Spontaneous Ca waves in ventricular myocytes from failing hearts depend on Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.
ABSTRACT: Increased cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR)-dependent diastolic SR Ca leak is present in heart failure and in conditions when adrenergic tone is high. Increasing Ca leak from the SR could result in spontaneous Ca wave (SCaW) formation. SCaWs activate the inward Na/Ca exchanger (NCX) current causing a delayed afterdepolarization (DAD), potentially leading to arrhythmia. Here we examine SCaWs in ventricular myocytes isolated from failing and healthy rabbit hearts. Myocytes from healthy hearts did not exhibit SCaWs under baseline conditions versus 43% of those exposed to isoproterenol (ISO). This ISO-induced increase in activity was reversed by inhibition of Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by KN93. Inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) by H89 had no observed effect. Of myocytes treated with forskolin 50% showed SCaW activity, attributable to a large increase in SR Ca load ([Ca](SRT)) versus control. At similar [Ca](SRT) (121muM) myocytes treated with ISO plus KN93 had significantly fewer SCaWs versus those treated with ISO or ISO plus H89 (0.2+/-0.28 vs. 1.1+/-0.28 and 1.29+/-0.39 SCaWs cell(-)(1), respectively). In myocytes isolated from failing hearts ISO induced an increase in the percentage of cells generating SCaWs vs. baseline (74% vs. 11%) with no increase in [Ca](SRT). Inhibiting CaMKII reversed this effect (14%). At similar [Ca](SRT) (71microM) myocytes treated with ISO or ISO plus H89 had significantly more SCaWs per cell vs. untreated (2.5+/-0.5; 1.6+/-0.7 vs. 0.36+/-0.3, respectively). Treatment with ISO plus KN93 completely abolished this effect. The evidence suggests the ISO-dependent increase in SCaW activity in both healthy and failing myocytes is CaMKII-dependent, implicating CaMKII in arrhythmogenesis.
Project description:Urocortin 2 is beneficial in heart failure, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we have characterized the functional effects of urocortin 2 on mouse cardiomyocytes and elucidated the underlying signalling pathways and mechanisms.Mouse ventricular myocytes were field-stimulated at 0.5 Hz at room temperature. Fractional shortening and [Ca²(+)](i) transients were measured by an edge detection and epifluorescence system respectively. Western blots were carried out on myocyte extracts with antibodies against total phospholamban (PLN) and PLN phosphorylated at serine-16.Urocortin 2 elicited time- and concentration-dependent positive inotropic and lusitropic effects (EC?? : 19 nM) that were abolished by antisauvagine-30 (10 nM, n= 6), a specific antagonist of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) CRF? receptors. Urocortin 2 (100 nM) increased the amplitude and decreased the time constant of decay of the underlying [Ca²(+)](i) transients. Urocortin 2 also increased PLN phosphorylation at serine-16. H89 (2 µM) or KT5720 (1 µM), two inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA), as well as KN93 (1 µM), an inhibitor of Ca²(+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), suppressed the urocortin 2 effects on shortening and [Ca²(+)](i) transients. In addition, urocortin 2 also elicited arrhythmogenic events consisting of extra cell shortenings and extra [Ca²(+)](i) increases in diastole. Urocortin 2-induced arrhythmogenic events were significantly reduced in cells pretreated with KT5720 or KN93.Urocortin 2 enhanced contractility in mouse ventricular myocytes via activation of CRF? receptors in a cAMP/PKA- and Ca²(+)/CaMKII-dependent manner. This enhancement was accompanied by Ca²(+)-dependent arrhythmogenic effects mediated by PKA and CaMKII.
Project description:The "stress" kinases cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), phosphorylate the Na+ channel Nav1.5 subunit to regulate its function. However, how the channel regulation translates to ventricular conduction is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the stress kinases positively and differentially regulate conduction in the right (RV) and the left (LV) ventricles. We applied the CaMKII blocker KN93 (2.75 ?M), PKA blocker H89 (10 ?M), and broad-acting phosphatase blocker calyculin (30 nM) in rabbit hearts paced at a cycle length (CL) of 150-8,000 ms. We used optical mapping to determine the distribution of local conduction delays (inverse of conduction velocity). Control hearts exhibited constant and uniform conduction at all tested CLs. Calyculin (15-min perfusion) accelerated conduction, with greater effect in the RV (by 15.3%) than in the LV (by 4.1%; P < 0.05). In contrast, both KN93 and H89 slowed down conduction in a chamber-, time-, and CL-dependent manner, with the strongest effect in the RV outflow tract (RVOT). Combined KN93 and H89 synergistically promoted conduction slowing in the RV (KN93: 24.7%; H89: 29.9%; and KN93 + H89: 114.2%; P = 0.0016) but not the LV. The progressive depression of RV conduction led to conduction block and reentrant arrhythmias. Protein expression levels of both the CaMKII-? isoform and the PKA catalytic subunit were higher in the RVOT than in the apical LV (P < 0.05). Thus normal RV conduction requires a proper balance between kinase and phosphatase activity. Dysregulation of this balance due to pharmacological interventions or disease is potentially proarrhythmic. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that uniform ventricular conduction requires a precise physiological balance of the activities of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), PKA, and phosphatases, which involves region-specific expression of CaMKII and PKA. Inhibiting CaMKII and/or PKA activity elicits nonuniform conduction depression, with the right ventricle becoming vulnerable to the development of conduction disturbances and ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia.
