New mutations in BBS genes in small consanguineous families with Bardet-Biedl syndrome: detection of candidate regions by homozygosity mapping.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS, OMIM 209900) is a rare multi-organ disorder in which BBS patients manifest a variable phenotype that includes retinal dystrophy, polydactyly, mental delay, obesity, and also reproductive tract and renal abnormalities. Mutations in 14 genes (BBS1-BBS14) are found in 70% of the patients, indicating that additional mutations in known and new BBS genes remain to be identified. Therefore, the molecular diagnosis of this complex disorder is a challenging task. METHODS: In this study we show the use of the genome-wide homozygosity mapping strategy in the mutation detection of nine Caucasian BBS families, eight of them consanguineous and one from the same geographic area with no proven consanguinity. RESULTS: We identified the disease-causing mutation in six of the families studied, five of which had novel sequence variants in BBS3, BBS6, and BBS12. This is the first null mutation reported in BBS3. Furthermore, this approach defined homozygous candidate regions that could harbor potential candidate genes for BBS in three of the families. CONCLUSIONS: These findings further underline the importance of homozygosity mapping as a useful technology for diagnosis in small consanguineous families with a complex disease like BBS.
Project description:Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an autosomal recessively inherited ciliopathy mainly characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, postaxial polydactyly, obesity, renal tract anomalies, and hypogonadism. To date, 14 BBS genes, BBS1 to BBS14, have been identified, accounting for over 75% of mutations in BBS families. In this study, we present a consanguineous family from Pakistan with postaxial polydactyly and late-onset retinal dysfunction. Adult affected individuals did not show any renal or genital anomalies, obesity, mental retardation or learning difficulties and did thus not fulfill the proposed clinical diagnostic criteria for BBS. We mapped the disease in this family to the BBS12 locus on chromosome 4q27 and identified the novel homozygous p.S701X nonsense mutation in BBS12 in all three affected individuals of this family. We conclude that BBS12 mutations might cause a very mild phenotype, which is clinically not diagnosed by the current diagnostic criteria for BBS. Consequently, we suggest the use of less strict diagnostic criteria in familial BBS families with mild phenotypic expression.
Project description:Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), an emblematic disease in the rapidly evolving field of ciliopathies, is characterized by pleiotropic clinical features and extensive genetic heterogeneity. To date, 14 BBS genes have been identified, 3 of which have been found mutated only in a single BBS family each (BBS11/TRIM32, BBS13/MKS1 and BBS14/MKS4/NPHP6). Previous reports of systematic mutation detection in large cohorts of BBS families (n > 90) have dealt only with a single gene, or at most small subsets of the known BBS genes. Here we report extensive analysis of a cohort of 174 BBS families for 12/14 genes, leading to the identification of 28 novel mutations. Two pathogenic mutations in a single gene have been found in 117 families, and a single heterozygous mutation in 17 families (of which 8 involve the BBS1 recurrent mutation, M390R). We confirm that BBS1 and BBS10 are the most frequently mutated genes, followed by BBS12. No mutations have been found in BBS11/TRIM32, the identification of which as a BBS gene only relies on a single missense mutation in a single consanguineous family. While a third variant allele has been observed in a few families, they are in most cases missenses of uncertain pathogenicity, contrasting with the type of mutations observed as two alleles in a single gene. We discuss the various strategies for diagnostic mutation detection, including homozygosity mapping and targeted arrays for the detection of previously reported mutations.
Project description:<label>Background & objectives</label>Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple organ defects involving retina, kidney, liver and brain. Disease-causing mutations in BBS genes narrowed down by homozygosity mapping in small consanguineous and non-consanguineous pedigrees were reported in 80 per cent of the study population. This study was aimed to screen these genes (BBS3, BBS10) and specific exons of BBS genes (BBS1, BBS5, MKKS, BBS9, BBS11 and BBS12) for recurrent mutations in a selected sample of BBS patients.<label>Methods</label>The recurrent mutations in BBS genes were screened in the BBS affected individuals by PCR based direct sequencing. The pathogenicity of the observed mutations were confirmed by co-segregation analysis, screening of healthy unrelated controls and in silico analysis.<label>Results</label>In the 64 BBS patients (44 males, 20 females) were studied, mutations were predominant in BBS10 and ARL6 genes; the c.272T>C; p.(I91T) mutation in ARL6 gene was a recurrent mutation. One novel non-sense mutation c.425T>G; p(L142FNx01) was obtained in BBS5 gene (family BSI-31).<label>Interpretation & conclusions</label>BBS10 gene mutations clustered in exon 2 of the gene suggesting the exon as a probable hotspot for mutations in Indian population. A cost- and time-effective strategy for the molecular diagnosis of BBS was designed based on these results.
