Anti-Clostridium difficile potential of tetramic acid derivatives from Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing autoinducers.
ABSTRACT: We have examined the potential bactericidal activities of several tetramic acids derived from Pseudomonas autoinducers against Clostridium difficile, a cause of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis. Clinical isolates of C. difficile (n=4) were incubated in broth with a chemically synthesized Pseudomonas autoinducer and its tetramic acid derivatives. The structure-activity relationship and the mechanisms of action were examined by a time-killing assay and by determination of the morphological/staining characteristics. The use of some tetramic acids derived from N-3-oxododecanoyl L-homoserine lactone resulted in more than 3-log reductions in the viability of C. difficile within 30 min at 30 microM. The outer membrane was suggested to be one of the targets for the bactericidal activity of tetramic acid, because disturbance of the bacterial outer surface was demonstrated by alteration of the Gram-staining characteristic and electron microscopy. The data for the tetramic acid derivatives demonstrate that the keto-enol structure and the length of the acyl side chain of tetramic acid may be essential for the antibacterial activity of this molecule. These results suggest the potential for tetramic acid derivatives to be novel agents with activity against C. difficile.
Project description:Tetramic acids with polyenyl substituents are an important class of compounds in medicinal chemistry. Both solid and solution phase syntheses of such molecules have been reported recently. Thiolactomycin, a clinical candidate for treatment of tuberculosis has led to further explorations in this class. We have recently developed an efficient synthesis of tetramic acids derivatives from L-ascorbic acid. In continuation of this work, we have synthesised dienyl tetramic acid derivatives.5,6-O-isopropylidene-ascorbic acid on reaction with DBU led to the formation of tetronolactonyl allyl alcohol, which on oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate gave the respective tetranolactonyl allylic aldehydes. Wittig olefination followed by reaction of the resulting tetranolactonyl dienyl esters with different amines resulted in the respective 5-hydroxy lactams. Subsequent dehydration of the hydroxy lactams with p-toluene sulphonic acid afforded the dienyl tetramic acid derivatives. All reactions were performed at ambient temperature and the yields are good.An efficient and practical method for the synthesis of dienyl tetramic acid derivatives from inexpensive and easily accessible ascorbic acid has been developed. The compounds bear structural similarities to the tetramic acid based polyenic antibiotics and thus this method offers a new and short route for the synthesis of tetramic acid derivatives of biological significance.
Project description:Metronidazole, a mainstay treatment for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), is often ineffective for severe CDI. Whilst this is thought to arise from suboptimal levels of metronidazole in the colon due to rapid absorption, empirical validation is lacking. In contrast, reutericyclin, an antibacterial tetramic acid from Lactobacillus reuteri, concentrates in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we modified metronidazole with reutericyclin's tetramic acid motif to obtain non-absorbed compounds, enabling assessment of the impact of pharmacokinetics on treatment outcomes.A series of metronidazole-bearing tetramic acid substituents were synthesized and evaluated in terms of anti-C. difficile activities, gastric permeability, in vivo pharmacokinetics, efficacy in the hamster model of CDI and mode of action.Most compounds were absorbed less than metronidazole in cell-based Caco-2 permeability assays. In hamsters, lead compounds compartmentalized in the colon rather than the bloodstream with negligible levels detected in the blood, in direct contrast with metronidazole, which was rapidly absorbed into the blood and was undetectable in caecum. Accordingly, four leads were more efficacious (P?<?0.05) than metronidazole in C. difficile-infected animals. Improved efficacy was not due to an alternative mode of action, as the leads retained the mode of action of metronidazole.This study provides the clearest empirical evidence that the high absorption of metronidazole lowers treatment outcomes for CDI and suggests a role for the tetramic acid motif for colon-specific drug delivery. This approach also has the potential to lower systemic toxicity and drug interactions of nitroheterocyclic drugs for treating gastrointestine-specific diseases.
Project description:Exploiting iron-uptake pathways by conjugating ?-lactam antibiotics with iron-chelators, such as catechol and hydroxamic acid is a proven strategy to overcome permeability-related resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. As naturally occurring iron-chelating tetramic acids have not been previously examined for this purpose, an exploratory series of novel ampicillin-tetramic acid hybrids that structurally resemble ureidopenicillins was designed and synthesized. The new analogs were evaluated for the ability to chelate iron and their MIC activities determined against a representative panel of clinically significant bacterial pathogens. The tetramic acid ?-lactam hybrids demonstrated a high affinity to iron in the order of 10-30 M3. The hybrids were less active against Gram-positive bacteria. However, against Gram-negative bacteria, their activity was species dependent with several hybrids displaying improved activity over ampicillin against wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The anti-Gram-negative activities of the hybrids improved in the presence of clavulanic acid revealing that the tetramic acid moiety did not provide added protection against ?-lactamases. In addition, the hybrids were found to be efflux pump substrates as their activities markedly improved against pump-inactivated strains. Unlike the catechol and hydroxamic acid siderophore ?-lactam conjugates, the activities of the hybrids did not improve under iron-deficient conditions. These results suggest that the tetramic acid hybrids gain permeability via different membrane receptors, or they are outcompeted by native bacterial siderophores with stronger affinities for iron. This study provides a foundation for the further exploitation of the tetramic acid moiety to achieve novel ?-lactam anti-Gram-negative agents, providing that efflux and ?-lactamase mediated resistance is addressed.
