Correlation of structural stability with functional remodeling of high-density lipoproteins: the importance of being disordered.
ABSTRACT: High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are protein-lipid assemblies that remove excess cell cholesterol and prevent atherosclerosis. HDLs are stabilized by kinetic barriers that decelerate protein dissociation and lipoprotein fusion. We propose that similar barriers modulate metabolic remodeling of plasma HDLs; hence, changes in particle composition that destabilize HDLs and accelerate their denaturation may accelerate their metabolic remodeling. To test this notion, we correlate existing reports on HDL-mediated cell cholesterol efflux and esterification, which are obligatory early steps in cholesterol removal, with our kinetic studies of HDL stability. The results support our hypothesis and show that factors accelerating cholesterol efflux and esterification in model discoidal lipoproteins (including reduced protein size, reduced fatty acyl chain length, and/or increased level of cis unsaturation) destabilize lipoproteins and accelerate their fusion and apolipoprotein dissociation. Oxidation studies of plasma spherical HDLs show a similar trend: mild oxidation by Cu(2+) or OCl(-) accelerates cell cholesterol efflux, protein dissociation, and HDL fusion, while extensive oxidation inhibits these reactions. Consequently, moderate destabilization may be beneficial for HDL functions by facilitating insertion of cholesterol and lipophilic enzymes, promoting dissociation of lipid-poor apolipoproteins, which are primary acceptors of cell cholesterol, and thereby accelerating HDL metabolism. Therefore, HDL stability must be delicately balanced to maintain the structural integrity of the lipoprotein assembly and ensure structural specificity necessary for interactions of HDL with its metabolic partners, while facilitating rapid HDL remodeling and turnover at key junctures of cholesterol transport. The inverse correlation between HDL stability and remodeling illustrates the functional importance of structural disorder in macromolecular assemblies stabilized by kinetic barriers.
Project description:Lipoproteins are protein-lipid nanoparticles that transport lipids in circulation and are central in atherosclerosis and other disorders of lipid metabolism. Apolipoproteins form flexible structural scaffolds and important functional ligands on the particle surface and direct lipoprotein metabolism. Lipoproteins undergo multiple rounds of metabolic remodeling that is crucial to lipid transport. Important aspects of this remodeling, including apolipoprotein dissociation and particle fusion, are mimicked in thermal or chemical denaturation and are modulated by free energy barriers. Here we review the biophysical studies that revealed the kinetic mechanism of lipoprotein stabilization and unraveled its structural basis. The main focus is on high-density lipoprotein (HDL). An inverse correlation between stability and functions of various HDLs in cholesterol transport suggests the functional role of structural disorder. A mechanism for the conformational adaptation of the major HDL proteins, apoA-I and apoA-II, to the increasing lipid load is proposed. Together, these studies help understand why HDL forms discrete subclasses separated by kinetic barriers, which have distinct composition, conformation and functional properties. Understanding these properties may help improve HDL quality and develop novel therapies for cardiovascular disease.
Project description:Reverse cholesterol transport or cholesterol efflux is part of an extensive plasma membrane remodeling process in spermatozoa that is imperative for fertilization. For ram spermatozoa, sheep serum is well known to support in vitro fertilization (IVF), but knowledge of its explicit role is limited. Though, it is postulated to elicit cholesterol efflux owing to the presence of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) that interact with transmembrane cholesterol transporters, such as adenosinetriphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI). In this study, we report that both sheep serum and HDLs were able to elicit cholesterol efflux alone by up to 20-40% (as measured by the boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-cholesterol assay). Furthermore, when the antagonists glibenclamide and valspodar were used to inhibit the function of ABCA1 and SR-BI or ABCA1 alone, respectively, cholesterol efflux was only marginally reduced (8-15%). Nevertheless, it is likely that in ram spermatozoa, a specific facilitated pathway of cholesterol efflux is involved in the interaction between cholesterol acceptors and transporters. Interestingly, exposure to HDLs also induced hyperactivated motility, another critical event required for successful fertilization. Taken together, this study details the first report of the dual action of HDLs on ram spermatozoa, providing both an insight into the intricacy of events leading up to fertilization in vivo as well as demonstrating the possible application of HDL supplementation in media for IVF.
