Altered eosinophil profile in mice with ST6Gal-1 deficiency: an additional role for ST6Gal-1 generated by the P1 promoter in regulating allergic inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Cumulative evidence indicates that the sialyltransferase ST6Gal-1 and the sialyl-glycans, which it constructs, are functionally pleiotropic. Expression of the ST6Gal-1 gene is mediated by six distinct promoter/regulatory regions, and we hypothesized that these promoters may be used differentially to produce ST6Gal-1 for different biologic purposes. To examine this hypothesis, we compared a mouse with a complete deficiency in ST6Gal-1 (Siat1 null) with another mouse that we have created previously with a disruption only in the P1 promoter (Siat1DeltaP1). We noted previously greater neutrophilic inflammation associated with ST6Gal-1 deficiency. Here, we report that ST6Gal-1-deficient mice also have significantly elevated eosinophilic responses. Upon i.p. thioglycollate elicitation, eosinophils accounted for over 20% of the total peritoneal inflammatory cell pool in ST6Gal-1-deficient animals, which was threefold greater than in corresponding wild-type animals. A principal feature of allergic respiratory inflammation is pulmonary eosinophilia, we evaluated the role of ST6Gal-1 in allergic lung inflammation. Using OVA and ABPA experimental models of allergic airways, we showed that ST6Gal-1 deficiency led to greater airway inflammation characterized by excessive airway eosinophilia. The severity of airway inflammation was similar between Siat1DeltaP1 and Siat1 null mice, indicating a role for P1-generated ST6Gal-1 in regulating eosinophilic inflammation. Colony-forming assays suggested greater IL-5-dependent eosinophil progenitor numbers in the marrow of ST6Gal-1-deficient animals. Moreover, allergen provocation of wild-type mice led to a significant reduction in P1-mediated ST6Gal-1 mRNA and accompanied decline in circulatory ST6Gal-1 levels. Taken together, the data implicate ST6Gal-1 as a participant in regulating not only Th1 but also Th2 responses, and ST6Gal-1 deficiency can lead to the development of more severe allergic inflammation with excessive eosinophil production.
Project description:The anti-inflammatory properties associated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy require the sialic acid modification of the N-glycan of the Fc domain of IgG. Sialylation of the Fc fragment is mediated by ?-galactoside ?2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6Gal-1), acting on the Gal(?4)GlcNAc terminal structure of the biantennary N-glycans on the Fc domain. However, little is known regarding the in vivo regulation of Fc sialylation and its role in the progression of inflammatory processes. Here, we report that decreased Fc sialylation of circulatory IgG accompanies the acute phase response elicited by turpentine exposure or upon acute exposure to either nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae or ovalbumin. However, Fc sialylation was increased 3-fold from the base line upon transition to chronic inflammation by repeated exposure to challenge. The P1 promoter of the ST6Gal-1 gene is critical for Fc sialylation, but P1 does not drive ST6Gal-1 expression in B cells. The Siat1?P1 mouse, with a dysfunctional P1 promoter, was unable to produce sialylated Fc in the systemic circulation, despite the presence of Gal(?4)GlcNAc termini on the Fc glycans. The major contribution of P1 action is to synthesize ST6Gal-1 enzymes that are deposited into the systemic circulation. The data strongly indicate that this pool of extracellular ST6Gal-1 in the blood impacts the sialylation of IgG Fc and that defective Fc sialylation is likely a major contributing mechanism for the proinflammatory tendencies previously noted in Siat1?P1 animals.
Project description:Excessive ROS promote allergic asthma, a condition characterized by airway inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation, and increased airway hyperreactivity (AHR). The mechanisms by which airway ROS are increased and the relationship between increased airway ROS and disease phenotypes are incompletely defined. Mitochondria are an important source of cellular ROS production, and our group discovered that Ca<sup>2+</sup>/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is present in mitochondria and activated by oxidation. Furthermore, mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant therapy reduced the severity of allergic asthma in a mouse model. Based on these findings, we developed a mouse model of CaMKII inhibition targeted to mitochondria in airway epithelium. We challenged these mice with OVA or <i>Aspergillus fumigatus</i>. Mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition abrogated AHR, inflammation, and eosinophilia following OVA and <i>A</i>. <i>fumigatus</i> challenge. Mitochondrial ROS were decreased after agonist stimulation in the presence of mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition. This correlated with blunted induction of NF-?B, the NLRP3 inflammasome, and eosinophilia in transgenic mice. These findings demonstrate a pivotal role for mitochondrial CaMKII in airway epithelium in mitochondrial ROS generation, eosinophilic inflammation, and AHR, providing insights into how mitochondrial ROS mediate features of allergic asthma.