Project description:Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a syndromic form of retinal degeneration. Recently, homozygosity mapping with a consanguineous family with isolated retinitis pigmentosa identified a missense mutation in BBS3, a known BBS gene. The mutation in BBS3 encodes a single amino acid change at position 89 from alanine to valine. Since this amino acid is conserved in a wide range of vertebrates, we utilized the zebrafish model system to functionally characterize the BBS3 A89V mutation. Knockdown of bbs3 in zebrafish alters intracellular transport, a phenotype observed with knockdown of all BBS genes in the zebrafish, as well as visual impairment. Here, we find that BBS3 A89V is sufficient to rescue the transport delays induced by the loss of bbs3, indicating that this mutation does not affect the function of BBS3 as it relates to syndromic disease. BBS3L A89V, however, was unable to rescue vision impairment, highlighting a role for a specific amino acid within BBS3 that is necessary for visual function, but dispensable in other cell types. These data aid in our understanding of why patients with the BBS3 A89V missense mutation only present with isolated retinitis pigmentosa.
Project description:Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is primarily an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by progressive retinal degeneration, obesity, cognitive impairment, polydactyly, and kidney anomalies. The disorder is genetically heterogeneous, with 11 BBS genes identified to date, which account for ~70% of affected families. We have combined single-nucleotide-polymorphism array homozygosity mapping with in silico analysis to identify a new BBS gene, BBS12. Patients from two Gypsy families were homozygous and haploidentical in a 6-Mb region of chromosome 4q27. FLJ35630 was selected as a candidate gene, because it was predicted to encode a protein with similarity to members of the type II chaperonin superfamily, which includes BBS6 and BBS10. We found pathogenic mutations in both Gypsy families, as well as in 14 other families of various ethnic backgrounds, indicating that BBS12 accounts for approximately 5% of all BBS cases. BBS12 is vertebrate specific and, together with BBS6 and BBS10, defines a novel branch of the type II chaperonin superfamily. These three genes are characterized by unusually rapid evolution and are likely to perform ciliary functions specific to vertebrates that are important in the pathophysiology of the syndrome, and together they account for about one-third of the total BBS mutational load. Consistent with this notion, suppression of each family member in zebrafish yielded gastrulation-movement defects characteristic of other BBS morphants, whereas simultaneous suppression of all three members resulted in severely affected embryos, possibly hinting at partial functional redundancy within this protein family.
Project description:Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by obesity, retinopathy, polydactyly, and congenital anomalies. The incidence of hypertension and diabetes are also increased in BBS patients. Mutation of 16 genes independently causes BBS, and seven BBS proteins form the BBSome that promotes ciliary membrane elongation. BBS3 (ARL6), an ADP ribosylation factor-like small GTPase, is not part of the BBSome complex. The in vivo function of BBS3 is largely unknown. Here we developed a Bbs3 knockout model and demonstrate that Bbs3(-/-) mice develop BBS-associated phenotypes, including retinal degeneration, male infertility, and increased body fat. Interestingly, Bbs3(-/-) mice develop some unique phenotypes not seen in other BBS knockout models: no overt obesity, severe hydrocephalus, and elevated blood pressure (shared by some but not all BBS gene knockout mice). We found that endogenous BBS3 and the BBSome physically interact and depend on each other for their ciliary localization. This finding explains the phenotypic similarity between Bbs3(-/-) mice and BBSome subunit knockout mice. Loss of Bbs3 does not affect BBSome formation but disrupts normal localization of melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 to ciliary membranes and affects retrograde transport of Smoothened inside cilia. We also show that the endogenous BBSome and BBS3 associate with membranes and the membrane association of the BBSome and BBS3 are not interdependent. Differences between BBS mouse models suggest nonoverlapping functions to individual BBS protein.