Project description:A facile microwave-assisted method for the synthesis of tetramic acid derivatives has been developed through an Ugi/Dieckmann cyclization strategy with DBU. This two-step one-pot procedure afforded the targeted tetramic acid analogues in good yields. With commercially available Ugi starting materials, microwave irradiation, a simple operation, excellent yields, and a broad scope, this reaction has the potential to produce a large number of tetramic acid analogues, which cannot be easily accessed by the classic synthetic methods.
Project description:Tetramic acid (pyrrolidine-2,4-dione) compounds, isolated from a variety of marine and terrestrial organisms, have attracted considerable attention for their diverse, challenging structural complexity and promising bioactivities. In the past decade, marine-derived microorganisms have become great repositories of novel tetramic acids. Here, we discuss the biological activities of 277 tetramic acids of eight classifications (simple 3-acyl tetramic acids, 3-oligoenoyltetramic acids, 3-decalinoyltetramic acid, 3-spirotetramic acids, macrocyclic tetramic acids, N-acylated tetramic acids, ?-cyclopiazonic acid-type tetramic acids, and other tetramic acids) from marine-derived microbes, including fungi, actinobacteria, bacteria, and cyanobacteria, as reported in 195 research studies up to 2019.
Project description:Seven new unstable tetramic acid derivatives, cladosporiumins I-O (1⁻7), together with the known analogue cladodionen (8) were isolated from the extract of the deep-sea-derived fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum EIODSF 008. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, quantum chemical calculations and ECD spectra. Compound 4 was a Mg complex of tetramic acid derivative. In acidic solvent, 4 could change to 1 and 6, and 7 could change to 5. In addition, 1, 5 and 8 existed as two exchangeable isomers, respectively. The structures of cladosporiumins E-H were reassigned as their Na complexes. The antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of 1⁻8 were also evaluated. However, because of their instability, all of the isolated compounds did not show significant antibacterial activity as the preliminary EtOAc extracts of the fungal strain.
Project description:An extract of the filamentous fungus Bionectria sp. (MSX 47401) showed both promising cytotoxic activity (>90% inhibition of H460 cell growth at 20 ?g/mL) and antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A bioactivity-directed fractionation study yielded one new peptaibol (1) and one new tetramic acid derivative (2), and the fungus biosynthesized diverse secondary metabolites with mannose-derived units. Five known compounds were also isolated: clonostachin (3), virgineone (4), virgineone aglycone (5), AGI-7 (6), and 5,6-dihydroxybisabolol (7). Compounds 5 and 7 have not been described previously from natural sources. Compound 1 represents the second member of the peptaibol structural class that contains an ester-linked sugar alcohol (mannitol) instead of an amide-linked amino alcohol, and peptaibols and tetramic acid derivatives have not been isolated previously from the same fungus. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated primarily by high-field NMR (950 and 700 MHz), HRESIMS/MS, and chemical degradations (Marfey's analysis). All compounds (except 6) were examined for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and several MRSA isolates.
Project description:For the aim of discovering new fungicide, a series of phenylpyrrole-substituted tetramic acid derivatives bearing carbonates 6a-q were designed and synthesized via 4-(2,4-dioxopyrrolidin-3-ylidene)-4-(phenylamino)butanoic acids 4a-k and the cyclized products 1',3,4,5'-tetrahydro-[2,3'-bipyrrolylidene]-2',4',5(1H)-triones 5a-k. The compounds were characterized using IR, ¹H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (EI-MS), and elemental analysis. The structure of 6b was confirmed by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The title compounds 6a-q were bioassayed in vitro against the phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani at a concentration of 100 ?g/mL, respectively. Most compounds displayed good inhibitory activity.
Project description:An efficient route to various vancoresmycin-type tetramic acids has been developed. The modular route is based on an effective Fries-type rearrangement to introduce various appending acetyl residues. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the new tetramic acids against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were determined, revealing that three of the new compounds exhibit antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. These bioactive compounds were structurally most closely related to the authentic vancoresmycin building block. Additionally, the compounds induced a lial-lux bioreporter, which responds to cell wall stress induced by antibiotics that interfere with the lipid II biosynthesis cycle. These data suggest the tetramic acid moiety to be a part of the vancoresmycin pharmacophore.
Project description:HSAF was isolated from Lysobacter enzymogenes , a bacterium used in the biological control of fungal diseases of plants. Structurally, it is a tetramic acid-containing macrolactam fused to a tricyclic system. HSAF exhibits a novel mode of action by disrupting sphingolipids important to the polarized growth of filamentous fungi. Here we describe the HSAF biosynthetic gene cluster, which contains only a single-module polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS), although the biosynthesis of HSAF apparently requires two separate polyketide chains that are linked together by one amino acid (ornithine) via two amide bonds. Flanking the PKS/NRPS are six genes that encoding a cascade of four tightly clustered redox enzymes on one side and a sterol desaturase/fatty acid hydroxylase and a ferredoxin reductase on the other side. The genetic data demonstrate that the four redox genes, in addition to the PKS/NRPS gene and the sterol desaturase/fatty acid hydroxylase gene, are required for HSAF production. The biochemical data show that the adenylation domain of the NRPS specifically activates L-ornithine and that the four-domain NRPS is able to catalyze the formation of a tetramic acid-containing product from acyl-S-ACP and ornithinyl-S-NRPS. These results reveal a previously unrecognized biosynthetic mechanism for hybrid PK/NRP in prokaryotic organisms.