Project description:Recent findings have established a role for the ST6Gal-1 sialyltransferase in modulating inflammatory cell production during Th1 and Th2 responses. ST6Gal-1 synthesizes the Sia(alpha2,6) to Gal(beta1,4)GlcNAc linkage on glycoproteins on cell surfaces and in systemic circulation. Engagement of P1, one of six promoter/regulatory regions driving murine ST6Gal-1 gene expression, generates the ST6Gal-1 for myelopoietic regulation. P1 utilization, however, is restricted to the liver and silent in hematopoietic cells. We considered the possibility that myelopoiesis is responsive to the sialylation of liver-derived circulatory glycoproteins, such that reduced alpha2,6-sialylation results in elevated myelopoiesis. However, 2-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis disclosed only minimal alterations in the sialylation of sera glycoproteins of ST6Gal-1-deficient mice when compared with wild-type controls, either at baseline or during an acute phase response when the demand for sialylation is greatest. Furthermore, sera from ST6Gal-1-deficient animals did not enhance myelopoietic activity in ex vivo colony formation assays. Whereas there was only minimal consequence to the alpha2,6-sialylation of circulatory glycoproteins, ablation of the P1 promoter did result in strikingly depressed levels of ST6Gal-1 released into systemic circulation. Therefore, we considered the alternative possibility that myelopoiesis may be regulated not by the hepatic sialyl glycoproteins, but by the ST6Gal-1 that was released directly into circulation. Supporting this, ex vivo colony formation was notably attenuated upon introduction of physiologic levels of ST6Gal-1 into the culture medium. Our data support the idea that circulatory ST6Gal-1, mostly of hepatic origin, limits myelopoiesis by a mechanism independent of hepatic sialylation of serum glycoproteins.
Project description:Elevation of serum sialic acid and the ST6Gal-1 sialyltransferase is part of the hepatic system inflammatory response, but the contribution of ST6Gal-1 has remained unclear. Hepatic ST6Gal-1 elevation is mediated by P1, 1 of 6 promoters regulating the ST6Gal1 gene. We report that the P1-ablated mouse, Siat1DeltaP1, and a globally ST6Gal-1-deficient mouse had significantly increased peritoneal leukocytosis after intraperitoneal challenge with thioglycollate. Exaggerated peritonitis was accompanied by only a modest increase in neutrophil viability, and transferred bone marrow-derived neutrophils from Siat1DeltaP1 mice migrated to the peritonea of recipients with normal efficiency after thioglycollate challenge. Siat1DeltaP1 mice exhibited 3-fold greater neutrophilia by thioglycollate, greater pools of epinephrine-releasable marginated neutrophils, greater sensitivity to G-CSF, elevated bone marrow CFU-G and proliferative-stage myeloid cells, and a more robust recovery from cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. Bone marrow leukocytes from Siat1DeltaP1 are indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice in alpha2,6-sialylation, as revealed by the Sambucus nigra lectin, and in the expression of total ST6Gal-1 mRNA. Together, our study demonstrated a role for ST6Gal-1, possibly from extramedullary sources (eg, produced in liver) in regulating inflammation, circulating neutrophil homeostasis, and replenishing granulocyte numbers.