Project description:In heart failure Ca/calmodulin kinase (CaMK)II expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased. Both ROS and CaMKII can increase late I(Na) leading to intracellular Na accumulation and arrhythmias. It has been shown that ROS can activate CaMKII via oxidation.We tested whether CaMKII? is required for ROS-dependent late I(Na) regulation and whether ROS-induced Ca released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is involved.40 ?mol/L H(2)O(2) significantly increased CaMKII oxidation and autophosphorylation in permeabilized rabbit cardiomyocytes. Without free [Ca](i) (5 mmol/L BAPTA/1 mmol/L Br(2)-BAPTA) or after SR depletion (caffeine 10 mmol/L, thapsigargin 5 ?mol/L), the H(2)O(2)-dependent CaMKII oxidation and autophosphorylation was abolished. H(2)O(2) significantly increased SR Ca spark frequency (confocal microscopy) but reduced SR Ca load. In wild-type (WT) mouse myocytes, H(2)O(2) increased late I(Na) (whole cell patch-clamp). This increase was abolished in CaMKII?(-/-) myocytes. H(2)O(2)-induced [Na](i) and [Ca](i) accumulation (SBFI [sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate] and Indo-1 epifluorescence) was significantly slowed in CaMKII?(-/-) myocytes (versus WT). CaMKII?(-/-) myocytes developed significantly less H(2)O(2)-induced arrhythmias and were more resistant to hypercontracture. Opposite results (increased late I(Na), [Na](i) and [Ca](i) accumulation) were obtained by overexpression of CaMKII? in rabbit myocytes (adenoviral gene transfer) reversible with CaMKII inhibition (10 ?mol/L KN93 or 0.1 ?mol/L AIP [autocamtide 2-related inhibitory peptide]).Free [Ca](i) and a functional SR are required for ROS activation of CaMKII. ROS-activated CaMKII? enhances late I(Na), which may lead to cellular Na and Ca overload. This may be of relevance in hear failure, where enhanced ROS production meets increased CaMKII expression.
Project description:In heart failure (HF), dysregulated cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) contribute to the generation of diastolic Ca2+ waves (DCWs), thereby predisposing adrenergically stressed failing hearts to life-threatening arrhythmias. However, the specific cellular, subcellular, and molecular defects that account for cardiac arrhythmia in HF remain to be elucidated. Patch-clamp techniques and confocal Ca2+ imaging were applied to study spatially defined Ca2+ handling in ventricular myocytes isolated from normal (control) and failing canine hearts. Based on their activation time upon electrical stimulation, Ca2+ release sites were categorized as coupled, located in close proximity to the sarcolemmal Ca2+ channels, and uncoupled, the Ca2+ channel-free non-junctional Ca2+ release units. In control myocytes, stimulation of ?-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol (Iso) resulted in a preferential increase in Ca2+ spark rate at uncoupled sites. This site-specific effect of Iso was eliminated by the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, which caused similar facilitation of Ca2+ sparks at coupled and uncoupled sites. Iso-challenged HF myocytes exhibited increased predisposition to DCWs compared to control myocytes. In addition, the overall frequency of Ca2+ sparks was increased in HF cells due to preferential stimulation of coupled sites. Furthermore, coupled sites exhibited accelerated recovery from functional refractoriness in HF myocytes compared to control myocytes. Spatially resolved subcellular Ca2+ mapping revealed that DCWs predominantly originated from coupled sites. Inhibition of CaMKII suppressed DCWs and prevented preferential stimulation of coupled sites in Iso-challenged HF myocytes. These results suggest that CaMKII- (and phosphatase)-dependent dysregulation of junctional Ca2+ release sites contributes to Ca2+-dependent arrhythmogenesis in HF.
Project description:Chronic activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been implicated in the deleterious effects of ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) signaling on the heart, in part, by enhancing RyR2-mediated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak. We used CaMKII? knockout (CaMKII?-KO) mice and knock-in mice with an inactivated CaMKII site S2814 on the ryanodine receptor type 2 (S2814A) to investigate the involvement of these processes in ?-AR signaling and cardiac remodeling. Langendorff-perfused hearts from CaMKII?-KO mice showed inotropic and chronotropic responses to isoproterenol (ISO) that were similar to those of wild type (WT) mice; however, in CaMKII?-KO mice, CaMKII phosphorylation of phospholamban and RyR2 was decreased and isolated myocytes from CaMKII?-KO mice had reduced SR Ca(2+) leak in response to isoproterenol (ISO). Chronic catecholamine stress with ISO induced comparable increases in relative heart weight and other measures of hypertrophy from day 9 through week 4 in WT and CaMKII?-KO mice, but the development of cardiac fibrosis was prevented in CaMKII?-KO animals. A 4-week challenge with ISO resulted in reduced cardiac function and pulmonary congestion in WT, but not in CaMKII?-KO or S2814A mice, implicating CaMKII?-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-S2814 in the cardiomyopathy, independent of hypertrophy, induced by prolonged ?-AR stimulation.
