Combinational soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor proteins VAMP8 and Vti1b mediate fusion of antimicrobial and canonical autophagosomes with lysosomes.
ABSTRACT: Autophagy plays a crucial role in host defense, termed antimicrobial autophagy (xenophagy), as it functions to degrade intracellular foreign microbial invaders such as group A Streptococcus (GAS). Xenophagosomes undergo a stepwise maturation process consisting of a fusion event with lysosomes, after which the cargoes are degraded. However, the molecular mechanism underlying xenophagosome/lysosome fusion remains unclear. We examined the involvement of endocytic soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in xenophagosome/lysosome fusion. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that SNAREs, including vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)7, VAMP8, and vesicle transport through interaction with t-SNAREs homologue 1B (Vti1b), colocalized with green fluorescent protein-LC3 in xenophagosomes. Knockdown of Vti1b and VAMP8 with small interfering RNAs disturbed the colocalization of LC3 with lysosomal membrane protein (LAMP)1. The invasive efficiency of GAS into cells was not altered by knockdown of VAMP8 or Vti1b, whereas cellular bactericidal efficiency was significantly diminished, indicating that antimicrobial autophagy was functionally impaired. Knockdown of Vti1b and VAMP8 also disturbed colocalization of LC3 with LAMP1 in canonical autophagy, in which LC3-II proteins were negligibly degraded. In contrast, knockdown of Syntaxin 7 and Syntaxin 8 showed little effect on the autophagic fusion event. These findings strongly suggest that the combinational SNARE proteins VAMP8 and Vti1b mediate the fusion of antimicrobial and canonical autophagosomes with lysosomes, an essential event for autophagic degradation.
Project description:Both heterotypic and homotypic fusion events are required to deliver endocytosed macromolecules to lysosomes and remodel late endocytic organelles. A trans-SNARE complex consisting of Q-SNAREs syntaxin 7, Vti1b and syntaxin 8 and the R-SNARE VAMP8 has been shown by others to be responsible for homotypic fusion of late endosomes. Using antibody inhibition experiments in rat liver cell-free systems, we confirmed this result, but found that the same Q-SNAREs can combine with an alternative R-SNARE, namely VAMP7, for heterotypic fusion between late endosomes and lysosomes. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated separate syntaxin 7 complexes with either VAMP7 or VAMP8 in solubilized rat liver membranes. Additionally, overexpression of the N-terminal domain of VAMP7, in cultured fibroblastic cells, inhibited the mixing of a preloaded lysosomal content marker with a marker delivered to late endosomes. These data show that combinatorial interactions of SNAREs determine whether late endosomes undergo homotypic or heterotypic fusion events.
Project description:Enveloped viruses exploit the endomembrane system to enter host cells. Through a cascade of membrane-trafficking events, virus-bearing vesicles fuse with acidic endosomes and/or lysosomes mediated by SNAREs triggering viral fusion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. Here, we found that UV-radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagic tumor suppressor, is required for the entry of the prototypic negative-strand RNA virus, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, by a mechanism independent of IFN and autophagy. UVRAG mediates viral endocytic transport and membrane penetration through interactions with the class C vacuolar protein sorting (C-Vps) tethering complex and endosomal glutamine-containing SNAREs [syntaxin 7 (STX7), STX8, and vesicle transport through t-SNARE homolog 1B (Vti1b)], leading to the assembly of a fusogenic trans-SNARE complex involving vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP8), but not VAMP7. Indeed, UVRAG stimulates VAMP8 translocation to virus-bearing endosomes. Inhibition of VAMP8, but not VAMP7, significantly reduces viral entry. Our data indicate that UVRAG, in concert with C-Vps, regulates viral entry by assembling a specific fusogenic SNARE complex. Thus, UVRAG governs downstream viral entry, highlighting an important pathway capable of potential antiviral therapeutics.
Project description:SNARE proteins participate in recognition and fusion of membranes. A SNARE complex consisting of vti1b, syntaxin 8, syntaxin 7, and endobrevin/VAMP-8 which is required for fusion of late endosomes in vitro has been identified recently. Here, we generated mice deficient in vti1b to study the function of this protein in vivo. vti1b-deficient mice had reduced amounts of syntaxin 8 due to degradation of the syntaxin 8 protein, while the amounts of syntaxin 7 and endobrevin did not change. These data indicate that vti1b is specifically required for the stability of a single SNARE partner. vti1b-deficient mice were viable and fertile. Most vti1b-deficient mice were indistinguishable from wild-type mice and did not display defects in transport to the lysosome. However, 20% of the vti1b-deficient mice were smaller. Lysosomal degradation of an endocytosed protein was slightly delayed in hepatocytes derived from these mice. Multivesicular bodies and autophagic vacuoles accumulated in hepatocytes of some smaller vti1b-deficient mice. This suggests that other SNAREs can compensate for the reduction in syntaxin 8 and for the loss of vti1b in most mice even though vti1b shows only 30% amino acid identity with its closest relative.
