The effects of CapZ peptide (TRTK-12) binding to S100B-Ca2+ as examined by NMR and X-ray crystallography.
ABSTRACT: Structure-based drug design is underway to inhibit the S100B-p53 interaction as a strategy for treating malignant melanoma. X-ray crystallography was used here to characterize an interaction between Ca(2)(+)-S100B and TRTK-12, a target that binds to the p53-binding site on S100B. The structures of Ca(2+)-S100B (1.5-A resolution) and S100B-Ca(2)(+)-TRTK-12 (2.0-A resolution) determined here indicate that the S100B-Ca(2+)-TRTK-12 complex is dominated by an interaction between Trp7 of TRTK-12 and a hydrophobic binding pocket exposed on Ca(2+)-S100B involving residues in helices 2 and 3 and loop 2. As with an S100B-Ca(2)(+)-p53 peptide complex, TRTK-12 binding to Ca(2+)-S100B was found to increase the protein's Ca(2)(+)-binding affinity. One explanation for this effect was that peptide binding introduced a structural change that increased the number of Ca(2+) ligands and/or improved the Ca(2+) coordination geometry of S100B. This possibility was ruled out when the structures of S100B-Ca(2+)-TRTK-12 and S100B-Ca(2+) were compared and calcium ion coordination by the protein was found to be nearly identical in both EF-hand calcium-binding domains (RMSD=0.19). On the other hand, B-factors for residues in EF2 of Ca(2+)-S100B were found to be significantly lowered with TRTK-12 bound. This result is consistent with NMR (15)N relaxation studies that showed that TRTK-12 binding eliminated dynamic properties observed in Ca(2+)-S100B. Such a loss of protein motion may also provide an explanation for how calcium-ion-binding affinity is increased upon binding a target. Lastly, it follows that any small-molecule inhibitor bound to Ca(2+)-S100B would also have to cause an increase in calcium-ion-binding affinity to be effective therapeutically inside a cell, so these data need to be considered in future drug design studies involving S100B.
Project description:Mutations in the second EF-hand (D61N, D63N, D65N, and E72A) of S100B were used to study its Ca(2+) binding and dynamic properties in the absence and presence of a bound target, TRTK-12. With (D63N)S100B as an exception ((D63N)K(D)=50±9 ?M), Ca(2+) binding to EF2-hand mutants were reduced by more than 8-fold in the absence of TRTK-12 ((D61N)K(D)=412±67 ?M, (D65N)K(D)=968±171 ?M, and (E72A)K(D)=471±133 ?M), when compared to wild-type protein ((WT)K(D)=56±9 ?M). For the TRTK-12 complexes, the Ca(2+)-binding affinity to wild type ((WT+TRTK)K(D)=12±10 ?M) and the EF2 mutants was increased by 5- to 14-fold versus in the absence of target ((D61N+TRTK)K(D)=29±1.2 ?M, (D63N+TRTK)K(D)=10±2.2 ?M, (D65N+TRTK)K(D)=73±4.4 ?M, and (E72A+TRTK)K(D)=18±3.7 ?M). In addition, R(ex), as measured using relaxation dispersion for side-chain (15)N resonances of Asn63 ((D63N)S100B), was reduced upon TRTK-12 binding when measured by NMR. Likewise, backbone motions on multiple timescales (picoseconds to milliseconds) throughout wild type, (D61N)S100B, (D63N)S100B, and (D65N)S100B were lowered upon binding TRTK-12. However, the X-ray structures of Ca(2+)-bound (2.0Å) and TRTK-bound (1.2Å) (D63N)S100B showed no change in Ca(2+) coordination; thus, these and analogous structural data for the wild-type protein could not be used to explain how target binding increased Ca(2+)-binding affinity in solution. Therefore, a model for how S100B-TRTK-12 complex formation increases Ca(2+) binding is discussed, which considers changes in protein dynamics upon binding the target TRTK-12.
Project description:The unique ability of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) to fold upon binding to partner molecules makes them functionally well-suited for cellular communication networks. For example, the folding-binding of different IDP sequences onto the same surface of an ordered protein provides a mechanism for signaling in a many-to-one manner. Here, we study the molecular details of this signaling mechanism by applying both Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo methods to S100B, a calcium-modulated homodimeric protein, and two of its IDP targets, p53 and TRTK-12. Despite adopting somewhat different conformations in complex with S100B and showing no apparent sequence similarity, the two IDP targets associate in virtually the same manner. As free chains, both target sequences remain flexible and sample their respective bound, natively [Formula: see text]-helical states to a small extent. Association occurs through an intermediate state in the periphery of the S100B binding pocket, stabilized by nonnative interactions which are either hydrophobic or electrostatic in nature. Our results highlight the importance of overall physical properties of IDP segments, such as net charge or presence of strongly hydrophobic amino acids, for molecular recognition via coupled folding-binding.
