Biochemical basis of the interaction between cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and immunoglobulin-like repeats of filamin.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the chloride channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder characterized by defects in CFTR biosynthesis, localization to the cell surface, or activation by regulatory factors. It was discovered recently that surface localization of CFTR is stabilized by an interaction between the CFTR N terminus and the multidomain cytoskeletal protein filamin. The details of the CFTR-filamin interaction, however, are unclear. Using x-ray crystallography, we show how the CFTR N terminus binds to immunoglobulin-like repeat 21 of filamin A (FlnA-Ig21). CFTR binds to beta-strands C and D of FlnA-Ig21 using backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds, a linchpin serine residue, and hydrophobic side-chain packing. We use NMR to determine that the CFTR N terminus also binds to several other immunoglobulin-like repeats from filamin A in vitro. Our structural data explain why the cystic fibrosis-causing S13F mutation disrupts CFTR-filamin interaction. We show that FlnA-Ig repeats transfected into cultured Calu-3 cells disrupt CFTR-filamin interaction and reduce surface levels of CFTR. Our findings suggest that filamin A stabilizes surface CFTR by anchoring it to the actin cytoskeleton through interactions with multiple filamin Ig repeats. Such an interaction mode may allow filamins to cluster multiple CFTR molecules and to promote colocalization of CFTR and other filamin-binding proteins in the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells.
Project description:Mutations of the chloride channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) that impair its apical localization and function cause cystic fibrosis. A previous report has shown that filamin A (FLNa), an actin-cross-linking and -scaffolding protein, interacts directly with the cytoplasmic N terminus of CFTR and that this interaction is necessary for stability and confinement of the channel to apical membranes. Here, we report that the CFTR N terminus has sequence similarity to known FLNa-binding partner-binding sites. FLNa has 24 Ig (IgFLNa) repeats, and a CFTR peptide pulled down repeats 9, 12, 17, 19, 21, and 23, which share sequence similarity yet differ from the other FLNa Ig domains. Using known structures of IgFLNa.partner complexes as templates, we generated in silico models of IgFLNa.CFTR peptide complexes. Point and deletion mutants of IgFLNa and CFTR informed by the models, including disease-causing mutations L15P and W19C, disrupted the binding interaction. The model predicted that a P5L CFTR mutation should not affect binding, but a synthetic P5L mutant peptide had reduced solubility, suggesting a different disease-causing mechanism. Taken together with the fact that FLNa dimers are elongated ( approximately 160 nm) strands, whereas CFTR is compact (6 approximately 8 nm), we propose that a single FLNa molecule can scaffold multiple CFTR partners. Unlike previously defined dimeric FLNa.partner complexes, the FLNa-monomeric CFTR interaction is relatively weak, presumptively facilitating dynamic clustering of CFTR at cell membranes. Finally, we show that deletion of all CFTR interacting domains from FLNa suppresses the surface expression of CFTR on baby hamster kidney cells.
Project description:Filamin A (FLNa), a dimeric actin cross-linking and scaffold protein with numerous intracellular binding partners, anchors the platelet adhesion glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V receptor to actin cytoskeleton. We mapped the GPIbalpha binding site to a single domain of FLNa and resolved the structure of this domain and its interaction complex with the corresponding GPIbalpha cytoplasmic domain. This is the first atomic structure of this class of membrane glycoprotein-cytoskeleton connection. GPIbalpha binds in a groove formed between the C and D beta strands of FLNa domain 17. The interaction is strikingly similar to that between the beta7 integrin tail and a different FLNa domain, potentially defining a conserved motif for FLNa binding. Nevertheless, the structures also reveal specificity of the interfaces, which explains different regulatory mechanisms. To verify the topology of GPIb-FLNa interaction we also purified the native complex from platelets and showed that GPIb interacts with the C-terminus of FLNa, which is in accordance with our biochemical and structural data.
