Fast subplasma membrane Ca2+ transients control exo-endocytosis of synaptic-like microvesicles in astrocytes.
ABSTRACT: Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell type in the brain. Although not apposite for long-range rapid electrical communication, astrocytes share with neurons the capacity of chemical signaling via Ca(2+)-dependent transmitter exocytosis. Despite this recent finding, little is known about the specific properties of regulated secretion and vesicle recycling in astrocytes. Important differences may exist with the neuronal exocytosis, starting from the fact that stimulus-secretion coupling in astrocytes is voltage independent, mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors and the release of Ca(2+) from internal stores. Elucidating the spatiotemporal properties of astrocytic exo-endocytosis is, therefore, of primary importance for understanding the mode of communication of these cells and their role in brain signaling. We here take advantage of fluorescent tools recently developed for studying recycling of glutamatergic vesicles at synapses (Voglmaier et al., 2006; Balaji and Ryan, 2007); we combine epifluorescence and total internal reflection fluorescence imaging to investigate with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution, the stimulus-secretion coupling underlying exo-endocytosis of glutamatergic synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) in astrocytes. Our main findings indicate that (1) exo-endocytosis in astrocytes proceeds with a time course on the millisecond time scale (tau(exocytosis) = 0.24 +/- 0.017 s; tau(endocytosis) = 0.26 +/- 0.03 s) and (2) exocytosis is controlled by local Ca(2+) microdomains. We identified submicrometer cytosolic compartments delimited by endoplasmic reticulum tubuli reaching beneath the plasma membrane and containing SLMVs at which fast (time-to-peak, approximately 50 ms) Ca(2+) events occurred in precise spatial-temporal correlation with exocytic fusion events. Overall, the above characteristics of transmitter exocytosis from astrocytes support a role of this process in fast synaptic modulation.
Project description:Astrocytes are highly secretory cells, participating in rapid brain communication by releasing glutamate. Recent evidences have suggested that this process is largely mediated by Ca(2+)-dependent regulated exocytosis of VGLUT-positive vesicles. Here by taking advantage of VGLUT1-pHluorin and TIRF illumination, we characterized mechanisms of glutamate exocytosis evoked by endogenous transmitters (glutamate and ATP), which are known to stimulate Ca(2+) elevations in astrocytes. At first we characterized the VGLUT1-pHluorin expressing vesicles and found that VGLUT1-positive vesicles were a specific population of small synaptic-like microvesicles containing glutamate but which do not express VGLUT2. Endogenous mediators evoked a burst of exocytosis through activation of G-protein coupled receptors. Subsequent glutamate exocytosis was reduced by about 80% upon pharmacological blockade of the prostaglandin-forming enzyme, cyclooxygenase. On the other hand, receptor stimulation was accompanied by extracellular release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Interestingly, administration of exogenous PGE2 produced per se rapid, store-dependent burst exocytosis of glutamatergic vesicles in astrocytes. Finally, when PGE2-neutralizing antibody was added to cell medium, transmitter-evoked exocytosis was again significantly reduced (by about 50%). Overall these data indicate that cyclooxygenase products are responsible for a major component of glutamate exocytosis in astrocytes and that large part of such component is sustained by autocrine/paracrine action of PGE2.
Project description:Synaptotagmin I (syt1) is required for normal rates of synaptic vesicle endo- and exocytosis. However, whether the kinetic defects observed during endocytosis in Syt1 knockout neurons are secondary to defective exocytosis or whether syt1 directly regulates the rate of vesicle retrieval remains unknown. To address this question, we sought to dissociate these two activities. We uncoupled the function of syt1 in exo- and endocytosis in mouse neurons either by re-targeting the protein or via mutagenesis of its tandem C2 domains. The effect of these manipulations on exo- and endocytosis were analyzed using electrophysiology, in conjunction with optical imaging of the vesicle cycle. Our results indicate that syt1 is directly involved in endocytosis. Notably, either of the C2 domains of syt1, C2A or C2B, was able to function as a Ca(2+) sensor for endocytosis. Thus, syt1 functions as a dual Ca(2+) sensor for both endo- and exocytosis, potentially coupling these two components of the vesicle cycle.
Project description:We used single-walled carbon nanotubes chemically functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEG) to assess the effects of this nanomaterial on astrocytic endocytosis and exocytosis. We observed that the SWCNT-PEG do not affect the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-evoked Ca2+ elevations in astrocytes but significantly reduce the Ca2+-dependent glutamate release. There was a significant decrease in the endocytic load of the recycling dye during constitutive and ATP-evoked recycling. Furthermore, SWCNT-PEG hampered ATP-evoked exocytotic release of the loaded recycling dye. Thus, by functionally obstructing evoked vesicular recycling, SWCNT-PEG reduced glutamate release from astrocytes via regulated exocytosis. These effects implicate SWCNT-PEG as a modulator of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in astrocytes downstream of Ca2+, likely at the level of vesicle fusion with/pinching off the plasma membrane.
