Analysis of the impact of a uracil DNA glycosylase attenuated in AP-DNA binding in maintenance of the genomic integrity in Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: Uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung) initiates the uracil excision repair pathway. We have earlier characterized the Y66W and Y66H mutants of Ung and shown that they are compromised by approximately 7- and approximately 170-fold, respectively in their uracil excision activities. In this study, fluorescence anisotropy measurements show that compared with the wild-type, the Y66W protein is moderately compromised and attenuated in binding to AP-DNA. Allelic exchange of ung in Escherichia coli with ung::kan, ungY66H:amp or ungY66W:amp alleles showed approximately 5-, approximately 3.0- and approximately 2.0-fold, respectively increase in mutation frequencies. Analysis of mutations in the rifampicin resistance determining region of rpoB revealed that the Y66W allele resulted in an increase in A to G (or T to C) mutations. However, the increase in A to G mutations was mitigated upon expression of wild-type Ung from a plasmid borne gene. Biochemical and computational analyses showed that the Y66W mutant maintains strict specificity for uracil excision from DNA. Interestingly, a strain deficient in AP-endonucleases also showed an increase in A to G mutations. We discuss these findings in the context of a proposal that the residency of DNA glycosylase(s) onto the AP-sites they generate shields them until recruitment of AP-endonucleases for further repair.
Project description:Both a DNA lesion and an intermediate for antibody maturation, uracil is primarily processed by base excision repair (BER), either initiated by uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) or by single-strand selective monofunctional uracil DNA glycosylase (SMUG1). The relative in vivo contributions of each glycosylase remain elusive. To assess the impact of SMUG1 deficiency, we measured uracil and 5-hydroxymethyluracil, another SMUG1 substrate, in Smug1 -/- mice. We found that 5-hydroxymethyluracil accumulated in Smug1 -/- tissues and correlated with 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels. The highest increase was found in brain, which contained about 26-fold higher genomic 5-hydroxymethyluracil levels than the wild type. Smug1 -/- mice did not accumulate uracil in their genome and Ung -/- mice showed slightly elevated uracil levels. Contrastingly, Ung -/- Smug1 -/- mice showed a synergistic increase in uracil levels with up to 25-fold higher uracil levels than wild type. Whole genome sequencing of UNG/SMUG1-deficient tumours revealed that combined UNG and SMUG1 deficiency leads to the accumulation of mutations, primarily C to T transitions within CpG sequences. This unexpected sequence bias suggests that CpG dinucleotides are intrinsically more mutation prone. In conclusion, we showed that SMUG1 efficiently prevent genomic uracil accumulation, even in the presence of UNG, and identified mutational signatures associated with combined UNG and SMUG1 deficiency.
Project description:DNA glycosylases UNG and SMUG1 excise uracil from DNA and belong to the same protein superfamily. Vertebrates contain both SMUG1 and UNG, but their distinct roles in base excision repair (BER) of deaminated cytosine (U:G) are still not fully defined. Here we have examined the ability of human SMUG1 and UNG2 (nuclear UNG) to initiate and coordinate repair of U:G mismatches. When expressed in Escherichia coli cells, human UNG2 initiates complete repair of deaminated cytosine, while SMUG1 inhibits cell proliferation. In vitro, we show that SMUG1 binds tightly to AP-sites and inhibits AP-site cleavage by AP-endonucleases. Furthermore, a specific motif important for the AP-site product binding has been identified. Mutations in this motif increase catalytic turnover due to reduced product binding. In contrast, the highly efficient UNG2 lacks product-binding capacity and stimulates AP-site cleavage by APE1, facilitating the two first steps in BER. In summary, this work reveals that SMUG1 and UNG2 coordinate the initial steps of BER by distinct mechanisms. UNG2 is apparently adapted to rapid and highly coordinated repair of uracil (U:G and U:A) in replicating DNA, while the less efficient SMUG1 may be more important in repair of deaminated cytosine (U:G) in non-replicating chromatin.
Project description:Activation-induced deaminase (AID) catalyses deamination of deoxycytidine to deoxyuridine within immunoglobulin loci, triggering pathways of antibody diversification that are largely dependent on uracil-DNA glycosylase (uracil-N-glycolase [UNG]). Surprisingly efficient class switch recombination is restored to ung(-/-) B cells through retroviral delivery of active-site mutants of UNG, stimulating discussion about the need for UNG's uracil-excision activity. In this study, however, we find that even with the overexpression achieved through retroviral delivery, switching is only mediated by UNG mutants that retain detectable excision activity, with this switching being especially dependent on MSH2. In contrast to their potentiation of switching, low-activity UNGs are relatively ineffective in restoring transversion mutations at C:G pairs during hypermutation, or in restoring gene conversion in stably transfected DT40 cells. The results indicate that UNG does, indeed, act through uracil excision, but suggest that, in the presence of MSH2, efficient switch recombination requires base excision at only a small proportion of the AID-generated uracils in the S region. Interestingly, enforced expression of thymine-DNA glycosylase (which can excise U from U:G mispairs) does not (unlike enforced UNG or SMUG1 expression) potentiate efficient switching, which is consistent with a need either for specific recruitment of the uracil-excision enzyme or for it to be active on single-stranded DNA.
