Discovery of microvascular miRNAs using public gene expression data: miR-145 is expressed in pericytes and is a regulator of Fli1.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A function for the microRNA (miRNA) pathway in vascular development and angiogenesis has been firmly established. miRNAs with selective expression in the vasculature are attractive as possible targets in miRNA-based therapies. However, little is known about the expression of miRNAs in microvessels in vivo. Here, we identified candidate microvascular-selective miRNAs by screening public miRNA expression datasets. METHODS: Bioinformatics predictions of microvascular-selective expression were validated with real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR on purified microvascular fragments from mouse. Pericyte expression was shown with in situ hybridization on tissue sections. Target sites were identified with 3' UTR luciferase assays, and migration was tested in a microfluid chemotaxis chamber. RESULTS: miR-145, miR-126, miR-24, and miR-23a were selectively expressed in microvascular fragments isolated from a range of tissues. In situ hybridization and analysis of Pdgfb retention motif mutant mice demonstrated predominant expression of miR-145 in pericytes. We identified the Ets transcription factor Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (Fli1) as a miR-145 target, and showed that elevated levels of miR-145 reduced migration of microvascular cells in response to growth factor gradients in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: miR-126, miR-24 and miR-23a are selectively expressed in microvascular endothelial cells in vivo, whereas miR-145 is expressed in pericytes. miR-145 targets the hematopoietic transcription factor Fli1 and blocks migration in response to growth factor gradients. Our findings have implications for vascular disease and provide necessary information for future drug design against miRNAs with selective expression in the microvasculature.
Project description:Objectives:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in the development of COPD. In this study, we aimed to identify and validate potential miRNA biomarkers in frequent and non-frequent exacerbators of COPD patients using bioinformatic analysis. Materials and methods:The candidate miRNA biomarkers in COPD were screened from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset and identified using GEO2R online tool. Then, we performed bioinformatic analyses including target prediction, gene ontology (GO), pathway enrichment analysis and construction of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Furthermore, the expression of the identified miRNAs in peripheral blood monocular cells (PBMCs) of COPD patients was validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results:MiR-23a, miR-25, miR-145 and miR-224 were identified to be significantly downregulated in COPD patients compared with healthy controls. GO analysis showed the four miRNAs involved in apoptotic, cell differentiation, cell proliferation and innate immune response. Pathway analysis showed that the targets of these miRNAs were associated with p53, TGF-?, Wnt, VEGF and MAPK signal pathway. In healthy controls, the miR-25 and miR-224 levels were significantly decreased in smokers compared with nonsmokers (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). In COPD patients, the levels of miR-23a, miR-25, miR-145 and miR-224 were associated with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages. Notably, miR-23a and miR-145 were significantly elevated in non-frequent exacerbators compared with frequent exacerbators (P<0.05), and miR-23a showed higher area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUROC) than miR-145 (0.707 vs 0.665, P<0.05). Conclusion:MiR-23a, miR-25, miR-145 and miR-224 were associated with the development of COPD, and miR-23a might be a potential biomarker for discriminating the frequent exacerbators from non-frequent exacerbators.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and is associated with adverse outcomes. The study aimed to identify a miRNA signature for the early diagnosis of post-AMI AKI. METHODS:A total of 108 patients admitted to a coronary care unit (CCU) were divided into four subgroups: AMI-AKI-, AMI+AKI-, AMI+AKI+, and AMI-AKI+. Thirty-six miRNA candidates were selected based on an extensive literature review. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to determine the expression levels of these miRNAs in the serum collected on the day of CCU admittance. TargetScan 7.1 and miRDB databases were used for target prediction and Metacore 6.13 was used for pathway analysis. RESULTS:Through a stepwise selection based on abundance, hemolytic effect and differential expression between four groups, 9 miRNAs were found to have significantly differential expression levels as potential biomarkers for post-AMI AKI specifically. Noticeably, the expression levels of miR-24, miR-23a and miR-145 were significantly down-regulated in AMI+AKI+ patients compared to those in AMI+AKI- patients. Combination of the three miRNAs as a panel showed the best performance in the early detection of AKI following AMI (AUC = 0.853, sensitivity 95.65%), compared to the analysis of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (AUC = 0.735, sensitivity 63.16%). Furthermore, bioinformatic analysis indicated that these three miRNAs regulate the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway and involve in apoptosis and fibrosis in AKI. CONCLUSIONS:For the first time, this study identify a unique circulating miRNA signature (miR-24-3p, miR-23a-3p, miR-145-5p) that can potentially early detect AKI following AMI and may be involved in renal injury and fibrosis in post-AMI AKI pathogenesis.
