Inhibition of thioredoxin reductase 1 by caveolin 1 promotes stress-induced premature senescence.
ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is an important antioxidant enzyme that controls cellular redox homeostasis. By using a proteomic-based approach, here we identify TrxR1 as a caveolar membrane-resident protein. We show that caveolin 1, the structural protein component of caveolae, is a TrxR1-binding protein by demonstrating that the scaffolding domain of caveolin 1 (amino acids 82-101) binds directly to the caveolin-binding motif (CBM) of TrxR1 (amino acids 454-463). We also show that overexpression of caveolin 1 inhibits TrxR activity, whereas a lack of caveolin 1 activates TrxR, both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of a peptide corresponding to the caveolin 1 scaffolding domain is sufficient to inhibit TrxR activity. A TrxR1 mutant lacking the CBM, which fails to localize to caveolae and bind to caveolin 1, is constitutively active and inhibits oxidative-stress-mediated activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of premature senescence. Finally, we show that caveolin 1 expression inhibits TrxR1-mediated cell transformation. Thus, caveolin 1 links free radicals to activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of cellular senescence by acting as an endogenous inhibitor of TrxR1.
Project description:According to the "free radical theory" of aging, premature senescence induced by oxidative stress contributes to organismal aging. Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/cavin-1 is a structural protein component of caveolae, invaginations of the plasma membrane involved in signal transduction. We show that oxidative stress up-regulates PTRF/cavin-1 protein expression and promotes the interaction between PTRF/cavin-1 and caveolin-1, another structural protein component of caveolae. Consistent with these data, the number of caveolae is dramatically increased in cells subjected to oxidative stress. We demonstrate that down-regulation of PTRF/cavin-1 by shRNA significantly inhibits oxidative stress-induced premature senescence. Mechanistically, we found that PTRF/cavin-1 expression is necessary for the oxidant-induced sequestration of Mdm2, a negative regulator of p53, into caveolar membranes, away from p53, and activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway. Expression of a mutant form of PTRF/cavin-1, which fails to localize to caveolar membranes after oxidative stress, inhibits oxidative stress-induced activation of p53 and induction of premature senescence. Thus, PTRF/cavin-1 is a novel regulator of oxidative stress-induced premature senescence by acting as a link between free radicals and activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway.
Project description:We show that caveolin-1 is a novel binding protein for Mdm2. After oxidative stress, caveolin-1 sequesters Mdm2 away from p53, leading to stabilization of p53 and up-regulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) in human fibroblasts. Expression of a peptide corresponding to the Mdm2 binding domain of caveolin-1 is sufficient to up-regulate p53 and p21(Waf1/Cip1) protein expression and induce premature senescence. Oxidative stress-induced activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of premature senescence are compromised in caveolin-1 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). We also show that reintroduction of caveolin-1 in oncogenic Ras (Ras(G12V))-transformed fibroblasts, which express residual levels of caveolin-1, is sufficient to promote cellular senescence. Moreover, caveolin-1 expression in MEFs is required for senescent fibroblast-induced stimulation of cell growth and tumorigenesis of both Ras(G12V)-transformed fibroblasts and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our results propose caveolin-1 as a key mediator of the antagonistic pleiotropic properties of cellular senescence.
Project description:Caveolin proteins drive formation of caveolae, specialized cell-surface microdomains that influence cell signaling. Signaling proteins are proposed to use conserved caveolin-binding motifs (CBMs) to associate with caveolae via the caveolin scaffolding domain (CSD). However, structural and bioinformatic analyses argue against such direct physical interactions: in the majority of signaling proteins, the CBM is buried and inaccessible. Putative CBMs do not form a common structure for caveolin recognition, are not enriched among caveolin-binding proteins, and are even more common in yeast, which lack caveolae. We propose that CBM/CSD-dependent interactions are unlikely to mediate caveolar signaling, and the basis for signaling effects should therefore be reassessed.