Project description:S100B is a member of the S100 subfamily of EF-hand proteins that has been implicated in malignant melanoma and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Calcium-induced conformational changes expose a hydrophobic binding cleft, facilitating interactions with a wide variety of nuclear, cytoplasmic, and extracellular target proteins. Previously, peptides derived from CapZ, p53, NDR, HDM2, and HDM4 have been shown to interact with S100B in a calcium-dependent manner. However, the thermodynamic and kinetic basis of these interactions remains largely unknown. To gain further insight, we screened these peptides against the S100B protein using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance. All peptides were found to have binding affinities in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Binding-induced changes in the line shapes of S100B backbone (1)H and (15)N resonances were monitored to obtain the dissociation constants and the kinetic binding parameters. The large microscopic K(on) rate constants observed in this study (?1 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1)) suggest that S100B utilizes a "fly casting mechanism" in the recognition of these peptide targets.
Project description:Protein-protein interactions are part of a large number of signaling networks and potential targets for drug development. However, discovering molecules that can specifically inhibit such interactions is a major challenge. S100B, a calcium-regulated protein, plays a crucial role in the proliferation of melanoma cells through protein-protein interactions. In this article, we report the design and development of a bidentate conformationally constrained peptide against dimeric S100B based on a natural tight-binding peptide, TRTK-12. The helical conformation of the peptide was constrained by the substitution of ?-amino isobutyric acid--an amino acid having high helical propensity--in positions which do not interact with S100B. A branched bidentate version of the peptide was bound to S100B tightly with a dissociation constant of 8 nM. When conjugated to a cell-penetrating peptide, it caused growth inhibition and rapid apoptosis in melanoma cells. The molecule exerts antiproliferative action through simultaneous inhibition of key growth pathways, including reactivation of wild-type p53 and inhibition of Akt and STAT3 phosphorylation. The apoptosis induced by the bidentate constrained helix is caused by direct migration of p53 to mitochondria. At moderate intravenous dose, the peptide completely inhibits melanoma growth in a mouse model without any significant observable toxicity. The specificity was shown by lack of ability of a double mutant peptide to cause tumor regression at the same dose level. The methodology described here for direct protein-protein interaction inhibition may be effective for rapid development of inhibitors against relatively weak protein-protein interactions for de novo drug development.
Project description:As is typical for S100-target protein interactions, a Ca 2+-dependent conformational change in S100A1 is required to bind to a 12-residue peptide (TRTK12) derived from the actin-capping protein CapZ. In addition, the Ca 2+-binding affinity of S100A1 is found to be tightened (greater than threefold) when TRTK12 is bound. To examine the biophysical basis for these observations, we determined the solution NMR structure of TRTK12 in a complex with Ca 2+-loaded S100A1. When bound to S100A1, TRTK12 forms an amphipathic helix (residues N6 to S12) with several favorable hydrophobic interactions observed between W7, I10, and L11 of the peptide and a well-defined hydrophobic binding pocket in S100A1 that is only present in the Ca 2+-bound state. Next, the structure of S100A1-TRTK12 was compared to that of another S100A1-target complex (i.e., S100A1-RyRP12), which illustrated how the binding pocket in Ca 2+-S100A1 can accommodate peptide targets with varying amino acid sequences. Similarities and differences were observed when the structures of S100A1-TRTK12 and S100B-TRTK12 were compared, providing insights regarding how more than one S100 protein can interact with the same peptide target. Such comparisons, including those with other S100-target and S100-drug complexes, provide the basis for designing novel small-molecule inhibitors that could be specific for blocking one or more S100-target protein interactions.
Project description:The drug pentamidine inhibits calcium-dependent complex formation with p53 ((Ca)S100B·p53) in malignant melanoma (MM) and restores p53 tumor suppressor activity in vivo. However, off-target effects associated with this drug were problematic in MM patients. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were therefore completed here with 23 pentamidine analogues, and X-ray structures of (Ca)S100B·inhibitor complexes revealed that the C-terminus of S100B adopts two different conformations, with location of Phe87 and Phe88 being the distinguishing feature and termed the "FF-gate". For symmetric pentamidine analogues ((Ca)S100B·5a, (Ca)S100B·6b) a channel between sites 1 and 2 on S100B was occluded by residue Phe88, but for an asymmetric pentamidine analogue ((Ca)S100B·17), this same channel was open. The (Ca)S100B·17 structure illustrates, for the first time, a pentamidine analog capable of binding the "open" form of the "FF-gate" and provides a means to block all three "hot spots" on (Ca)S100B, which will impact next generation (Ca)S100B·p53 inhibitor design.