Project description:Mucosal melanoma (MM) is the second most common melanoma subtype in Asian populations. Deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been extensively investigated in various cancers, including cutaneous melanoma. However, the roles of miRNAs in MM are unclear. In this study, we carried out miRNA profiling in MM, and we investigated the clinical and biological roles of miR-23a-3p in MM. Methods: miRNA expression in MM was profiled by miRNA microarray analysis. The expression of miR-23a-3p was quantitated by qRT-PCR in a cohort of 117 patients with MM, and its prognostic significance was evaluated. The biological effect of miR-23a-3p was demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo studies through ectopic expression of miR-23a-3p. The target gene of miR-23a-3p and molecular pathway influenced by it was characterized using in silico target prediction tools, dual luciferase reporter assays, knockdown, and rescue experiments. Results: Microarray and qRT-PCR results showed that the miR-23a-3p level was substantially lower in MM, and low miR-23a-3p expression was significantly associated with poor outcomes. Ectopic expression of miR-23a-3p suppressed MM cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity, indicating that miR-23a-3p has a tumor-suppressive role in MM. Mechanistic investigations identified adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) as a direct target of miR-23a-3p in MM, and knockdown of ADCY1 recapitulated all the phenotypic characteristics of miR-23a-3p overexpression. Targeting of ADCY1 by miR-23a-3p resulted in the suppression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Conclusions: Our data highlight the molecular etiology and clinical significance of miR-23a-3p in MM and reveal its major target and biological function. miR-23a-3p may represent a new prognostic biomarker or therapeutic target in MM.
Project description:Cardiac hypertrophy is accompanied by maladaptive cardiac remodeling, which leads to heart failure or sudden death. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNAs that mediate posttranscriptional gene silencing. Recent studies show that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertrophy, but their signaling regulations remain to be understood. Here, we report that miR-23a is a pro-hypertrophic miRNA, and its expression is regulated by the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc3). The results showed that miR-23a expression was up-regulated upon treatment with the hypertrophic stimuli including isoproterenol and aldosterone. Knockdown of miR-23a could attenuate hypertrophy, suggesting that miR-23a is able to convey the hypertrophic signal. In exploring the molecular mechanism by which miR-23a is up-regulated, we identified that NFATc3 could directly activate miR-23a expression through the transcriptional machinery. The muscle specific ring finger protein 1, an anti-hypertrophic protein, was identified to be a target of miR-23a. Its translation could be suppressed by miR-23a. Our data provide a model in which the miRNA expression is regulated by the hypertrophic transcriptional factor.
Project description:The transcription factor PU.1 (encoded by Sfpi1) promotes myeloid differentiation, but it is unclear what downstream genes are involved. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that regulate many cellular pathways, including proliferation, survival, and differentiation. The objective of this study was to identify miRNAs downstream of PU.1 that regulate hematopoietic development.miRNAs that change expression in a PU.1-inducible cell line were identified with microarrays. The promoter for an miRNA cluster upregulated by PU.1 induction was analyzed for PU.1 binding by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Retroviral transduction of hematopoietic progenitors was performed to evaluate the effect of miRNA expression on hematopoietic development in vitro and in vivo.We identified an miRNA cluster whose pri-transcript is regulated by PU.1. The pri-miRNA encodes three mature miRNAs: miR-23a, miR-27a, and miR-24-2. Each miRNA is more abundant in myeloid cells compared to lymphoid cells. When hematopoietic progenitors expressing the 23a cluster miRNAs were cultured in B-cell-promoting conditions, we observed a dramatic decrease in B lymphopoiesis and an increase in myelopoiesis compared to control cultures. In vivo, hematopoietic progenitors expressing the miR-23a cluster generate reduced numbers of B cells compared to control cells.The miR-23a cluster is a downstream target of PU.1 involved in antagonizing lymphoid cell fate acquisition. Although miRNAs have been identified downstream of PU.1 in mediating development of monocytes and granulocytes, the 23a cluster is the first downstream miRNA target implicated in regulating development of myeloid vs lymphoid cells.
Project description:miRNAs play important roles in many biological processes, including erythropoiesis. Although several miRNAs regulate erythroid differentiation, how the key erythroid regulator, GATA-1, directly orchestrates differentiation through miRNA pathways remains unclear. In this study, we identified miR-23a as a key regulator of erythropoiesis, which was upregulated both during erythroid differentiation and in GATA-1 gain-of-function experiments, as determined by miRNA expression profile analysis. In primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, miR-23a increased in a GATA-1-dependent manner during erythroid differentiation. Gain- or loss-of-function analysis of miR-23a in mice or zebrafish demonstrated that it was essential for normal morphology in terminally differentiated erythroid cells. Furthermore, a protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP2, was identified as a downstream target of miR-23a that mediated its regulation of erythropoiesis. Taken together, our data identify a key GATA-1-miRNA axis in erythroid differentiation.