Project description:Deamination of cytosine (C), 5-methylcytosine (mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) occurs spontaneously in mammalian DNA with several hundred deaminations occurring in each cell every day. The resulting potentially mutagenic mispairs of uracil (U), thymine (T) or 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmU) with guanine (G) are substrates for repair by various DNA glycosylases. Here, we show that targeted inactivation of the mouse Smug1 DNA glycosylase gene is sufficient to ablate nearly all hmU-DNA excision activity as judged by assay of tissue extracts from knockout mice as well as by the resistance of their embryo fibroblasts to 5-hydroxymethyldeoxyuridine toxicity. Inactivation of Smug1 when combined with inactivation of the Ung uracil-DNA glycosylase gene leads to a loss of nearly all detectable uracil excision activity. Thus, SMUG1 is the dominant glycosylase responsible for hmU-excision in mice as well as the major UNG-backup for U-excision. Both Smug1-knockout and Smug1/Ung-double knockout mice breed normally and remain apparently healthy beyond 1 year of age. However, combined deficiency in SMUG1 and UNG exacerbates the cancer predisposition of Msh2(-/-) mice suggesting that when both base excision and mismatch repair pathways are defective, the mutagenic effects of spontaneous cytosine deamination are sufficient to increase cancer incidence but do not preclude mouse development.
Project description:Genomic uracil is a DNA lesion but also an essential key intermediate in adaptive immunity. In B cells, activation-induced cytidine deaminase deaminates cytosine to uracil (U:G mispairs) in Ig genes to initiate antibody maturation. Uracil-DNA glycosylases (UDGs) such as uracil N-glycosylase (UNG), single strand-selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase 1 (SMUG1), and thymine-DNA glycosylase remove uracil from DNA. Gene-targeted mouse models are extensively used to investigate the role of these enzymes in DNA repair and Ig diversification. However, possible species differences in uracil processing in humans and mice are yet not established. To address this, we analyzed UDG activities and quantities in human and mouse cell lines and in splenic B cells from Ung(+/+) and Ung(-/-) backcrossed mice. Interestingly, human cells displayed ?15-fold higher total uracil excision capacity due to higher levels of UNG. In contrast, SMUG1 activity was ?8-fold higher in mouse cells, constituting ?50% of the total U:G excision activity compared with less than 1% in human cells. In activated B cells, both UNG and SMUG1 activities were at levels comparable with those measured for mouse cell lines. Moreover, SMUG1 activity per cell was not down-regulated after activation. We therefore suggest that SMUG1 may work as a weak backup activity for UNG2 during class switch recombination in Ung(-/-) mice. Our results reveal significant species differences in genomic uracil processing. These findings should be taken into account when mouse models are used in studies of uracil DNA repair and adaptive immunity.
Project description:Interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are covalent lesions formed by cisplatin. The mechanism for the processing and removal of ICLs by DNA repair proteins involves nucleotide excision repair (NER), homologous recombination (HR) and fanconi anemia (FA) pathways. In this report, we monitored the processing of a flanking uracil adjacent to a cisplatin ICL by the proteins involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Using a combination of extracts, purified proteins, inhibitors, functional assays and cell culture studies, we determined the specific BER proteins required for processing a DNA substrate with a uracil adjacent to a cisplatin ICL. Uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) is the primary glycosylase responsible for the removal of uracils adjacent to cisplatin ICLs, whereas other uracil glycosylases can process uracils in the context of undamaged DNA. Repair of the uracil adjacent to cisplatin ICLs proceeds through the classical BER pathway, highlighting the importance of specific proteins in this redundant pathway. Removal of uracil is followed by the generation of an abasic site and subsequent cleavage by AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). Inhibition of either the repair or redox domain of APE1 gives rise to cisplatin resistance. Inhibition of the lyase domain of Polymerase ? (Pol?) does not influence cisplatin cytotoxicity. In addition, lack of XRCC1 leads to increased DNA damage and results in increased cisplatin cytotoxicity. Our results indicate that BER activation at cisplatin ICLs influences crosslink repair and modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity via specific UNG, APE1 and Pol? polymerase functions.