Project description:p21(Cip1/WAF1) has cell cycle inhibitory activity by binding to and inhibiting both cyclin/Cdk kinases and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Here we show that p21(Cip1/WAF1) is induced in the cytoplasm during the course of differentiation of chick retinal precursor cells and N1E-115 cells. Ectopic expression of p21(Cip1/WAF1) lacking the nuclear localization signal in N1E-115 cells and NIH3T3 cells affects the formation of actin structures, characteristic of inactivation of Rho. p21(Cip1/WAF1) forms a complex with Rho-kinase and inhibits its activity in vitro and in vivo. Neurite outgrowth and branching from the hippocampal neurons are promoted if p21(Cip1/WAF1) is expressed abundantly in the cytoplasm. These results suggest that cytoplasmic p21(Cip1/WAF1) may contribute to the developmental process of the newborn neurons that extend axons and dendrites into target regions.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce premature cellular senescence, which is believed to contribute to aging and age-related diseases. The nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that mediates cytoprotective responses against stress. We demonstrate that caveolin-1 is a direct binding partner of Nrf2, as shown by the binding of the scaffolding domain of caveolin-1 (amino acids 82-101) to the caveolin-binding domain of Nrf2 (amino acids 281-289). Biochemical studies show that Nrf2 is concentrated into caveolar membranes in human and mouse fibroblasts, where it colocalizes with caveolin-1, under resting conditions. After oxidative stress, caveolin-1 limits the movement of Nrf2 from caveolar membranes to the nucleus. In contrast, Nrf2 is constitutively localized to the nucleus before and after oxidative stress in caveolin-1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), which do not express caveolin-1. Functional studies demonstrate that caveolin-1 acts as an endogenous inhibitor of Nrf2, as shown by the enhanced up-regulation of NQO1, an Nrf2 target gene, in caveolin-1-null MEFs and the activation or inhibition of a luciferase construct carrying an antioxidant responsive element (ARE) after down-regulation of caveolin-1 by small interfering RNA or overexpression of caveolin-1, respectively. Expression of a mutant form of Nrf2 that cannot bind to caveolin-1 (??A-Nrf2) hyperactivates ARE and inhibits oxidative stress-induced activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of premature senescence in fibroblasts. Finally, we show that overexpression of caveolin-1 in colon cancer cells inhibits oxidant-induced activation of Nrf2-dependent signaling, promotes premature senescence, and inhibits their transformed phenotype. Thus, by inhibiting Nrf2-mediated signaling, caveolin-1 links free radicals to the activation of the p53/senescence pathway.
Project description:Notch signaling plays a complex role in carcinogenesis, and its signaling pathway has both tumor-suppressor and oncogenic components. In this study we investigated the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on Notch1 signaling outcome in keratinocyte biology. We demonstrate that Notch1 function contributes to the arsenic-induced keratinocyte transformation. We found that acute exposure to arsenite increases oxidative stress and inhibits proliferation of keratinocyte cells by upregulation of p21(waf1/Cip1). The necessity of p21(waf1/Cip1) for arsenite-induced cell death was demonstrated by targeted downregulation of p21(waf1/Cip1) by using RNA interference. We further demonstrated that on acute exposure to arsenite, p21(waf1/Cip1) is upregulated and Notch1 downmodulated, whereas on chronic exposure to arsenite, malignant progression of arsenite-treated keratinocytes cells was accompanied by regained expression and activity of Notch1. Notch1 activity in arsenite-transformed keratinocytes inhibits arsenite-induced upregulation of p21(waf1/Cip1) by sustaining c-myc expression. We further demonstrated that c-myc collaborates with Nrf2, a key regulator for the maintenance of redox homeostasis, to promote metabolic activities that support cell proliferation and cytoprotection. Therefore, Notch1-mediated repression of p21(waf1/Cip1) expression results in the inhibition of cell death and keratinocytes transformation. Our results not only demonstrate that sustained Notch1 expression is at least one key event implicated in the arsenite human skin carcinogenic effect, but also may provide mechanistic insights into the molecular aspects that determine whether Notch signaling will be either oncogenic or tumor suppressive.
Project description:Caveolins are coat proteins of caveolae, small flask-shaped pits of the plasma membranes of most cells. Aside from roles in caveolae formation, caveolins recruit, retain and regulate many caveolae-associated signalling molecules. Caveolin-protein interactions are commonly considered to occur between a ?20 amino acid region within caveolin, the caveolin scaffolding domain (CSD), and an aromatic-rich caveolin binding motif (CBM) on the binding partner (?X?XXXX?, ?XXXX?XX? or ?X?XXXX?XX?, where ? is an aromatic and X an unspecified amino acid). The CBM resembles a typical linear motif--a short, simple sequence independently evolved many times in different proteins for a specific function. Here we exploit recent improvements in bioinformatics tools and in our understanding of linear motifs to critically examine the role of CBMs in caveolin interactions. We find that sequences conforming to the CBM occur in 30% of human proteins, but find no evidence for their statistical enrichment in the caveolin interactome. Furthermore, sequence- and structure-based considerations suggest that CBMs do not have characteristics commonly associated with true interaction motifs. Analysis of the relative solvent accessible area of putative CBMs shows that the majority of their aromatic residues are buried within the protein and are thus unlikely to interact directly with caveolin, but may instead be important for protein structural stability. Together, these findings suggest that the canonical CBM may not be a common characteristic of caveolin-target interactions and that interfaces between caveolin and targets may be more structurally diverse than presently appreciated.