Project description:Filamin A (FLNa) is an actin-binding protein that cross-links F-actin into networks of orthogonally branched filaments. FLNa also directs the networks to integrins while responding to mechanochemical signaling pathways. Flexible, 160-nm-long FLNa molecules are tail-to-tail dimers, each subunit of which contains an N-terminal calponin homology (CH)/actin-binding domain connected by a series of 24 immunoglobulin (Ig) repeats to a dimerization site at their C-terminal end. Whereas the contribution of the CH domains to F-actin affinity is weak (apparent K(a)~10(5)), the binding of the intact protein to F-actin is strong (apparent K(a)~10(8)), suggesting involvement of additional parts of the molecule in this association. Indeed, previous results indicate that Ig repeats along FLNa contribute significantly to the strength of the actin filament interaction. In the current study, we used electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction to elucidate the structural basis of the Ig repeat-F-actin binding. We find that FLNa density is clearly delineated in reconstructions of F-actin complexed either with a four-Ig-repeat segment of FLNa containing Ig repeat 10 or with immunoglobulin-like filamin A repeat (IgFLNa)10 alone. The mass attributable to IgFLNa10 lies peripherally along the actin helix over the N-terminus of actin subdomain 1. The IgFLNa10 interaction appears to be specific, since no other individual Ig repeat or fragment of the FLNa molecule examined, besides ones with IgFLNa10 or CH domains, decorated F-actin filaments or were detected in reconstructions. We conclude that the combined interactions of CH domains and the IgFLNa10 repeat provide the binding strength of the whole FLNa molecule and propose a model for the association of IgFLNa10 on actin filaments.
Project description:BACKGROUND: CFTR function is tightly regulated by many interacting proteins. RESULTS: Intermediate filament protein keratin 18 increases the cell surface expression of CFTR by interacting with the C-terminal hydrophobic patch of CFTR. CONCLUSION: K18 controls the function of CFTR. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings offer novel insights into the regulation of CFTR and suggest that K18 and its dimerization partner, K8, may be modifier genes in cystic fibrosis. Malfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to cystic fibrosis, but the regulation of CFTR is not fully understood. Here, we identified the intermediate filament protein keratin K18 (K18) as a CFTR-binding protein by various approaches. We mapped a highly conserved "hydrophobic patch" ((1413)FLVI(1416)) in the CFTR C-terminus, known to determine plasmalemmal CFTR stability, as the K18-binding site. On the other hand, the C-terminal tail of K18 was found to be a critical determinant for binding CFTR. Overexpression of K18 in cells robustly increased the surface expression of wild-type CFTR, whereas depletion of K18 through RNA interference specifically diminished it. K18 binding increased the surface expression of CFTR by accelerating its apical recycling rate without altering CFTR biosynthesis, maturation, or internalization. Importantly, CFTR surface expression was markedly reduced in duodenal and gallbladder epithelia of K18(-/-) mice. Taken together, our results suggest that K18 increases the cell surface expression of CFTR by interacting with the CFTR C-terminal hydrophobic patch. These findings offer novel insights into the regulation of CFTR and suggest that K18 and its dimerization partner, K8, may be modifier genes in cystic fibrosis.