Project description:There is great interest in developing new modes of therapy for atherosclerosis to treat coronary heart disease and stroke, particularly ones that involve modulation of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Here, we describe a new supramolecular chemotype for altering HDL morphology and function. Guided by rational design and SAR-driven peptide sequence enumerations, we have synthesized and determined the HDL remodeling activities of over 80 cyclic d,l-?-peptides. We have identified a few distinct sequence motifs that are effective <i>in vitro</i> in remodeling human and mouse plasma HDLs to increase the concentration of lipid-poor pre-beta HDLs, which are key initial acceptors of cholesterol in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process, and concomitantly promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage cells. Functional assays with various control peptides, such as scrambled sequences, linear and enantiomeric cyclic peptide variants, and backbone-modified structures that limit peptide self-assembly, provide strong support for the supramolecular mode of action. Importantly, when the lead cyclic peptide c[wLwReQeR] was administered to mice (ip), it also promoted the formation of small, lipid-poor HDLs in vivo, displayed good plasma half-life (?6 h), did not appear to have adverse side effects, and exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects in an acute in vivo inflammation assay. Given that previously reported HDL remodeling peptides have been based on ?-helical apoA-I mimetic architectures, the present study, involving a new structural class, represents a promising step toward new potential therapeutics to combat atherosclerosis.
Project description:High density lipoproteins (HDLs) are commonly known for their anti-atherogenic properties that include functions such as the promotion of cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport, as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, because of some chronic inflammatory diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), significant changes occur in HDLs in terms of both structure and composition. These alterations lead to the loss of HDLs' physiological functions, to transformation into dysfunctional lipoproteins, and to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we describe the main HDL structural/functional alterations observed in T2DM and the molecular mechanisms involved in these T2DM-derived modifications. Finally, the main available therapeutic interventions targeting HDL in diabetes are discussed.
Project description:Serum opacity factor (SOF) is a streptococcal protein that disrupts the structure of human high density lipoproteins (HDL) releasing lipid-free apo A-I while forming a large cholesteryl ester-rich particle and a small neo HDL. Given its low cholesterol and high phospholipid contents, we tested the hypotheses that neo HDL is a better substrate for cholesterol esterification via lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), better than HDL as an acceptor of THP-1 macrophage cholesterol efflux, and improves reduction of oxidized LDL-induced production of inflammatory markers. We observed that both cholesterol efflux and esterification were improved by recombinant (r)SOF treatment of whole plasma and that the underlying cause of the improved cholesterol esterification in plasma and macrophage cholesterol efflux to rSOF-treated plasma was due to the rSOF-mediated conversion of HDL to neo HDL. Moreover, the reduction of secretion of TNF-? and IL-6 by THP-1 cells by neo HDL was twice that of HDL. Studies in BHK cells overexpressing cholesterol transporters showed that efflux to neo HDL occurred primarily via ABCA1 not ABCG1. Thus, rSOF improves two steps in reverse cholesterol transport with a concomitant reduction in the release of macrophage markers of inflammation. We conclude that rSOF catalyzes a novel reaction that might be developed as a new therapy that prevents or reverses atherosclerosis via improved reverse cholesterol transport.
Project description:A key to effective treatment of cardiovascular disease is to understand the body's complex lipoprotein transport system. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the process of cholesterol movement from the extrahepatic tissues back to the liver. Lipoproteins containing apoA-I [highdensity lipoprotein (HDL)] are key mediators in RCT, whereas non-high-density lipoproteins (non-HDL, lipoproteins containing apoB) are involved in the lipid delivery pathway. HDL particles are heterogeneous; they differ in proportion of proteins and lipids, size, shape, and charge. HDL heterogeneity is the result of the activity of several factors that assemble and remodel HDL particles in plasma: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), hepatic lipase (HL), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), endothelial lipase (EL), and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). The RCT pathway consists of the following steps: 1. Cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues to plasma, 2. LCAT-mediated esterification of cholesterol and remodeling of HDL particles, 3. direct pathway of HDL cholesterol delivery to the liver, and 4. indirect pathway of HDL cholesterol delivery to the liver via CETP-mediated transfer There are several established strategies for raising HDL cholesterol in humans, such as lifestyle changes; use of drugs including fibrates, statins, and niacin; and new therapeutic approaches. The therapeutic approaches include CETP inhibition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, synthetic farnesoid X receptor agonists, and gene therapy. Results of clinical trials should be awaited before further clinical management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Project description:Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) is essential for the transportation of cholesterol between peripheral tissues and the liver. However, specific mutations in ApoA-I of HDLs are responsible for a late-onset systemic amyloidosis, the pathological accumulation of protein fibrils in tissues and organs. Carriers of these mutations do not exhibit increased cardiovascular disease risk despite displaying reduced levels of ApoA-I/HDL cholesterol. To explain this paradox, we show that the HDL particle profiles of patients carrying either L75P or L174S ApoA-I amyloidogenic variants show a higher relative abundance of the 8.4-nm versus 9.6-nm particles and that serum from patients, as well as reconstituted 8.4- and 9.6-nm HDL particles (rHDL), possess increased capacity to catalyze cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism and hydrogen-deuterium exchange revealed that the variants in 8.4-nm rHDL have altered secondary structure composition and display a more flexible binding to lipids than their native counterpart. The reduced HDL cholesterol levels of patients carrying ApoA-I amyloidogenic variants are thus balanced by higher proportion of small, dense HDL particles, and better cholesterol efflux due to altered, region-specific protein structure dynamics.