Project description:Sets of SNARE proteins mediate membrane fusion by assembling into core complexes. Multiple SNAREs are thought to function in different intracellular trafficking steps but it is often unclear which of the SNAREs cooperate in individual fusion reactions. We report that syntaxin 7, syntaxin 8, vti1b and endobrevin/VAMP-8 form a complex that functions in the fusion of late endosomes. Antibodies specific for each protein coprecipitate the complex, inhibit homotypic fusion of late endosomes in vitro and retard delivery of endocytosed epidermal growth factor to lysosomes. The purified proteins form core complexes with biochemical and biophysical properties remarkably similar to the neuronal core complex, although each of the four proteins carries a transmembrane domain and three have independently folded N-terminal domains. Substitution experiments, sequence and structural comparisons revealed that each protein occupies a unique position in the complex, with syntaxin 7 corresponding to syntaxin 1, and vti1b and syntaxin 8 corresponding to the N- and C-terminal domains of SNAP-25, respectively. We conclude that the structure of core complexes and their molecular mechanism in membrane fusion is highly conserved between distant SNAREs.
Project description:Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process used for removing surplus and damaged proteins and organelles from the cytoplasm. The unwanted material is incorporated into autophagosomes that eventually fuse with lysosomes, leading to the degradation of their cargo. The fusion event is mediated by the interaction between the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) on autophagosomes and the R-SNARE VAMP8 on lysosomes. Cells deficient in lysosome membrane-associated protein-2 (LAMP-2) have increased numbers of autophagosomes but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. By transfecting LAMP-2-deficient and LAMP-1/2--double-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with a tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3 we observed a failure of fusion between the autophagosomes and the lysosomes that could be rescued by complementation with LAMP-2A. Although we observed no change in expression and localization of VAMP8, its interacting partner STX17 was absent from autophagosomes of LAMP-2-deficient cells. Thus, LAMP-2 is essential for STX17 expression by the autophagosomes and this absence is sufficient to explain their failure to fuse with lysosomes. The results have clear implications for situations associated with a reduction of LAMP-2 expression.
Project description:Sec1p/Munc18 proteins and SNAP receptors (SNAREs) are key components of the intracellular membrane fusion machinery. Compartment-specific v-SNAREs on a transport vesicle pair with their cognate t-SNAREs on the target membrane and drive lipid bilayer fusion. In a reconstituted assay that dissects the sequential assembly of t-SNARE (syntaxin 1·SNAP-25) and v-/t-SNARE (VAMP2·syntaxin 1·SNAP-25) complexes, and finally measures lipid bilayer merger, we resolved the inhibitory and stimulatory functions of the Sec1p/Munc18 protein Munc18-1 at the molecular level. Inhibition of membrane fusion by Munc18-1 requires a closed conformation of syntaxin 1. Remarkably, the concurrent preincubation of Munc18-1-inhibited syntaxin 1 liposomes with both VAMP2 liposomes and SNAP-25 at low temperature releases the inhibition and effectively stimulates membrane fusion. VAMP8 liposomes can neither release the inhibition nor exert the stimulatory effect, demonstrating the need for a specific Munc18-1/VAMP2 interaction. In addition, Munc18-1 binds to the N-terminal peptide of syntaxin 1, which is obligatory for a robust stimulation of membrane fusion. In contrast, this interaction is neither required for the inhibitory function of Munc18-1 nor for the release of this block. These results indicate that Munc18-1 and the neuronal SNAREs already have the inherent capability to function as a basic stage-specific off/on switch to control membrane fusion.
Project description:Autophagy, an important catabolic pathway implicated in a broad spectrum of human diseases, begins by forming double membrane autophagosomes that engulf cytosolic cargo and ends by fusing autophagosomes with lysosomes for degradation. Membrane fusion activity is required for early biogenesis of autophagosomes and late degradation in lysosomes. However, the key regulatory mechanisms of autophagic membrane tethering and fusion remain largely unknown. Here we report that ATG14 (also known as beclin-1-associated autophagy-related key regulator (Barkor) or ATG14L), an essential autophagy-specific regulator of the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, promotes membrane tethering of protein-free liposomes, and enhances hemifusion and full fusion of proteoliposomes reconstituted with the target (t)-SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) syntaxin 17 (STX17) and SNAP29, and the vesicle (v)-SNARE VAMP8 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 8). ATG14 binds to the SNARE core domain of STX17 through its coiled-coil domain, and stabilizes the STX17-SNAP29 binary t-SNARE complex on autophagosomes. The STX17 binding, membrane tethering and fusion-enhancing activities of ATG14 require its homo-oligomerization by cysteine repeats. In ATG14 homo-oligomerization-defective cells, autophagosomes still efficiently form but their fusion with endolysosomes is blocked. Recombinant ATG14 homo-oligomerization mutants also completely lose their ability to promote membrane tethering and to enhance SNARE-mediated fusion in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest an autophagy-specific membrane fusion mechanism in which oligomeric ATG14 directly binds to STX17-SNAP29 binary t-SNARE complex on autophagosomes and primes it for VAMP8 interaction to promote autophagosome-endolysosome fusion.
