activity in both mouse strains. In the omental and subcutaneous adipose depots, Lmf1 overexpression was associated with increased LPL specific activity without changes in LPL mass. In contrast, increased LPL activity was due to elevated LPL protein level in heart and gonadal adipose tissue. To extend these studies to humans, we detected association between LMF1 gene variants and postheparin LPL activity in a dyslipidemic cohort.Our results suggest that variation in Lmf1 expression is a posttranslational determinant of LPL activity.
Project description:Lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) gene is a novel candidate gene in severe hypertriglyceridemia. Lmf1 is involved in the maturation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase in endoplasmic reticulum. To date only one patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia and related disorders was found to be homozygous for a nonsense mutation in LMF1 gene (Y439X).The objective of the study was to investigate LMF1 gene in hypertriglyceridemic patients in whom mutations in LPL, APOC2, and APOA5 genes had been excluded.The resequencing of LMF1 gene led to the discovery of a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in one patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent episodes of pancreatitis. The mutation causes a G>A substitution in exon 9 (c.1395G>A), leading to a premature stop codon (W464X). LPL activity and mass were reduced by 76 and 50%, respectively, compared with normolipidemic controls. The proband over the years has shown a good response to treatment. The proband's son, heterozygous for the W464X, shows normal plasma triglyceride levels.We identified the second novel pathogenic mutation in LMF1 gene in a patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia. LPL deficiency in our patient was milder than in the carrier of the Y439X previously described.
Project description:Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) due to chylomicronemia is associated with acute pancreatitis and is related to genetic disturbances in several proteins involved in triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) is a protein essential for the maturation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In this study, we examined the genetic spectrum of the LMF1 gene among subjects with severe HTG and investigated the functional significance of 6 genetic variants in vitro. All 11 exons of the LMF1 gene were sequenced in 101 Thai subjects with severe HTG. For an in vitro study, we performed site-directed mutagenesis, transient expression in cld cells, and measured LPL protein and LPL activity. We identified 2 common variants [p.(Gly36Asp) and p.(Pro562Arg)] and 12 rare variants [p.(Thr143Met), p.(Asn249Ser), p.(Ala287Val), p.(Met346Val), p.(Thr395Ile), p.(Gly410Arg), p.(Asp433Asn), p.(Asp491Asn), p.(Asn501Tyr), p.(Ala504Val), p.(Arg523His), and p.(Leu563Arg)] in 29 patients. In vitro study of the p.(Gly36Asp), p.(Asn249Ser), p.(Ala287Val), p.(Asn501Tyr), p.(Pro562Arg) and p.(Leu563Arg) variants, however, revealed that both LPL mass and LPL activity in each of the transfected cells were not significantly different from those in the wild type LMF1 transfected cells, suggesting that these variants might not play a significant role in severe HTG phenotype in our subjects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a rare disease characterized by triglyceride levels higher than 1000 mg/dL (11.3 mmol/L) and acute pancreatitis. The disease is caused by pathogenic variants in genes encoding lipoprotein lipase (LPL), apolipoprotein A5, apolipoprotein C2, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1, and lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1). OBJECTIVE:We aim to identify the genetic cause of severe hypertriglyceridemia and characterize the new variants in a patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia. METHODS:The proband was a male showing severe hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides 1416 mg/dL, 16.0 mmol/L); proband's relatives were also screened. Genetic screening included direct sequencing of the above genes and identification of large rearrangements in the LPL gene. Functional characterization of mutant LMF1 variants was performed by complementing LPL maturation in transfected LMF1-deficient mouse fibroblasts. RESULTS:The proband and his affected brother were compound heterozygotes for variants in the LMF1 gene never identified as causative of severe hypertriglyceridemia c.[157delC;1351C>T];[410C>T], p.[(Arg53Glyfs*5)];[(Ser137Leu)]. Functional analysis demonstrated that the p.(Arg53Glyfs*5) truncation completely abolished and the p.(Ser137Leu) missense variant dramatically diminished the lipase maturation activity of LMF1. CONCLUSIONS:In addition to a novel truncating variant, we describe for the first time a missense variant functionally demonstrated affecting the lipase maturation function of LMF1. This is the first case in which compound heterozygous variants in LMF1 were functionally demonstrated as causative of severe hypertriglyceridemia.
Project description:The severe forms of hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) are caused by mutations in genes that lead to the loss of function of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In most patients with severe HTG (TG?>?10?mmol?L(-1) ), it is a challenge to define the underlying cause. We investigated the molecular basis of severe HTG in patients referred to the Lipid Clinic at the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam.The coding regions of LPL, APOC2, APOA5 and two novel genes, lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) and GPI-anchored high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), were sequenced in 86 patients with type 1 and type 5 HTG and 327 controls.In 46 patients (54%), rare DNA sequence variants were identified, comprising variants in LPL (n?=?19), APOC2 (n?=?1), APOA5 (n?=?2), GPIHBP1 (n?=?3) and LMF1 (n?=?8). In 22 patients (26%), only common variants in LPL (p.Asp36Asn, p.Asn318Ser and p.Ser474Ter) and APOA5 (p.Ser19Trp) could be identified, whereas no mutations were found in 18 patients (21%). In vitro validation revealed that the mutations in LMF1 were not associated with compromised LPL function. Consistent with this, five of the eight LMF1 variants were also found in controls and therefore cannot account for the observed phenotype.The prevalence of mutations in LPL was 34% and mostly restricted to patients with type 1 HTG. Mutations in GPIHBP1 (n?=?3), APOC2 (n?=?1) and APOA5 (n?=?2) were rare but the associated clinical phenotype was severe. Routine sequencing of candidate genes in severe HTG has improved our understanding of the molecular basis of this phenotype associated with acute pancreatitis and may help to guide future individualized therapeutic strategies.