Organic cation uptake is enhanced in bcrp1-transfected MDCKII cells.
ABSTRACT: Stably transfected cell models are routinely used to examine drug-transporter interactions. In one such model of bcrp1-transfected MDCKII cells, we observed a significant enhancement of organic cation intracellular accumulation. Therefore, our goal was to further explore the expression and functional consequences of this cation transport system. Transport assays were carried out in wild-type and bcrp1-transfected MDCKII cells to examine uptake of [3H]-prazosin (bcrp1 positive control), [3H]-agmatine, [3H]-TEA, and [14C]-choline. RT-PCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of bcrp1 and OCT2/OCT3. Western blots were used to evaluate corresponding protein levels. Accumulation studies determined a significant increase in the uptake of the organic cations agmatine, TEA, and choline in bcrp1-transfected cells when compared to wild-type cells. Directional transport of [3H]-agmatine showed a significantly greater apical (A) to basolateral (B) than B-to-A flux in both cell types. In spite of this, the A-to-B flux was significantly lower in bcrp1-transfected cells. RT-PCR revealed 10-fold higher OCT2 mRNA levels in bcrp1-transfected cells, with no changes in OCT3. OCT2 protein expression was approximately 3.5-fold higher in bcrp1-transfected cells. The upregulation of OCT2 in bcrp1-transfected MDCKII cells contributed to a significant enhancement in the uptake of several organic cations. These results are consistent with the endogenous expression of OCT2 in the kidney tubule, and may be related to the expression and function of bcrp1. Our findings illustrate the importance of understanding how endogenous transporters, which may compete for common substrates, may be influenced by the overexpression and enhanced function of recombinant transport systems.
Project description:Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99??M for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition.
Project description:Metformin, an oral insulin-sensitizing drug, is actively transported into cells by organic cation transporters (OCT) 1, 2, and 3 (encoded by SLC22A1, SLC22A2, or SLC22A3), which are tissue specifically expressed at significant levels in various organs such as liver, muscle, and kidney. Because metformin does not undergo hepatic metabolism, drug-drug interaction by inhibition of OCT transporters may be important. So far, comprehensive data on the interaction of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with OCTs are missing although PPIs are frequently used in metformin-treated patients. Using in silico modeling and computational analyses, we derived pharmacophore models indicating that PPIs (i.e. omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, and tenatoprazole) are potent OCT inhibitors. We then established stably transfected cell lines expressing the human uptake transporters OCT1, OCT2, or OCT3 and tested whether these PPIs inhibit OCT-mediated metformin uptake in vitro. All tested PPIs significantly inhibited metformin uptake by OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC(50)) were in the low micromolar range (3-36 µM) and thereby in the range of IC(50) values of other potent OCT drug inhibitors. Finally, we tested whether the PPIs are also transported by OCTs, but did not identify PPIs as OCT substrates. In conclusion, PPIs are potent inhibitors of the OCT-mediated metformin transport in vitro. Further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical relevance of this drug-drug interaction with potential consequences on metformin disposition and/or efficacy.
Project description:The antimicrotubular agent docetaxel is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of multiple solid tumors and is predominantly dependent on hepatic disposition. In this study, we evaluated drug uptake transporters capable of transporting radiolabeled docetaxel. By screening an array of drug uptake transporters in HeLa cells using a recombinant vaccinia-based method, five organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) capable of docetaxel uptake were identified: OATP1A2, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP1C1, and Oatp1b2. Kinetic analysis of docetaxel transport revealed similar kinetic parameters among hepatic OATP1B/1b transporters. An assessment of polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 revealed that a number of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 variants were associated with impaired docetaxel transport. A Transwell-based vectorial transport assay using MDCKII stable cells showed that docetaxel was transported significantly into the apical compartment of double-transfected (MDCKII-OATP1B1/MDR1 and MDCKII-OATP1B3/MDR1) cells compared with single-transfected (MDCKII-OATP1B1 and MDCKII-OATP1B3) cells (P < 0.05) or control (MDCKII-Co) cells (P < 0.001). In vivo docetaxel transport studies in Slco1b2(-/-) mice showed approximately >5.5-fold higher plasma concentrations (P < 0.01) and approximately 3-fold decreased liver-to-plasma ratio (P < 0.05) of docetaxel compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The plasma clearance of docetaxel in Slco1b2(-/-) mice was 83% lower than WT mice (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the important roles of OATP1B transporters to the hepatic disposition and clearance of docetaxel, and supporting roles of these transporters for docetaxel pharmacokinetics.