Project description:Macroautophagy/autophagy plays a critical role in immunity by directly degrading invading pathogens such as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), through a process that has been named xenophagy. We previously demonstrated that autophagic vacuoles directed against GAS, termed GAS-containing autophagosome-like vacuoles (GcAVs), use recycling endosomes (REs) as a membrane source. However, the precise molecular mechanism that facilitates the fusion between GcAVs and REs remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that STX6 (syntaxin 6) is recruited to GcAVs and forms a complex with VTI1B and VAMP3 to regulate the GcAV-RE fusion that is required for xenophagy. STX6 targets the GcAV membrane through its tyrosine-based sorting motif and transmembrane domain, and localizes to TFRC (transferrin receptor)-positive punctate structures on GcAVs through its H2 SNARE domain. Knockdown and knockout experiments revealed that STX6 is required for the fusion between GcAVs and REs to promote clearance of intracellular GAS by autophagy. Moreover, VAMP3 and VTI1B interact with STX6 and localize on the TFRC-positive puncta on GcAVs, and are also involved in the RE-GcAV fusion. Furthermore, knockout of RABGEF1 impairs the RE-GcAV fusion and STX6-VAMP3 interaction. These findings demonstrate that RABGEF1 mediates RE fusion with GcAVs through the STX6-VAMP3-VTI1B complex, and reveal the SNARE dynamics involved in autophagosome formation in response to bacterial infection.
Project description:Malignant glioma is a common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults. Here we identi?ed a novel oncoprotein, vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8), and investigated its roles in tumorigenisis and chemoresistance in glioma.The expression of gene and protein were determined by quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. Histological analysis of 282 glioma samples and 12 normal controls was performed by Pearson's chi-squared test. Survival analysis was performed using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay were conducted using Cell Counting Kit-8. Autophagy was detected by confocal microscopy and Western blot.VAMP8 was significantly overexpressed in human glioma specimens and could become a potential novel prognostic and treatment-predictive marker for glioma patients. Overexpression of VAMP8 promoted cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of VAMP8 attenuated glioma growth by arresting cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, VAMP8 contributed to temozolomide (TMZ) resistance by elevating the expression levels of autophagy proteins and the number of autophagosomes. Further inhibition of autophagy via siRNA-mediated knockdown of autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5) or syntaxin 17 (STX17) reversed TMZ resistance in VAMP8-overexpressing cells, while silencing of VAMP8 impaired the autophagic flux and alleviated TMZ resistance in glioma cells.Our findings identified VAMP8 as a novel oncogene by promoting cell proliferation and therapeutic resistance in glioma. Targeting VAMP8 may serve as a potential therapeutic regimen for the treatment of glioma.
Project description:Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved ubiquitous pathway that performs diverse roles in health and disease. Although many key, widely expressed proteins that regulate autophagosome formation followed by lysosomal fusion have been identified, the possibilities of cell-specific elements that contribute to the autophagy fusion machinery have not been explored. Here we show that a macrophage-specific isoform of the vacuolar ATPase protein ATP6V0D2/subunit d2 is dispensable for lysosome acidification, but promotes the completion of autophagy via promotion of autophagosome-lysosome fusion through its interaction with STX17 and VAMP8. Atp6v0d2-deficient macrophages have augmented mitochondrial damage, enhanced inflammasome activation and reduced clearance of Salmonella typhimurium. The susceptibility of atp6v0d2 knockout mice to DSS-induced colitis and Salmonella typhimurium-induced death, highlights the in vivo significance of ATP6V0D2-mediated autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Together, our data identify ATP6V0D2 as a key component of macrophage-specific autophagosome-lysosome fusion machinery maintaining macrophage organelle homeostasis and, in turn, limiting both inflammation and bacterial infection. Abbreviations: ACTB/?-actin: actin, beta; ATG14: autophagy related 14; ATG16L1: autophagy related 16-like 1 (S. cerevisiae); ATP6V0D1/2: ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit D1/2; AIM2: absent in melanoma 2; BMDM: bone marrow-derived macrophage; CASP1: caspase 1; CGD: chronic granulomatous disease; CSF1/M-CSF: colony stimulating factor 1 (macrophage); CTSB: cathepsin B; DSS: dextran sodium sulfate; IL1B: interleukin 1 beta; IL6: interleukin 6; IRGM: immunity-related GTPase family M member; KO: knockout; LAMP1: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; LPS: lipo-polysaccaride; NLRP3: NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3; PYCARD/ASC: PYD and CARD domain containing; SNARE: soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor; SNAP29: synaptosomal-associated protein 29; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; STX17: syntaxin 17; TLR: toll-like receptor; TNF: tumor necrosis factor ; TOMM20: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; ULK1: unc-51 like kinase 1; VAMP8: vesicle-associated membrane protein 8; WT: wild type; 3-MA: 3-methyladenine.