Project description:Pancreatic ?-cells play central roles in blood glucose homeostasis. Beside insulin, these cells release neurotransmitters and other signaling molecules stored in synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). We monitored SLMV exocytosis by transfecting a synaptophysin-pHluorin construct and by visualizing the cells by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. SLMV fusion was elicited by 20 mM glucose and by depolarizing K(+) concentrations with kinetics comparable to insulin secretion. SLMV exocytosis was prevented by Tetanus and Botulinum-C neurotoxins indicating that the fusion machinery of these organelles includes VAMP-2/-3 and Syntaxin-1, respectively. Sequential visualization of SLMVs by TIRF and epifluorescence microscopy showed that after fusion the vesicle components are rapidly internalized and the organelles re-acidified. Analysis of single fusion episodes revealed the existence of two categories of events. While under basal conditions transient fusion events prevailed, long-lasting episodes were more frequent upon secretagogue exposure. Our observations unveiled similarities between the mechanism of exocytosis of insulin granules and SLMVs. Thus, diabetic conditions characterized by defective insulin secretion are most probably associated also with inappropriate release of molecules stored in SLMVs. The assessment of the contribution of SLMV exocytosis to the manifestation of the disease will be facilitated by the use of the imaging approach described in this study.
Project description:Synaptic vesicle (SV) exo- and endocytosis are tightly coupled to sustain neurotransmission in presynaptic terminals, and both are regulated by Ca(2+). Ca(2+) influx triggered by voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels is necessary for SV fusion. However, extracellular Ca(2+) has also been shown to be required for endocytosis. The intracellular Ca(2+) levels (<1 microM) that trigger endocytosis are typically much lower than those (>10 microM) needed to induce exocytosis, and endocytosis is inhibited when the Ca(2+) level exceeds 1 microM. Here, we identify and characterize a transmembrane protein associated with SVs that, upon SV fusion, localizes at periactive zones. Loss of Flower results in impaired intracellular resting Ca(2+) levels and impaired endocytosis. Flower multimerizes and is able to form a channel to control Ca(2+) influx. We propose that Flower functions as a Ca(2+) channel to regulate synaptic endocytosis and hence couples exo- with endocytosis.
Project description:Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates diverse brain functions via TrkB receptor signaling. Due to the expression of TrkB receptors, astrocytes can internalize extracellular BDNF proteins via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Endocytosed BDNF can be re-secreted upon stimulation, but the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unrecognized. Our study reveals that vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (Vamp3) selectively regulates the release of endocytic BDNF from astrocytes. By using quantum dot (QD)-conjugated mature BDNF (QD-BDNF) as a proxy for the extracellular BDNF protein, we monitored the uptake, transport, and secretion of BDNF from cultured cortical astrocytes. Our data showed that endocytic QD-BDNF particles were enriched in Vamp3-containing vesicles in astrocytes and that ATP treatment sufficiently triggered either the antero- or retrograde transport and exocytosis of QD-BDNF-containing vesicles. Downregulation of Vamp3 expression disrupted endocytic BDNF secretion from astrocytes but did not affect uptake or transport. Collectively, these results provide evidence of the selective ability of astrocytic Vamp3 to control endocytic BDNF secretion during BDNF recycling.
Project description:During exocytosis, neuroendocrine cells can achieve partial release of stored secretory products from dense core vesicles (DCVs) by coupling endocytosis directly at fusion sites and without full discharge. The physiological role of partial secretion is of substantial interest. Much is known about SNARE-mediated initiation of exocytosis and dynamin-mediated completion of endocytosis, but little is known about coupling events. We have used real-time microscopy to examine the role of secretory carrier membrane protein SCAMP1 in exo-endocytic coupling in PC12 cells. While reduced SCAMP1 expression is known to impede dilation of newly opened fusion pores during onset of DCV exocytosis, we now show that SCAMP1 deficiency also inhibits closure of fusion pores after they have opened. Inhibition causes accumulation of fusion figures at the plasma membrane. Closure is recovered by restoring expression and accelerated slightly by overexpression. Interestingly, inhibited pore closure resulting from loss of SCAMP1 appears to increase secondary fusion of DCVs to already-fused DCVs (compound exocytosis). Unexpectedly, reinternalization of expanded DCV membranes following compound exocytosis appears to proceed normally in SCAMP1-deficient cells. SCAMP1's apparent dual role in facilitating dilation and closure of fusion pores implicates its function in exo-endocytic coupling and in the regulation of partial secretion. Secondarily, SCAMP1 may serve to limit the extent of compound exocytosis.