Project description:Uracil in DNA arises by misincorporation of dUMP during replication and by hydrolytic deamination of cytosine. This common lesion is actively removed through a base excision repair (BER) pathway initiated by a uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) activity that excises the damage as a free base. UDGs are classified into different families differentially distributed across eubacteria, archaea, yeast, and animals, but remain to be unambiguously identified in plants. We report here the molecular characterization of AtUNG (Arabidopsis thaliana uracil DNA glycosylase), a plant member of the Family-1 of UDGs typified by Escherichia coli Ung. AtUNG exhibits the narrow substrate specificity and single-stranded DNA preference that are characteristic of Ung homologues. Cell extracts from atung(-/-) mutants are devoid of UDG activity, and lack the capacity to initiate BER on uracil residues. AtUNG-deficient plants do not display any apparent phenotype, but show increased resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a cytostatic drug that favors dUMP misincorporation into DNA. The resistance of atung(-/-) mutants to 5-FU is accompanied by the accumulation of uracil residues in DNA. These results suggest that AtUNG excises uracil in vivo but generates toxic AP sites when processing abundant U:A pairs in dTTP-depleted cells. Altogether, our findings point to AtUNG as the major UDG activity in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Misincorporation of genomic uracil and formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are known consequences of exposure to TS inhibitors such as pemetrexed. Uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) catalyzes the excision of uracil from DNA and initiates DNA base excision repair (BER). To better define the relationship between UNG activity and pemetrexed anticancer activity, we have investigated DNA damage, DSB formation, DSB repair capacity, and replication fork stability in UNG(+/+) and UNG(-/-) cells. We report that despite identical growth rates and DSB repair capacities, UNG(-/-) cells accumulated significantly greater uracil and DSBs compared with UNG(+/+) cells when exposed to pemetrexed. ChIP-seq analysis of ?-H2AX enrichment confirmed fewer DSBs in UNG(+/+) cells. Furthermore, DSBs in UNG(+/+) and UNG(-/-) cells occur at distinct genomic loci, supporting differential mechanisms of DSB formation in UNG-competent and UNG-deficient cells. UNG(-/-) cells also showed increased evidence of replication fork instability (PCNA dispersal) when exposed to pemetrexed. Thymidine co-treatment rescues S-phase arrest in both UNG(+/+) and UNG(-/-) cells treated with IC50-level pemetrexed. However, following pemetrexed exposure, UNG(-/-) but not UNG(+/+) cells are refractory to thymidine rescue, suggesting that deficient uracil excision rather than dTTP depletion is the barrier to cell cycle progression in UNG(-/-) cells. Based on these findings we propose that pemetrexed-induced uracil misincorporation is genotoxic, contributing to replication fork instability, DSB formation and ultimately cell death.
Project description:Human cells express up to 9 active DNA cytosine deaminases with functions in adaptive and innate immunity. Many cancers manifest an APOBEC mutation signature and APOBEC3B (A3B) is likely the main enzyme responsible. Although significant numbers of APOBEC signature mutations accumulate in tumor genomes, the majority of APOBEC-catalyzed uracil lesions are probably counteracted in an error-free manner by the uracil base excision repair pathway. Here, we show that A3B-expressing cells can be selectively killed by inhibiting uracil DNA glycosylase 2 (UNG) and that this synthetic lethal phenotype requires functional mismatch repair (MMR) proteins and p53. UNG knockout human 293 and MCF10A cells elicit an A3B-dependent death. This synthetic lethal phenotype is dependent on A3B catalytic activity and reversible by UNG complementation. A3B expression in UNG-null cells causes a buildup of genomic uracil, and the ensuing lethality requires processing of uracil lesions (likely U/G mispairs) by MSH2 and MLH1 (likely noncanonical MMR). Cancer cells expressing high levels of endogenous A3B and functional p53 can also be killed by expressing an UNG inhibitor. Taken together, UNG-initiated base excision repair is a major mechanism counteracting genomic mutagenesis by A3B, and blocking UNG is a potential strategy for inducing the selective death of tumors.
Project description:To investigate the role of Arginine 276 in the conserved leucine-loop of human uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG), the effects of six R276 amino acid substitutions (C, E, H, L, W, and Y) on nucleotide flipping and enzyme conformational change were determined using transient and steady state, fluorescence-based, kinetic analysis. Relative to UNG, the mutant proteins exhibited a 2.6- to 7.7-fold reduction in affinity for a doubled-stranded oligonucleotide containing a pseudouracil residue opposite 2-aminopurine, as judged by steady-state DNA binding-base flipping assays. An anisotropy binding assay was utilized to determine the K(d) of UNG and the R276 mutants for carboxyfluorescein-labeled uracil-containing single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides; the binding affinities varied 11-fold for single-stranded uracil-DNA, and 43-fold for double-stranded uracil-DNA. Productive uracil-DNA binding was monitored by rapid quenching of UNG intrinsic protein fluorescence. Relative to UNG, the rate of intrinsic fluorescence quenching of five mutant proteins for binding double-stranded uracil-DNA was reduced approximately 50%; the R276E mutant exhibited 1% of the rate of fluorescence quenching of UNG. When reacted with single-stranded uracil-DNA, the rate of UNG fluorescence quenching increased. Moreover, the rate of fluorescence quenching for all the mutant proteins, except R276E, was slightly faster than UNG. The k(cat) of the R276 mutants was comparable to UNG on single-stranded DNA and differentially affected by NaCl; however, k(cat) on double-stranded DNA substrate was reduced 4-12-fold and decreased sharply at NaCl concentrations as low as 20 mM. Taken together, these results indicate that the effects of mutations at Arg276 were largely limited to enzyme interactions with double-stranded uracil-containing DNA, and suggested that mutations at Arg276 effectively transformed UNG into a single-stranded DNA-specific uracil-DNA glycosylase.