Project description:Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare, primarily autosomal-recessive ciliopathy. The phenotype of this pleiotropic disease includes retinitis pigmentosa, postaxial polydactyly, truncal obesity, learning disabilities, hypogonadism and renal anomalies, among others. To date, mutations in 15 genes (BBS1-BBS14, SDCCAG8) have been described to cause BBS. The broad genetic locus heterogeneity renders mutation screening time-consuming and expensive. We applied a strategy of DNA pooling and subsequent massively parallel resequencing (MPR) to screen individuals affected with BBS from 105 families for mutations in 12 known BBS genes. DNA was pooled in 5 pools of 21 individuals each. All 132 coding exons of BBS1-BBS12 were amplified by conventional PCR. Subsequent MPR was performed on an Illumina Genome Analyzer II™ platform. Following mutation identification, the mutation carrier was assigned by CEL I endonuclease heteroduplex screening and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In 29 out of 105 individuals (28%), both mutated alleles were identified in 10 different BBS genes. A total of 35 different disease-causing mutations were confirmed, of which 18 mutations were novel. In 12 additional families, a total of 12 different single heterozygous changes of uncertain pathogenicity were found. Thus, DNA pooling combined with MPR offers a valuable strategy for mutation analysis of large patient cohorts, especially in genetically heterogeneous diseases such as BBS.
Project description:Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare genetic disorder that belongs to the group of ciliopathies, defined as diseases caused by defects in cilia structure and/or function. The six diagnostic features considered for this syndrome include retinal dystrophy, obesity, polydactyly, cognitive impairment and renal and urogenital anomalies. Furthermore, three of the 21 genes currently known to be involved in BBS encode chaperonin-like proteins (MKKS/BBS6, BBS10, and BBS12), so BBS can be also considered a member of the growing group of chaperonopathies. Remarkably, up to 50% of clinically-diagnosed BBS families can harbor disease-causing variants in these three genes, which highlights the importance of chaperone defects as pathogenic factors even for genetically heterogeneous syndromes such as BBS. In addition, it is interesting to note that BBS families with deleterious variants in MKKS/BBS6, BBS10 or BBS12 genes generally display more severe phenotypes than families with changes in other BBS genes. The chaperonin-like BBS proteins have structural homology to the CCT family of group II chaperonins, although they are believed to conserve neither the ATP-dependent folding activity of canonical CCT chaperonins nor the ability to form CCT-like oligomeric complexes. Thus, they play an important role in the initial steps of assembly of the BBSome, which is a multiprotein complex essential for mediating the ciliary trafficking activity. In this review, we present a comprehensive review of those genetic, functional and evolutionary aspects concerning chaperonin-like BBS proteins, trying to provide a new perspective that expands the classical conception of BBS only from a ciliary point of view.
Project description:Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous, pleiotropic human disorder characterized by obesity, retinopathy, polydactyly, renal and cardiac malformations, learning disabilities, and hypogenitalism. Eight BBS genes representing all known mapped loci have been identified. Mutation analysis of the known BBS genes in BBS patients indicate that additional BBS genes exist and/or that unidentified mutations exist in the known genes. To identify new BBS genes, we performed homozygosity mapping of small, consanguineous BBS pedigrees, using moderately dense SNP arrays. A bioinformatics approach combining comparative genomic analysis and gene expression studies of a BBS-knockout mouse model was used to prioritize BBS candidate genes within the newly identified loci for mutation screening. By use of this strategy, parathyroid hormone-responsive gene B1 (B1) was found to be a novel BBS gene (BBS9), supported by the identification of homozygous mutations in BBS patients. The identification of BBS9 illustrates the power of using a combination of comparative genomic analysis, gene expression studies, and homozygosity mapping with SNP arrays in small, consanguineous families for the identification of rare autosomal recessive disorders. We also demonstrate that small, consanguineous families are useful in identifying intragenic deletions. This type of mutation is likely to be underreported because of the difficulty of deletion detection in the heterozygous state by the mutation screening methods that are used in many studies.
Project description:Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is primarily an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by the five cardinal features retinitis pigmentosa, postaxial polydactyly, mental retardation, obesity and hypogenitalism. In addition, renal cysts and other anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract can be present. To date, mutations in 12 BBS genes as well as in MKS1 and CEP290 have been identified as causing BBS. The vast genetic heterogeneity of BBS renders molecular genetic diagnosis difficult in terms of the time and cost required to screen all 204 coding exons.Here, the use of genome-wide homozygosity mapping as a tool to identify homozygous segments at known BBS loci, in BBS individuals from inbred and outbred background, is reported.In a worldwide cohort of 45 families, causative homozygous mutations in 20 families were identified via direct exon sequencing. Eleven of these mutations were novel, thereby increasing the number of known BBS mutations by 5% (11/218).Thus, in the presence of extreme genetic locus heterogeneity, homozygosity mapping provides a valuable approach to the molecular genetic diagnosis of BBS and will facilitate the discovery of novel pathogenic mutations.