Project description:The ability of synapses to sustain signal propagation relies on rapid recycling of transmitter-containing presynaptic vesicles. Clathrin- and dynamin-mediated retrieval of vesicular membrane has an undisputed role in synaptic vesicle recycling. There is also evidence for other modes of vesicle retrieval, including bulk retrieval and the so-called kiss-and-run recycling. Whether dynamin in required for these other modes of synaptic vesicle endocytosis remains unclear. Here, we have tested the role of dynamin in synaptic vesicle endocytosis by using a small molecule called dynasore, which rapidly inhibits the GTPase activity of dynamin with high specificity. Endocytosis after sustained or brief stimuli was completely and reversibly blocked by dynasore in cultured hippocampal neurons expressing the fluorescent tracer synaptopHluorin. By contrast, dynasore had no effect on exocytosis. In the presence of dynasore, low-frequency stimulation led to sustained accumulation of synaptopHluorin and other vesicular proteins on the surface membrane at a rate predicted from net exocytosis. These vesicular components remained on surface membranes even after the stimulus was terminated, suggesting that all endocytic events rely on dynamin during low-frequency activity as well as in the period after it. Ultrastructural analysis revealed a reduction in the density of synaptic vesicles and the presence of endocytic structures only at synapses that were stimulated in the presence of dynasore. In sum, our data indicate that dynamin is essential for all forms of compensatory synaptic vesicle endocytosis including any kiss-and-run events.
Project description:Vesicle fusion at preestablished plasma membrane release sites releases transmitters and hormones to mediate fundamental functions like neuronal network activities and fight-or-flight responses. This half-a-century-old concept-fusion at well-established release sites in excitable cells-needs to be modified to include the sequential compound fusion reported here-vesicle fusion at previously fused Ω-shaped vesicular membrane. With superresolution STED microscopy in excitable neuroendocrine chromaffin cells, we real-time visualized sequential compound fusion pore openings and content releases in generating multivesicular and asynchronous release from single release sites, which enhances exocytosis strength and dynamic ranges in excitable cells. We also visualized subsequent compound fusion pore closure, a new mode of endocytosis termed compound kiss-and-run that enhances vesicle recycling capacity. These results suggest modifying current exo-endocytosis concepts by including rapid release-site assembly at fused vesicle membrane, where sequential compound fusion and kiss-and-run take place to enhance exo-endocytosis capacity and dynamic ranges.
Project description:Synaptic vesicle (SV) release, recycling, and plastic changes of release probability co-occur side by side within nerve terminals and rely on local Ca<sup>2+</sup> signals with different temporal and spatial profiles. The mechanisms that guarantee separate regulation of these vital presynaptic functions during action potential (AP)-triggered presynaptic Ca<sup>2+</sup> entry remain unclear. Combining <i>Drosophila</i> genetics with electrophysiology and imaging reveals the localization of two different voltage-gated calcium channels at the presynaptic terminals of glutamatergic neuromuscular synapses (the <i>Drosophila</i> Ca<sub>v</sub>2 homolog, Dmca1A or cacophony, and the Ca<sub>v</sub>1 homolog, Dmca1D) but with spatial and functional separation. Ca<sub>v</sub>2 within active zones is required for AP-triggered neurotransmitter release. By contrast, Ca<sub>v</sub>1 localizes predominantly around active zones and contributes substantially to AP-evoked Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx but has a small impact on release. Instead, L-type calcium currents through Ca<sub>v</sub>1 fine-tune short-term plasticity and facilitate SV recycling. Separate control of SV exo- and endocytosis by AP-triggered presynaptic Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx through different channels demands efficient measures to protect the neurotransmitter release machinery against Ca<sub>v</sub>1-mediated Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx. We show that the plasma membrane Ca<sup>2+</sup> ATPase (PMCA) resides in between active zones and isolates Ca<sub>v</sub>2-triggered release from Ca<sub>v</sub>1-mediated dynamic regulation of recycling and short-term plasticity, two processes which Ca<sub>v</sub>2 may also contribute to. As L-type Ca<sub>v</sub>1 channels also localize next to PQ-type Ca<sub>v</sub>2 channels within axon terminals of some central mammalian synapses, we propose that Ca<sub>v</sub>2, Ca<sub>v</sub>1, and PMCA act as a conserved functional triad that enables separate control of SV release and recycling rates in presynaptic terminals.