Project description:S100B is a dimeric EF-hand protein that undergoes a calcium-induced conformational change and exposes a hydrophobic protein-binding surface. Recently S100B was identified as a binding partner of the dopamine D2 receptor in a bacterial two-hybrid screen involving the third intracellular loop (IC3). The low in vivo calcium concentration in bacteria (100-300 nM) suggests this interaction may occur in the absence of calcium. In this work the calcium-sensitive ability for S100B to recruit the IC3 of the dopamine D2 receptor was examined, and regions in both proteins required for complex formation were identified. Peptide array experiments identified the C-terminal 58 residues of the IC3 (IC3-C58) as the major interacting site for S100B. These experiments along with pull-down assays showed the IC3 interacts with S100B in the absence and presence of calcium. (1)H-(15)N HSQC experiments were used to identify residues, primarily in helices III and IV, utilized in the IC3-C58 interaction. NMR titration data indicated that although an interaction between apo-S100B and IC3-C58 occurs without calcium, the binding was enhanced more than 100-fold upon calcium binding. Further, it was established that shorter regions within IC3-C58 comprising its N- and C-terminal halves had diminished binding to Ca(2+)-S100B and did not display any observable affinity in the absence of calcium. This indicates that residue or structural components within both regions are required for optimal interaction with Ca(2+)-S100B. This work represents the first example of an S100B target that interacts with both the apo- and calcium-saturated forms of S100B.
Project description:S100 proteins comprise a multigene family of EF-hand calcium binding proteins that engage in multiple functions in response to cellular stress. In one case, the S100B protein has been implicated in oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) regeneration in response to demyelinating insult. In this example, we report that the mitochondrial ATAD3A protein is a major, high-affinity, and calcium-dependent S100B target protein in OPC. In OPC, ATAD3A is required for cell growth and differentiation. Molecular characterization of the S100B binding domain on ATAD3A by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques defined a consensus calcium-dependent S100B binding motif. This S100B binding motif is conserved in several other S100B target proteins, including the p53 protein. Cellular studies using a truncated ATAD3A mutant that is deficient for mitochondrial import revealed that S100B prevents cytoplasmic ATAD3A mutant aggregation and restored its mitochondrial localization. With these results in mind, we propose that S100B could assist the newly synthesized ATAD3A protein, which harbors the consensus S100B binding domain for proper folding and subcellular localization. Such a function for S100B might also help to explain the rescue of nuclear translocation and activation of the temperature-sensitive p53val135 mutant by S100B at nonpermissive temperatures.
Project description:Malignant melanoma continues to be an extremely fatal cancer due to a lack of viable treatment options for patients. The calcium-binding protein S100B has long been used as a clinical biomarker, aiding in malignant melanoma staging and patient prognosis. However, the discovery of p53 as a S100B target and the consequent impact on cell apoptosis redirected research efforts towards the development of inhibitors of this S100B-p53 interaction. Several approaches, including computer-aided drug design, fluorescence polarization competition assays, NMR, x-ray crystallography and cell-based screens have been performed to identify compounds that block the S100B-p53 association, reactivate p53 transcriptional activities and induce cancer cell death. Eight promising compounds, including pentamidine, are presented in this review and the potential for future modifications is discussed. Synthesis of compound derivatives will likely exhibit increased S100B affinity and mimic important S100B-target dynamic properties that will result in high specificity.
Project description:S100B is a damage-associated molecular pattern protein that, when released into the extracellular milieu, triggers initiation of the inflammatory response through the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Recognition of S100B is accomplished via the amino-terminal variable immunoglobulin domain (V-domain) of RAGE. To gain insights into this interaction, a complex between S100B and a 15-amino-acid peptide derived from residues 54-68 of the V-domain was crystallized. The X-ray crystal structure was solved to 2.55 Å resolution. There are two dimers of S100B and one peptide in the asymmetric unit. The binding interface of this peptide is compared with that found in the complex between S100B and the 12-amino-acid CapZ-derived peptide TRTK-12. This comparison reveals that although the peptides adopt completely different backbone structures, the residues buried at the interface interact with S100B in similar regions to form stable complexes. The binding affinities of S100B for the intact wild-type V-domain and a W61A V-domain mutant were determined to be 2.7 ± 0.5 and 1.3 ± 0.7 µM, respectively, using fluorescence titration experiments. These observations lead to a model whereby conformational flexibility in the RAGE receptor allows the adoption of a binding conformation for interaction with the stable hydrophobic groove on the surface of S100B.