Structural and kinetic characterization of mutant human uroporphyrinogen decarboxylases.
ABSTRACT: Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is caused by inhibition of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activity in hepatocytes. Subnormal URO-D activity results in accumulation and urinary excretion of uroporphyrin and heptacarboxyl porphyrin. Heterozygosity for mutations in the URO-D gene is found in the familial form of PCT (F-PCT). Over 70 mutations of URO-D have been described but very few have been characterized structurally. Here we characterize 3 mutations in the URO-D gene found in patients with F-PCT, G318R, K297N, and D306Y. Expression of the D306Y mutation results in an insoluble recombinant protein. G318R and K297N have little effect on the structure or activity of recombinant URO-D, but the proteins display reduced stability in vitro.
Project description:Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) catalyzes the fifth step in the heme biosynthetic pathway, converting uroporphyrinogen to coproporphyrinogen by decarboxylating the four acetate side chains of the substrate. This activity is essential in all organisms, and subnormal activity of URO-D leads to the most common form of porphyria in humans, porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). We have determined the crystal structure of recombinant human URO-D at 1.60 A resolution. The 40.8 kDa protein is comprised of a single domain containing a (beta/alpha)8-barrel with a deep active site cleft formed by loops at the C-terminal ends of the barrel strands. Many conserved residues cluster at this cleft, including the invariant side chains of Arg37, Arg41 and His339, which probably function in substrate binding, and Asp86, Tyr164 and Ser219, which may function in either binding or catalysis. URO-D is a dimer in solution (Kd = 0.1 microM), and this dimer also appears to be formed in the crystal. Assembly of the dimer juxtaposes the active site clefts of the monomers, suggesting a functionally important interaction between the catalytic centers.
Project description:Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), the most common form of porphyria in humans, is due to reduced activity of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) in the liver. Previous studies have demonstrated that protein levels of URO-D do not change when catalytic activity is reduced, suggesting that an inhibitor of URO-D is generated in hepatocytes. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of an inhibitor of URO-D in liver cytosolic extracts from two murine models of PCT: wild-type mice treated with iron, delta-aminolevulinic acid, and polychlorinated biphenyls; and mice with one null allele of Uro-d and two null alleles of the hemochromatosis gene (Uro-d(+/-), Hfe(-/-)) that develop PCT with no treatments. In both models, we identified an inhibitor of recombinant human URO-D (rhURO-D). The inhibitor was characterized by solid-phase extraction, chromatography, UV-visible spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy and proved to be uroporphomethene, a compound in which one bridge carbon in the uroporphyrinogen macrocycle is oxidized. We synthesized uroporphomethene by photooxidation of enzymatically generated uroporphyrinogen I or III. Both uroporphomethenes inhibited rhURO-D, but the III isomer porphomethene was a more potent inhibitor. Finally, we detected an inhibitor of rhURO-D in cytosolic extracts of liver biopsy samples of patients with PCT. These studies define the mechanism underlying clinical expression of the PCT phenotype, namely oxidation of uroporphyrinogen to uroporphomethene, a competitive inhibitor of URO-D. The oxidation reaction is iron-dependent.
Project description:A deficiency in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) enzyme activity, the fifth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, is found in patients with sporadic porphyria cutanea tarda (s-PCT), familial porphyria cutanea tarda (f-PCT), and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP). Subnormal UROD activity is due to mutations of the UROD gene in both f-PCT and HEP, but no mutations have been found in s-PCT. Genetic analysis has determined that f-PCT is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. In contrast, HEP, a severe form of cutaneous porphyria, is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. HEP is characterized by a profound deficiency of UROD activity, and the disease is usually manifest in childhood. In this study, a strategy was designed to identify alleles responsible for the HEP phenotype in three unrelated families. Mutations of UROD were identified by direct sequencing of four amplified fragments that contained the entire coding sequence of the UROD gene. Two new missense mutations were observed at the homoallelic state: P62L (proline-to-leucine substitution at codon 62) in a Portuguese family and Y311C (tyrosine-to-cysteine substitution at codon 311) in an Italian family. A third mutation, G281E, was observed in a Spanish family. This mutation has been previously described in three families from Spain and one from Tunisia. In the Spanish family described in this report, a paternal uncle of the proband developed clinically overt PCT as an adult and proved to be heterozygous for the G281E mutation. Mutant cDNAs corresponding to the P62L and Y311C changes detected in these families were created by site-directed mutagenesis. Recombinant proteins proved to have subnormal enzyme activity, and the Y311C mutant was thermolabile.
Project description:Familial porphyria cutanea tarda (f-PCT) results from the half-normal activity of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D). Heterozygotes for this autosomal dominant trait are predisposed to photosensitive cutaneous lesions by various ecogenic factors, including iron overload and alcohol abuse. The 3.6-kb URO-D gene was completely sequenced, and a long-range PCR method was developed to amplify the entire gene for mutation analysis. Four missense mutations (M165R, L195F, N304K, and R332H), a microinsertion (g10insA), a deletion (g645Delta1053), and a novel exonic splicing defect (E314E) were identified. Expression of the L195F, N304K, and R332H polypeptides revealed significant residual activity, whereas reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing demonstrated that the E314E lesion caused abnormal splicing and exon 9 skipping. Haplotyping indicated that three of the four families with the g10insA mutation were unrelated, indicating that these microinsertions resulted from independent mutational events. Screening of nine f-PCT probands revealed that 44% were heterozygous or homozygous for the common hemochromatosis mutations, which suggests that iron overload may predispose to clinical expression. However, there was no clear correlation between f-PCT disease severity and the URO-D and/or hemochromatosis genotypes. These studies doubled the number of known f-PCT mutations, demonstrated that marked genetic heterogeneity underlies f-PCT, and permitted presymptomatic molecular diagnosis and counseling in these families to enable family members to avoid disease-precipitating factors.