Project description:MKS3, encoding the transmembrane receptor meckelin, is mutated in Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS), an autosomal-recessive ciliopathy. Meckelin localizes to the primary cilium, basal body and elsewhere within the cell. Here, we found that the cytoplasmic domain of meckelin directly interacts with the actin-binding protein filamin A, potentially at the apical cell surface associated with the basal body. Mutations in FLNA, the gene for filamin A, cause periventricular heterotopias. We identified a single consanguineous patient with an MKS-like ciliopathy that presented with both MKS and cerebellar heterotopia, caused by an unusual in-frame deletion mutation in the meckelin C-terminus at the region of interaction with filamin A. We modelled this mutation and found it to abrogate the meckelin-filamin A interaction. Furthermore, we found that loss of filamin A by siRNA knockdown, in patient cells, and in tissues from Flna(Dilp2) null mouse embryos results in cellular phenotypes identical to those caused by meckelin loss, namely basal body positioning and ciliogenesis defects. In addition, morpholino knockdown of flna in zebrafish embryos significantly increases the frequency of dysmorphology and severity of ciliopathy developmental defects caused by mks3 knockdown. Our results suggest that meckelin forms a functional complex with filamin A that is disrupted in MKS and causes defects in neuronal migration and Wnt signalling. Furthermore, filamin A has a crucial role in the normal processes of ciliogenesis and basal body positioning. Concurrent with these processes, the meckelin-filamin A signalling axis may be a key regulator in maintaining correct, normal levels of Wnt signalling.
Project description:The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an epithelial chloride channel mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis. Its expression and functional interactions in the apical membrane are regulated by several PDZ (PSD-95, discs large, zonula occludens-1) proteins, which mediate protein-protein interactions, typically by binding C-terminal recognition motifs. In particular, the CFTR-associated ligand (CAL) limits cell-surface levels of the most common disease-associated mutant DeltaF508-CFTR. CAL also mediates degradation of wild-type CFTR, targeting it to lysosomes following endocytosis. Nevertheless, wild-type CFTR survives numerous cycles of uptake and recycling. In doing so, how does it repeatedly avoid CAL-mediated degradation? One mechanism may involve competition between CAL and other PDZ proteins including Na (+)/H (+) exchanger-3 regulatory factors 1 and 2 (NHERF1 and NHERF2), which functionally stabilize cell-surface CFTR. Thus, to understand the biochemical basis of WT-CFTR persistence, we need to know the relative affinities of these partners. However, no quantitative binding data are available for CAL or the individual NHERF2 PDZ domains, and published estimates for the NHERF1 PDZ domains conflict. Here we demonstrate that the affinity of the CAL PDZ domain for the CFTR C-terminus is much weaker than those of NHERF1 and NHERF2 domains, enabling wild-type CFTR to avoid premature entrapment in the lysosomal pathway. At the same time, CAL's affinity is evidently sufficient to capture and degrade more rapidly cycling mutants, such as DeltaF508-CFTR. The relatively weak affinity of the CAL:CFTR interaction may provide a pharmacological window for stabilizing rescued DeltaF508-CFTR in patients with cystic fibrosis.
Project description:The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an epithelial chloride channel mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The most prevalent CFTR mutation, ΔF508, blocks folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Recent work has shown that some ΔF508-CFTR channel activity can be recovered by pharmaceutical modulators ("potentiators" and "correctors"), but ΔF508-CFTR can still be rapidly degraded via a lysosomal pathway involving the CFTR-associated ligand (CAL), which binds CFTR via a PDZ interaction domain. We present a study that goes from theory, to new structure-based computational design algorithms, to computational predictions, to biochemical testing and ultimately to epithelial-cell validation of novel, effective CAL PDZ inhibitors (called "stabilizers") that rescue ΔF508-CFTR activity. To design the "stabilizers", we extended our structural ensemble-based computational protein redesign algorithm K* to encompass protein-protein and protein-peptide interactions. The computational predictions achieved high accuracy: all of the top-predicted peptide inhibitors bound well to CAL. Furthermore, when compared to state-of-the-art CAL inhibitors, our design methodology achieved higher affinity and increased binding efficiency. The designed inhibitor with the highest affinity for CAL (kCAL01) binds six-fold more tightly than the previous best hexamer (iCAL35), and 170-fold more tightly than the CFTR C-terminus. We show that kCAL01 has physiological activity and can rescue chloride efflux in CF patient-derived airway epithelial cells. Since stabilizers address a different cellular CF defect from potentiators and correctors, our inhibitors provide an additional therapeutic pathway that can be used in conjunction with current methods.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and ATP-regulated chloride channel. Here, we demonstrate that nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B, NM23-H2) forms a functional complex with CFTR. In airway epithelia forskolin/IBMX significantly increases NDPK-B co-localisation with CFTR whereas PKA inhibitors attenuate complex formation. Furthermore, an NDPK-B derived peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent) disrupts the NDPK-B/CFTR complex in vitro (19-mers comprising amino acids 36-54 from NDPK-B or NDPK-A). Overlay (Far-Western) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) analysis both demonstrate that NDPK-B binds CFTR within its first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1, CFTR amino acids 351-727). Analysis of chloride currents reflective of CFTR or outwardly rectifying chloride channels (ORCC, DIDS-sensitive) showed that the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent) reduced both chloride conductances. Additionally, the NDPK-B (but not NDPK-A) peptide also attenuated acetylcholine-induced intestinal short circuit currents. In silico analysis of the NBD1/NDPK-B complex reveals an extended interaction surface between the two proteins. This binding zone is also target of the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide, thus confirming its capability to disrupt NDPK-B/CFTR complex. We propose that NDPK-B forms part of the complex that controls chloride currents in epithelia.