Project description:While the blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain by controlling the access of solutes and toxic substances to brain, it also limits drug entry to treat central nervous system disorders. Many drugs are substrates for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters at the BBB that limit their entry into the brain. The role of those transporters in limiting the entry of the widely prescribed therapeutic, benzylpenicillin, has produced conflicting results. This study investigated the possible potential involvement of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), two ABC transporters, in benzylpenicillin transport at BBB in human using MDCKII cells overexpressing those transporters as well as pharmacological inhibition. MDCKII cells overexpressing human BCRP (MDCKII-BCRP) but not those overexpressing human P-gp (MDCKII-MDR cells) had reduced [3H]benzylpenicillin uptake. Similarly, inhibiting BCRP increased [3H]benzylpenicillin uptake in MDCKII-BCRP cells, while inhibiting P-gp in MDCKII-MDR cells had no effect on uptake although there was evidence that benzylpenicillin is a substrate for canine P-gp. While inhibiting BCRP affected [3H]benzylpenicillin cell concentrations it did not affect transepithelial flux in MDCKII-BCRP cells. In summary, the results indicate that human BCRP and not human P-gp is involved in benzylpenicillin transport. However, targeting BCRP alone was not sufficient to alter transepithelial flux in MDCKII cells. Whether it would be sufficient to alter blood-to-brain flux at the human BBB remains to be investigated.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The organic cation transporters 1 (OCT1) and 2 (OCT2) mediate drug uptake into hepatocytes and renal proximal tubular cells, respectively. Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) is a major component of subsequent export into bile and urine. However, the functional interaction of OCTs and MATE1 for uptake and transcellular transport of the oral antidiabetic drug metformin or of the cation 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) has not fully been characterized. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Single-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells as well as double-transfected MDCK-OCT1-MATE1 and -OCT2-MATE1 cells were used to study metformin and MPP(+) uptake into and transcellular transport across cell monolayers, along with their concentration and pH dependence. KEY RESULTS: Cellular accumulation of MPP(+) and metformin was significantly reduced by 31% and 46% in MDCK-MATE1 single-transfected cells compared with MDCK control cells (10 µM; P < 0.01). Over a wide concentration range (10-2500 µM) metformin transcellular transport from the basal into the apical compartment was significantly higher in the double-transfected cells compared with the MDCK control and MDCK-MATE1 monolayers. This process was not saturated up to metformin concentrations of 2500 µM. In MDCK-OCT2-MATE1 cells basal to apical MPP(+) and metformin transcellular translocation decreased with increasing pH from 6.0 to 7.5. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our data demonstrate functional interplay between OCT1/OCT2-mediated uptake and efflux by MATE1. Moreover, MATE1 function in human kidney might be modified by changes in luminal pH values.
Project description:Pentamidine is an effective trypanocidal drug used against stage 1 Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). At the blood-brain barrier (BBB), it accumulates inside the endothelial cells but has limited entry into the brain. This study examined transporters involved in pentamidine transport at the human and mouse BBB using hCMEC/D3 and bEnd.3 cell lines, respectively. Results revealed that both cell lines expressed the organic cation transporters (OCT1, OCT2 and OCT3), however, P-gp was only expressed in hCMEC/D3 cells. Polarised expression of OCT1 was also observed. Functional assays found that ATP depletion significantly increased [3H]pentamidine accumulation in hCMEC/D3 cells (***p<0.001) but not in bEnd.3 cells. Incubation with unlabelled pentamidine significantly decreased accumulation in hCMEC/D3 and bEnd.3 cells after 120 minutes (***p<0.001). Treating both cell lines with haloperidol and amantadine also decreased [3H]pentamidine accumulation significantly (***p<0.001 and **p<0.01 respectively). However, prazosin treatment decreased [3H]pentamidine accumulation only in hCMEC/D3 cells (*p<0.05), and not bEnd.3 cells. Furthermore, the presence of OCTN, MATE, PMAT, ENT or CNT inhibitors/substrates had no significant effect on the accumulation of [3H]pentamidine in both cell lines. From the data, we conclude that pentamidine interacts with multiple transporters, is taken into brain endothelial cells by OCT1 transporter and is extruded into the blood by ATP-dependent mechanisms. These interactions along with the predominant presence of OCT1 in the luminal membrane of the BBB contribute to the limited entry of pentamidine into the brain. This information is of key importance to the development of pentamidine based combination therapies which could be used to treat CNS stage HAT by improving CNS delivery, efficacy against trypanosomes and safety profile of pentamidine.