Project description:Responding to systemic demands in producing and replenishing end-effector blood cells is predicated on the appropriate delivery and interpretation of extrinsic signals to the HSPCs. The data presented herein implicate the systemic, extracellular form of the glycosyltransferase ST6Gal-1 in the regulation of late-stage neutrophil development. ST6Gal-1 is typically a membrane-bound enzyme sequestered within the intracellular secretory apparatus, but an extracellular form is released into the blood from the liver. Both human and murine HSPCs, upon exposure to extracellular ST6Gal-1 ex vivo, exhibited decreased proliferation, diminished expression of the neutrophilic primary granule protein MPO, and decreased appearance of CD11b<sup>+</sup> cells. HSPC suppression was preceded by decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation and diminished C/EBP? expression, without increased apoptosis, indicating attenuated G-CSF receptor signaling. A murine model to raise systemic ST6Gal-1 level was developed to examine the role of the circulatory enzyme in vivo. Our results show that systemic ST6Gal-1 modified the cell surface of the GMP subset of HSPCs and decreased marrow neutrophil reserves. Acute airway neutrophilic inflammation by LPS challenge was used to drive demand for new neutrophil production. Reduced neutrophil infiltration into the airway was observed in mice with elevated circulatory ST6Gal-1 levels. The blunted transition of GMPs into GPs in vitro is consistent with ST6Gal-1-attenuated granulopoiesis. The data confirm that circulatory ST6Gal-1 is a negative systemic regulator of granulopoiesis and moreover suggest a clinical potential to limit the number of inflammatory cells by manipulating blood ST6Gal-1 levels.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Type 2-high asthma is a prominent endotype of asthma which is characterized by airway eosinophilic inflammation. Airway epithelial cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Our previous miRNA profiling data showed that miR-30a-3p was downregulated in bronchial epithelial cells from asthma patients. We hypothesize that epithelial miR-30a-3p plays a role in asthma airway inflammation.<h4>Methods</h4>We measured miR-30a-3p expression in bronchial brushings of asthma patients (n = 51) and healthy controls (n = 16), and analyzed the correlations between miR-30a-3p expression and airway eosinophilia. We examined whether Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was a target of miR-30a-3p and whether RUNX2 bound to the promoter of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) by using luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR. The role of miR-30a-3p was also investigated in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation.<h4>Results</h4>We found that miR-30a-3p expression were significantly decreased in bronchial brushings of asthma patients compared to control subjects. Epithelial miR-30a-3p expression was negatively correlated with parameters reflecting airway eosinophilia including eosinophils in induced sputum and bronchial biopsies, and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide in asthma patients. We verified that RUNX2 is a target of miR-30a-3p. Furthermore, RUNX2 bound to the promoter of HMGB1 and upregulated HMGB1 expression. RUNX2 and HMGB1 expression was both enhanced in airway epithelium and was correlated with each other in asthma patients. Inhibition of miR-30a-3p enhanced RUNX2 and HMGB1 expression, and RUNX2 overexpression upregulated HMGB1 in BEAS-2B cells. Intriguingly, airway overexpression of mmu-miR-30a-3p suppressed Runx2 and Hmgb1 expression, and alleviated airway eosinophilia in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Epithelial miR-30a-3p could possibly target RUNX2/HMGB1 axis to suppress airway eosinophilia in asthma.
Project description:Th2 cells induce asthma through the secretion of cytokines. Two such cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, are critical mediators of many features of this disease. They both share a common receptor subunit, IL-4R?, and signal through the STAT6 pathway. STAT6(-/-) mice have impaired Th2 differentiation and reduced airway response to allergen. Transferred Th2 cells were not able to elicit eosinophilia in response to OVA in STAT6(-/-) mice. To clarify the role of STAT6 in allergic airway inflammation, we generated mouse bone marrow (BM) chimeras. We observed little to no eosinophilia in OVA-treated STAT6(-/-) mice even when STAT6(+/+) BM or Th2 cells were provided. However, when Th2 cells were transferred to STAT6×Rag2(-/-) mice, we observed an eosinophilic response to OVA. Nevertheless, the expression of STAT6 on either BM-derived cells or lung resident cells enhanced the severity of OVA-induced eosinophilia. Moreover, when both the BM donor and recipient lacked lymphocytes, transferred Th2 cells were sufficient to induce the level of eosinophilia comparable with that of wild-type (WT) mice. The expression of STAT6 in BM-derived cells was more critical for the enhanced eosinophilic response. Furthermore, we found a significantly higher number of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (regulatory T cells [Tregs]) in PBS- and OVA-treated STAT6(-/-) mouse lungs compared with that in WT animals suggesting that STAT6 limits both naturally occurring and Ag-induced Tregs. Tregs obtained from either WT or STAT6(-/-) mice were equally efficient in suppressing CD4(+) T cell proliferation in vitro. Taken together, our studies demonstrate multiple STAT6-dependent and -independent features of allergic inflammation, which may impact treatments targeting STAT6.