Project description:The chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2B (CCR2B) is one of the two isoforms of the receptor for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2), the major chemoattractant for monocytes, involved in an array of chronic inflammatory diseases. Employing the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified the actin-binding protein filamin A (FLNa) as a protein that associates with the carboxyl-terminal tail of CCR2B. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and in vitro pull down assays demonstrated that FLNa binds constitutively to CCR2B. The colocalization of endogenous CCR2B and filamin A was detected at the surface and in internalized vesicles of THP-1 cells. In addition, CCR2B and FLNa were colocalized in lamellipodia structures of CCR2B-expressing A7 cells. Expression of the receptor in filamin-deficient M2 cells together with siRNA experiments knocking down FLNa in HEK293 cells, demonstrated that lack of FLNa delays the internalization of the receptor. Furthermore, depletion of FLNa in THP-1 monocytes by RNA interference reduced the migration of cells in response to MCP-1. Therefore, FLNa emerges as an important protein for controlling the internalization and spatial localization of the CCR2B receptor in different dynamic membrane structures.
Project description:The development of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) targeted therapy for cystic fibrosis has generated interest in maximizing membrane residence of mutant forms of CFTR by manipulating interactions with scaffold proteins, such as sodium/hydrogen exchange regulatory factor-1 (NHERF1). In this study, we explored whether COOH-terminal sequences in CFTR beyond the PDZ-binding motif influence its interaction with NHERF1. NHERF1 displayed minimal self-association in blot overlays (NHERF1, Kd = 1,382 ± 61.1 nM) at concentrations well above physiological levels, estimated at 240 nM from RNA-sequencing and 260 nM by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in sweat gland, a key site of CFTR function in vivo. However, NHERF1 oligomerized at considerably lower concentrations (10 nM) in the presence of the last 111 amino acids of CFTR (20 nM) in blot overlays and cross-linking assays and in coimmunoprecipitations using differently tagged versions of NHERF1. Deletion and alanine mutagenesis revealed that a six-amino acid sequence 1417EENKVR1422 and the terminal 1478TRL1480 (PDZ-binding motif) in the COOH-terminus were essential for the enhanced oligomerization of NHERF1. Full-length CFTR stably expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells fostered NHERF1 oligomerization that was substantially reduced (∼5-fold) on alanine substitution of EEN, KVR, or EENKVR residues or deletion of the TRL motif. Confocal fluorescent microscopy revealed that the EENKVR and TRL sequences contribute to preferential localization of CFTR to the apical membrane. Together, these results indicate that COOH-terminal sequences mediate enhanced NHERF1 interaction and facilitate the localization of CFTR, a property that could be manipulated to stabilize mutant forms of CFTR at the apical surface to maximize the effect of CFTR-targeted therapeutics.