Project description:p21(WAF1/CIP1) is a universal cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. To investigate the role of p21(WAF1/CIP1) in proliferation of human liver cancer cells, we examined the expression of p53, p21(WAF1/CIP1), cdk2 and cdk4 expression in two human liver cancer cell lines (HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells). The effects of p21(WAF1/CIP1) on [(3)H]thymidine incorporation and cdks were also examined in these cells. HepG2 cells expressed all these proteins with lower level of cdk4. PLC/PRF/5 cells expressed the other proteins except p21(WAF1/CIP1). Transfection of p21(WAF1/CIP1) gene inhibited [(3)H]thymidine incorporation of both cells with different extent. Although the transfection of p21(WAF1/CIP1) did not affect cdk2 and cdk4 expression, it did reduce cdk2 kinase activity by 20%. These results suggest that: (a) p21(WAF1/CIP1) involved in DNA synthesis of human liver cancer cells; (b) p21(WAF1/CIP1) could be a target gene for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Project description:Tumors secrete pro-angiogenic factors to induce the ingrowth of blood vessels from the surrounding stroma, the end targets of which are vascular endothelial cells (ECs). The homeobox gene GAX inhibits angiogenesis and induces p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in vascular ECs. To elucidate the mechanism through which GAX activates p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression, we constructed GAX cDNAs with deletions of the N-terminal domain, the homeodomain, or the C-terminal domain and then assessed these constructs for their ability to activate p21(WAF1/CIP1). There was an absolute requirement for the homeodomain, whereas deleting the C-terminal domain decreased but did not abolish transactivation of the p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter by GAX. Deleting the N-terminal domain did abolish transactivation. Next, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation and found, approximately 15 kb upstream of the p21(WAF1/CIP1) ATG codon, an ATTA-containing GAX-binding site (designated A6) with a sequence similar to that of other homeodomain-binding sites. GAX was able to bind to A6 in a homeodomain-dependent manner and thereby activate the expression of a reporter gene coupled to this sequence, and this activation was abolished by mutating specific residues in this sequence. On the basis of the sequence of A6, we were then able to locate other ATTA-containing sequences that also bound GAX and activated transcription in reporter constructs. Finally, we found that the ability of these GAX deletions to induce G(0)/G(1) arrest correlates with their ability to transactivate the p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter. We conclude that GAX activates p21(WAF1/CIP1) through multiple upstream AT-rich sequences. Given the multiple biological activities of GAX in regulating EC function, identification of a putative GAX-binding site will allow the study of how GAX activates or represses other downstream targets to inhibit angiogenesis.
Project description:An important mechanism by which the tumor suppressor p53 maintains genomic stability is to induce cell cycle arrest through activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/Cip1) gene. We show that the gene encoding the gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor (GKLF, KLF4) is concurrently induced with p21(WAF1/Cip1) during serum deprivation and DNA damage elicited by methyl methanesulfonate. The increases in expression of both Gklf and p21(WAF1/Cip1) due to DNA damage are dependent on p53. Moreover, during the first 30 min of methyl methanesulfonate treatment, the rise in Gklf mRNA level precedes that in p21(WAF1/Cip1), suggesting that GKLF may be involved in the induction of p21(WAF1/Cip1). Indeed, GKLF activates p21(WAF1/Cip1) through a specific Sp1-like cis-element in the p21(WAF1/Cip1) proximal promoter. The same element is also required by p53 to activate the p21(WAF1/Cip1) promoter, although p53 does not bind to it. Potential mechanisms by which p53 activates the p21(WAF1/Cip1) promoter include a physical interaction between p53 and GKLF and the transcriptional induction of Gklf by p53. Consequently, the two transactivators cause a synergistic induction of the p21(WAF1/Cip1) promoter activity. The physiological relevance of GKLF in mediating p53-dependent induction of p21(WAF1/Cip1) is demonstrated by the ability of antisense Gklf oligonucleotides to block the production of p21(WAF1/Cip1) in response to p53 activation. These findings suggest that GKLF is an essential mediator of p53 in the transcriptional induction of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and may be part of a novel pathway by which cellular responses to stress are modulated.