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mouse models have been extremely valuable in identifying the fundamental mechanisms of airway inflammation that underlie human allergic asthma. Several models are commonly used, employing different methods and routes of sensitisation, and allergens of varying clinical relevance. Although all models elicit similar hallmarks of allergic airway inflammation, including airway eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia and cellular infiltration in lung, it is not established whether they do so by involving the same mechanisms.<h4>Results</h4>We compared the impact of inactivation of various innate or adaptive immune genes, as well as sex, in different models of allergic airway inflammation in mice of C57BL/6 background. Chicken ovalbumin (OVA) and house dust mite (HDM) were used as allergens in settings of single or multiple intranasal (i.n.) challenges, after sensitisation in adjuvant or in adjuvant-free conditions. Eosinophil numbers in the broncho-alveolar lavage and lung histopathology were assessed in each model. We found that Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II (MHCII) deficiency and lack of conventional CD4+ T cells had the most profound effect, essentially ablating airway eosinophilia and goblet cell hyperplasia in all models. In contrast, Thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR) deficiency greatly reduced eosinophilia but had a variable effect on goblet cells. CD1d deficiency and lack of Natural Killer T (NKT) cells moderately impaired inflammation in OVA models but not HDM, whereas sex affected the response to HDM but not OVA. Lastly, defective Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 expression had only a relatively modest overall impact on inflammation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>All the models studied were comparably dependent on adaptive CD4+ T cell responses and TSLP. In contrast, sex, NKT cells and TLR4 appeared to play subtler and more variable roles that were dependent on the type of allergen and mode of immunization and challenge. These results are consistent with clinical data suggesting a key role of CD4+ T cells and TSLP in patients with allergic asthma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Eosinophilic airway inflammation is heterogeneous in asthmatic patients. We recently described a distinct subtype of asthma defined by the expression of genes inducible by T(H)2 cytokines in bronchial epithelium. This gene signature, which includes periostin, is present in approximately half of asthmatic patients and correlates with eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, identification of this subtype depends on invasive airway sampling, and hence noninvasive biomarkers of this phenotype are desirable.<h4>Objective</h4>We sought to identify systemic biomarkers of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients.<h4>Methods</h4>We measured fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), peripheral blood eosinophil, periostin, YKL-40, and IgE levels and compared these biomarkers with airway eosinophilia in asthmatic patients.<h4>Results</h4>We collected sputum, performed bronchoscopy, and matched peripheral blood samples from 67 asthmatic patients who remained symptomatic despite maximal inhaled corticosteroid treatment (mean FEV(1), 60% of predicted value; mean Asthma Control Questionnaire [ACQ] score, 2.7). Serum periostin levels are significantly increased in asthmatic patients with evidence of eosinophilic airway inflammation relative to those with minimal eosinophilic airway inflammation. A logistic regression model, including sex, age, body mass index, IgE levels, blood eosinophil numbers, Feno levels, and serum periostin levels, in 59 patients with severe asthma showed that, of these indices, the serum periostin level was the single best predictor of airway eosinophilia (P = .007).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Periostin is a systemic biomarker of airway eosinophilia in asthmatic patients and has potential utility in patient selection for emerging asthma therapeutics targeting T(H)2 inflammation.
Project description:Noneosinophilic asthma is common across asthma severities. However, in patients with moderate-to-severe disease, the absence of sputum eosinophilia cannot distinguish between asthmatic subjects with eosinophilic inflammation controlled by corticosteroids versus those in whom eosinophilic inflammation is not a component of the disease.We sought to develop a method to quantify eosinophil proteins in airway macrophages as a novel biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation.Eosinophil proteins in airway macrophages were assessed by means of flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and cytoplasmic hue change after ingestion of apoptotic eosinophils. Airway macrophage median percentage of red-hued area in stained sputum cytospin preparations was assessed by means of image analysis from (1) subjects with mild-to-severe asthma, subjects with nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis, and healthy control subjects; (2) subjects with eosinophilic severe asthma after treatment with prednisolone; and (3) subject with noneosinophilic asthma before corticosteroid withdrawal.Eosinophil proteins were detected in airway macrophages, and cytoplasmic red hue increased after ingestion of apoptotic eosinophils. Airway macrophage percentage redhued area was increased in subjects with moderate-to-severe asthma compared with that seen in subjects with mild asthma and healthy control subjects, was similar in those with or without a sputum eosinophilia, and was increased after corticosteroid therapy. In asthmatic subjects without sputum eosinophilia, the airway macrophage percentage red-hued area was increased in subjects who did versus those who did not have sputum eosinophilia after corticosteroid withdrawal.Eosinophil proteins can be reliably measured in airway macrophages. In combination with sputum eosinophilia, the macrophage eosinophil protein content might further define the asthma phenotype and provide an additional tool to direct therapy.