Project description:Nine new hem12 haploid mutants of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), totally or partially deficient in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity, were subjected to both genetic and biochemical analysis. The mutations sites studied are situated far apart within the HEM12 gene located on chromosome IV. Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity in the cell-free extracts of the mutants was decreased by 50-100%. This correlated well with the decrease of haem formation and the increased accumulation and excretion of porphyrins observed in vivo. The pattern of porphyrins (uroporphyrin and its decarboxylation products) accumulated in the cells of mutants partially deficient in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity did not differ significantly, although differences in vitro were found in the relative activity of the mutant enzyme at the four decarboxylation steps. The excreted porphyrins comprised mainly dehydroisocoproporphyrin or pentacarboxyporphyrin. In heterozygous hem12-1/HEM12 diploid cells, a 50% decrease in decarboxylase activity led to an increased accumulation of porphyrins as compared with the wild-type HEM12/HEM12 diploid, which points to the semi-dominant character of the hem12-1 mutation. The biochemical phenotypes of both the haploid and the heterozygous diploid resembles closely the situation encountered in porphyria cutanea tarda, the most common human form of porphyria.
Project description:Both familial and sporadic porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) are iron dependent diseases. Symptoms of PCT resolve when iron stores are depleted by phlebotomy, and a sequence variant of HFE (C282Y, c.843G>A, rs1800562) that enhances iron aborption by reducing hepcidin expression is a risk factor for PCT. Recently, a polymorphic variant (D519G, c.1556A>G, rs11558492) of glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPAT) was shown to be enriched in male patients with type I hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE C282Y homozygotes) who presented with a high iron phenotype, suggesting that GNPAT D519G, like HFE C282Y, is a modifier of iron homeostasis that favors iron absorption. To challenge this hypothesis, we investigated the frequency of GNPAT D519G in patients with both familial and sporadic PCT. Patients were screened for GNPAT D519G and allelic variants of HFE (both C282Y and H63D). Nucleotide sequencing of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) identified mutant alleles. Patients with low erythrocyte URO-D activity or a damaging URO-D variant were classified as familial PCT (fPCT) and those with wild-type URO-D were classified as sporadic PCT (sPCT). GNPAT D519G was significantly enriched in the fPCT patient population (p = 0.0014) but not in the sPCT population (p = 0.4477). Both HFE C282Y and H63D (c.187C>G, rs1799945) were enriched in both PCT patient populations (p<0.0001) but showed no greater association with fPCT than with sPCT.GNPAT D519G is a risk factor for fPCT, but not for sPCT.
Project description:Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) arises from decreased hepatic activity of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD). Both genetic and environmental factors interplay in the precipitation of clinically overt PCT, but these factors may vary between different geographic areas. Decreased activity of UROD in erythrocytes was used to identify patients with UROD mutations among a group of 130 Spanish PCT patients. Nineteen patients (14.6%) were found to harbor a mutation in the UROD gene. Eight mutations were novel: M1I, 5del10, A22V, D79N, F84I, Q116X, T141I and Y182C. Five others were previously described: F46L, V134Q, R142Q, P150L and E218G. The new missense mutations and P150L were expressed in Escherichia coli. D79N and P150L resulted in proteins that were localized to inclusion bodies. The other mutations produced recombinant proteins that were purified and showed reduced activity (range: 2.3-73.2% of wild type). These single amino acid changes were predicted to produce complex structural alterations and/or reduced stability of the enzyme. Screening of relatives of the probands showed that 37.5% of mutation carriers demonstrated increased urinary porphyrins. This study emphasizes the role of UROD mutations as a strong risk factor for PCT even in areas where environmental factors (hepatitis C virus) have been shown to be highly associated with the disease.
Project description:The isolation of a new mutant Sm1 strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is described: this strain was partially defective in haem formation and accumulated large amounts of Zn-porphyrins. Genetic analysis showed that the porphyrin accumulation was under the control of a single nuclear recessive mutation. Biochemical analysis showed that the main porphyrins accumulated in the cells were uroporphyrin and heptacarboxyporphyrin, mostly of the isomer-III type. The excreted porphyrins comprised mainly dehydroisocoproporphyrin. Analysis of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity in the cell-free extract revealed a 70-80% decrease of activity in the mutant and showed that the relative rates of the different decarboxylation steps were modified with the mutant enzyme. A 2-3-fold increase in 5-aminolaevulinate synthase activity was measured in the mutant. The biochemical characteristics of the Sm1 mutant are very similar to those described for porphyria cutanea tarda.
Project description:Asymptomatic aminotransferase elevation has a broad differential in the pediatric population. We report an 11-year old male with a history of urine discoloration found to have persistently elevated aminotransferases. Biochemical evaluation was notable for elevated uroporphyrin, consistent with porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). Genetic testing revealed biallelic pathogenic variants in HFE and a pathogenic variant in UROD, consistent with a diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) and PCT, respectively. Dual diagnosis likely explains the pediatric onset of these typically adult-onset conditions.
Project description:The isomeric composition of type-III heptacarboxylic porphyrinogens derived from decarbosylation of uroporphyrinogen III by erythrocyte uroporphyringogen decarboxylase was analysed by h.p.l.c. with electrochemical detection. All four possible isomers were identified, and there were little differences in the proportion of isomers formed by erythrocytes from normal subjects and from patients with sporadic porphyria cutanea tarda. The results provide conclusive evidence that the normal decarboxylation pathway is random in nature, and the fourth isomer only increases when enzyme abnormality is found.