Project description:Hormone receptor status is of significant value when deciding on anti-estrogenic adjuvant therapy for breast cancer tumors. However, while estrogen receptor (ER) regulation was intensively studied, the regulation of progesterone receptor (PR) levels has not been extensively investigated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression involved in diverse cellular processes. The aim of this study was to identify miRNAs that regulate PR in breast cancer.We mapped potential miRNA binding sites for miR-181a, miR-23a and miR-26b on PR mRNA and demonstrated a direct regulation of PR by these three miRNAs by in-vitro Luciferase binding assays. Over-expression of each miRNA in MCF-7 cells resulted in a reduction in the expression levels of PR mRNA. Then, expression levels of these miRNAs were measured in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) samples of 29 ER-positive breast cancer tumors and adjacent normal breast tissues. A significant reciprocal correlation between PR mRNA and the miRNA levels were identified suggesting a role for miR-181a, miR-23a and miR-26b in PR regulation in breast cancer. Moreover, the average expression fold-changes of the three miRNAs between cancerous and normal tissues displayed an opposite trend when analyzing according to Immuno-histochemistry(IHC) status. Furthermore, miR-181a and miR-26b were found to be over-expressed in most tumor tissues supporting their role in ER-positive breast cancer development. We conclude that miR-181a, miR-23a and miR-26b act as negative regulators of PR expression in ER-positive breast cancer. The diagnostic and prognostic potential of these miRNAs in breast cancer should be further evaluated.
Project description:Estrogen (E2) has been suggested to have a protective role in attenuating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. miRNAs have great potential as biomarkers and therapeutic agents owing to their ability to control gene expression. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the protective role of E2 in hepatocarcinogenesis and the effects of E2 on apoptotic miRNAs expression. Using miRNA PCR array, we found more than 2-fold alteration was observed in 25 upregulated and 10 downregulated apoptotic miRNAs in E2-treated cells. Among these miRNAs, we found expression of miR-23a was related to p53 functional status in the male-derived liver cell-lines. We demonstrated that E2 via ER? transcriptionally activated miR-23a and p53 expression, and thus enhanced p53 activation of miR-23a expression. Moreover, miR-23a expression correlated inversely with the expression of target gene X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), but positively with the caspase-3/7 activity. Decreasing of XIAP might contribute to caspase-3 activity and cell apoptosis. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel E2-signaling mechanism in regulating miRNAs expression for controlling apoptosis in liver cells. Delineating the role of E2 in regulating the activation of p53 and miR-23a, expression in HCC is crucial to the understanding of the sex difference observed in HCC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNA molecules that act as regulators of gene expression. Circulating blood miRNAs offer great potential as cancer biomarkers. The objective of this study was to correlate the differential expression of miRNAs in tissue and blood in the identification of biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS:The study was divided into two phases: (I) Marker discovery by miRNA microarray using paired cancer tissues (n = 30) and blood samples (CRC, n = 42; control, n = 18). (II) Marker validation by stem-loop reverse transcription real time PCR using an independent set of paired cancer tissues (n = 30) and blood samples (CRC, n = 70; control, n = 32). Correlation analysis was determined by Pearson's test. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were applied to obtain diagnostic utility of the miRNAs. RESULTS:Seven miRNAs (miR-150, miR-193a-3p, miR-23a, miR-23b, miR-338-5p, miR-342-3p and miR-483-3p) have been found to be differentially expressed in both tissue and blood samples. Significant positive correlations were observed in the tissue and blood levels of miR-193a-3p, miR-23a and miR-338-5p. Moreover, increased expressions of these miRNAs were detected in the more advanced stages. MiR-193a-3p, miR-23a and miR-338-5p were demonstrated as a classifier for CRC detection, yielding a receiver operating characteristic curve area of 0.887 (80.0% sensitivity, 84.4% specificity and 83.3% accuracy). CONCLUSION:Dysregulations in circulating blood miRNAs are reflective of those in colorectal tissues. The triple miRNA classifier of miR-193a-3p, miR-23a and miR-338-5p appears to be a potential blood biomarker for early detection of CRC.
Project description:EWS-FLI1 is a chromosome translocation-derived chimeric transcription factor that has a central and rate-limiting role in the pathogenesis of Ewing's sarcoma. Although the EWS-FLI1 transcriptomic signature has been extensively characterized on the mRNA level, information on its impact on non-coding RNA expression is lacking. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of microRNAs affected by RNAi-mediated silencing of EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma cell lines, and differentially expressed between primary Ewing's sarcoma and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Here, we report on the identification of hsa-mir-145 as the top EWS-FLI1-repressed microRNA. Upon knockdown of EWS-FLI1, hsa-mir-145 expression dramatically increases in all Ewing's sarcoma cell lines tested. Vice versa, ectopic expression of the microRNA in Ewing's sarcoma cell lines strongly reduced EWS-FLI1 protein, whereas transfection of an anti-mir to hsa-mir-145 increased the EWS-FLI1 levels. Reporter gene assays revealed that this modulation of EWS-FLI1 protein was mediated by the microRNA targeting the FLI1 3'-untranslated region. Mutual regulations of EWS-FLI1 and hsa-mir-145 were mirrored by an inverse correlation between their expression levels in four of the Ewing's sarcoma cell lines tested. Consistent with the role of EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma growth regulation, forced hsa-mir-145 expression halted Ewing's sarcoma cell line growth. These results identify feedback regulation between EWS-FLI1 and hsa-mir-145 as an important component of the EWS-FLI1-mediated Ewing's sarcomagenesis that may open a new avenue to future microRNA-mediated therapy of this devastating malignant disease.