Project description:HDLs prevent atherosclerosis by removing excess cell cholesterol. Lipid composition affects HDL functions in cholesterol removal, yet its effects on the disk stability remain unclear. We hypothesize that reduced length or increased cis-unsaturation of phosphatidylcholine acyl chains destabilize discoidal HDL and promote protein dissociation and lipoprotein fusion. To test this hypothesis, we determined thermal stability of binary complexes reconstituted from apoC-I and diacyl PCs containing 12-18 carbons with 0-2 cis-double bonds. Kinetic analysis using circular dichroism shows that, for fully saturated PCs, chain length increase by two carbons stabilizes lipoprotein by deltaDeltaG* (37 degrees C) congruent with 1.4 kcal/mol, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions dominate the disk stability; distinct effects of pH and salt indicate contribution of electrostatic interactions. Similarly, apoA-I-containing disks show increased stability with increasing chain length. Acyl chain unsaturation reduces disk stability. In summary, stability of discoidal HDL correlates directly with fatty acyl chain length and saturation: the longer and more fully saturated are the chains, the more extensive are the stabilizing lipid-protein and lipid-lipid interactions and the higher is the free energy barrier for protein dissociation and lipoprotein fusion. This sheds new light on the existing data of cholesterol efflux to discoidal HDL and suggests that moderate lipoprotein destabilization facilitates cholesterol insertion.
Project description:HDL-phospholipids (HDL-PL) play an important role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most important phospholipid in RCT because it is the essential cholesterol-binding component of lipoproteins and is the acyl donor in the esterification of FC by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). FC efflux to sera is a positive anti-atherogenic function of HDL-PL. Although PC has long been recognized as an anti-atherogenic agent, development of new HDL therapies based on PC has been fraught with issues of efficacy, cost, and safety. Moreover, some methods to increase HDL-PC perturb HDL and release lipid-free apolipoproteins (apo) A-I. We developed a new method, HDL SPLn (SPLn) using a modified detergent removal method that obviates these concerns. SPLn can incorporate PC into HDL and increase HDL-PC>10-fold. This is achieved with no loss of apo A-I. According to size exclusion chromatography and native gradient gel electrophoresis, SPLn raises the HDL particle weight in a dose-dependent way, from approximately 120 to approximately 350kDa. Kinetic analysis of FC efflux to the resulting SPLn particles shows that K(m) and V(max) for SPLn HDL are lower and higher respectively than for native HDL. As a consequence, the catalytic efficiency, V(max)/K(m), increases by more than 400%. Clinically, small increases in serum HDL-PL are associated with significant and profound increases in FC efflux to serum. Treatment of relatively small amounts of plasma by SPLn is a potential method of improving at least one step in RCT.
Project description:MDCO-216, a complex of dimeric recombinant apoA-IMilano (apoA-IM) and palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), was administered to cynomolgus monkeys at 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg every other day for a total of 21 infusions, and effects on lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, and ex-vivo cholesterol efflux capacity were monitored. After 7 or 20 infusions, free cholesterol (FC) and phospholipids (PL) were strongly increased, and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I, and apoA-II were strongly decreased. We then measured short-term effects on apoA-IM, lipids, and (apo)lipoproteins after the first or the last infusion. After the first infusion, PL and FC went up in the HDL region and also in the LDL and VLDL regions. ApoE shifted from HDL to LDL and VLDL regions, while ApoA-IM remained located in the HDL region. On day 41, ApoE levels were 8-fold higher than on day 1, and FC, PL, and apoE resided mostly in LDL and VLDL regions. Drug infusion quickly decreased the endogenous cholesterol esterification rate. ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux on day 41 was markedly increased, whereas scavenger receptor type B1 (SRB1) and ABCG1-mediated effluxes were only weakly increased. Strong increase of FC is due to sustained stimulation of ABCA1-mediated efflux, and drop in HDL and formation of large apoE-rich particles are due to lack of LCAT activation.