Project description:The goal of this study was to determine the effect of a genetic variant in the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), OCT2-808G/T, which results in an amino acid change, A270S, on the pharmacokinetics of the antidiabetic drug, metformin.The uptake of metformin was performed in stably transfected HEK-293 cells expressing the empty vector (MOCK), the reference OCT2-808G, and the variant OCT2-808T. Healthy individuals with known OCT2 genotypes [14 homozygous for the OCT2 reference allele (808G/G) and nine heterozygous for the variant allele (808G/T, *3D)] were recruited to this study. Metformin concentrations in plasma and urine were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Creatinine levels were also measured in plasma and urine. Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated for both the groups.We observed that in HEK-293 stably transfected cells, OCT2-808T had a greater capacity to transport metformin than did the reference OCT2. Metformin pharmacokinetics was characterized in 23 healthy volunteers of Caucasian and African-American ancestries. We observed that the renal clearance (CL(R)) and the net secretion (SrCL(R)) of metformin were significantly different between the volunteers heterozygous for the variant allele (808G/T), and the volunteers homozygous for the reference allele (808G/G) (P<0.005). Multivariate analysis revealed that OCT2 genotype was a significant predictor of CL(R) and SrCL(R) of metformin (P<0.01).We conclude that genetic variation in OCT2 plays an important role in the CL(R) and SrCL(R) of metformin in healthy volunteers.
Project description:Knowledge of transporters responsible for the renal secretion of creatinine is key to a proper interpretation of serum creatinine and/or creatinine clearance as markers of renal function in cancer patients receiving chemotherapeutic agents.Creatinine transport was studied in transfected HEK293 cells in vitro and in wild-type mice and age-matched organic cation transporter 1 and 2-deficient [Oct1/2(-/-)] mice ex vivo and in vivo. Clinical pharmacogenetic and transport inhibition studies were done in two separate cohorts of cancer patients.Compared with wild-type mice, creatinine clearance was significantly impaired in Oct1/2(-/-) mice. Furthermore, creatinine inhibited organic cation transport in freshly isolated proximal tubules from wild-type mice and humans, but not in those from Oct1/2(-/-) mice. In a genetic association analysis (n = 590), several polymorphisms around the OCT2/SLC22A2 gene locus, including rs2504954 (P = 0.000873), were significantly associated with age-adjusted creatinine levels. Furthermore, in cancer patients (n = 68), the OCT2 substrate cisplatin caused an acute elevation of serum creatinine (P = 0.0083), consistent with inhibition of an elimination pathway.Collectively, this study shows that OCT2 plays a decisive role in the renal secretion of creatinine. This process can be inhibited by OCT2 substrates, which impair the usefulness of creatinine as a marker of renal function.
Project description:To investigate the effects of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of digoxin in two cell transport models.Caco-2 cells, wild MDCKII cells (MDCKII-WT) and MDCKII cells transfected stably with human MDR1-gene encoding P-gp (MDCKII-MDR1) were examined. Cell viability was evaluated with MTT assay. Bidirectional transport of digoxin was evaluated in these cells. Intracellular ATP level was measured using ATP assay. P-gp ATPase activity was analyzed using a Pgp-Glo(TM) assay.PMA (10 μmol/L) did not reduce the viability of the 3 types of cells. In Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cell monolayers, PMA (1, 10 and 100 nmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the basolateral to apical transport of digoxin, but did not change the apical to basolateral transport. In addition, PMA did not affect both the basolateral to apical and apical to basolateral transport of digoxin in MDCKII-WT cell monolayer. In agreement with the above results, PMA dose-dependently reduced intracellular ATP level and stimulated P-gp ATPase activity in both Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells. Verapamil (a positive control, 100 μmol/L) caused similar inhibition on digoxin efflux as PMA did, whereas 4α-PMA (a negative control, 100 nmol/L) had no effect.PMA significantly inhibited P-gp-mediated efflux of digoxin in both Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cell monolayers via PKC activation.
Project description:We report the identification and characterization of a new ischemia/reperfusion-inducible protein (IRIP), which belongs to the SUA5/YrdC/YciO protein family. IRIP cDNA was isolated in a differential display analysis of an ischemia/reperfusion-treated kidney RNA sample. Mouse IRIP mRNA was expressed in all tissues tested, the highest level being in the testis, secretory, and endocrine organs. Besides ischemia/reperfusion, endotoxemia also activated the expression of IRIP in the liver, lung, and spleen. The transporter regulator RS1 was identified as an IRIP-interacting protein in yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction between IRIP and RS1 was further confirmed in coimmunoprecipitation assays. A possible role of IRIP in regulating transporter activity was subsequently investigated. IRIP overexpression inhibited endogenous 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) uptake activity in HeLa cells. The activities of exogenous organic cation transporters (OCT2 and OCT3), organic anion transporter (OAT1), and monoamine transporters were also inhibited by IRIP. Conversely, inhibition of IRIP expression by small interfering RNA or antisense RNA increased MPP+ uptake. We measured transport kinetics of OCT2-mediated uptake and demonstrated that IRIP overexpression significantly decreased V(max) but did not affect K(m). On the basis of these results, we propose that IRIP regulates the activity of a variety of transporters under normal and pathological conditions.