Project description:AIMS:The EMPA-REG OUTCOME study showed reduced mortality and hospitalization due to heart failure (HF) in diabetic patients treated with empagliflozin. Overexpression and Ca2+ -dependent activation of Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) are hallmarks of HF, leading to contractile dysfunction and arrhythmias. We tested whether empagliflozin reduces CaMKII- activity and improves Ca2+ -handling in human and murine ventricular myocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS:Myocytes from wild-type mice, mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) as a model of HF, and human failing ventricular myocytes were exposed to empagliflozin (1 ?mol/L) or vehicle. CaMKII activity was assessed by CaMKII-histone deacetylase pulldown assay. Ca2+ spark frequency (CaSpF) as a measure of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak was investigated by confocal microscopy. [Na+ ]i was measured using Na+ /Ca2+ -exchanger (NCX) currents (whole-cell patch clamp). Compared with vehicle, 24 h empagliflozin exposure of murine myocytes reduced CaMKII activity (1.6 ± 0.7 vs. 4.2 ± 0.9, P < 0.05, n = 10 mice), and also CaMKII-dependent ryanodine receptor phosphorylation (0.8 ± 0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1, P < 0.05, n = 11 mice), with similar results upon TAC. In murine myocytes, empagliflozin reduced CaSpF (TAC: 1.7 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.4 1/100 ?m-1 s-1 , P < 0.05, n = 4 mice) but increased SR Ca2+ load and Ca2+ transient amplitude. Importantly, empagliflozin also significantly reduced CaSpF in human failing ventricular myocytes (1 ± 0.2 vs. 3.3 ± 0.9, P < 0.05, n = 4 patients), while Ca2+ transient amplitude was increased (F/F0 : 0.53 ± 0.05 vs. 0.36 ± 0.02, P < 0.05, n = 3 patients). In contrast, 30 min exposure with empagliflozin did not affect CaMKII activity nor Ca2+ -handling but significantly reduced [Na+ ]i . CONCLUSIONS:We show for the first time that empagliflozin reduces CaMKII activity and CaMKII-dependent SR Ca2+ leak. Reduced Ca2+ leak and improved Ca2+ transients may contribute to the beneficial effects of empagliflozin in HF.
Project description:Resting intracellular Ca(2+) can be raised, in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, by exposure to very low concentration of thapsigargin (TG). Such a Ca(2+) rise yields calcineurin (CN) activation demonstrated by increased expression of transfected luciferase cDNA under control of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) promoter and increased translocation of NFAT to nuclei. We found that exposure of cardiac myocytes to TG is followed by increase of sarcroplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) transport ATPase (SERCA2) expression, which is further increased when CN inactivation by CAMKII (calmodulin-dependent kinase) is prevented with KN93 (CAMKII inhibitor). On the other hand, SERCA2 expression is reduced by CN inhibition with cyclosporine. We have now induced calcineurin A (CNA) ?- or ?-subunit gene silencing with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and observed strong interference with expression of SERCA2, both in control myocytes and following exposure to TG. Such interference is also obtained following NFAT displacement from CN with 9,10-dihydro-9,10[1',2']-benzenoanthracene-1,4-dione (INCA-6). We have also observed analogous effects on expression of phospholamban (PLB) and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX). Pertinent to these findings, we have identified, by in-silico analysis, NFAT binding sites in SERCA2, PLB, and NCX1 promoters. Our experiments indicate that activation of the calcineurin-NFAT pathway by rise of resting cytosolic Ca(2+) elevates transcription/expression of SERCA2, PLB, and NCX1, providing a homeostatic mechanism for long-term control of cytosolic Ca(2+).
Project description:Recent studies have highlighted important roles of CaMKII in regulating Ca(2+) handling and excitation-contraction coupling. However, the cardiac effect of chronic CaMKII inhibition has not been well understood.We have tested the alterations of L-type calcium current (I(Ca)) and cardiac function in CaMKIIdelta knockout (KO) mouse left ventricle (LV).We used the patch-clamp method to record I(Ca) in ventricular myocytes and found that in KO LV, basal I(Ca) was significantly increased without changing the transmural gradient of I(Ca) distribution. Substitution of Ba(2+) for Ca(2+) showed similar increase in I(Ba). There was no change in the voltage dependence of I(Ca) activation and inactivation. I(Ca) recovery from inactivation, however, was significantly slowed. In KO LV, the Ca(2+)-dependent I(Ca) facilitation (CDF) and I(Ca) response to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly reduced. However, ISO response was reversed by beta2-adrenergic receptor (AR) inhibition. Western blots showed a decrease in beta1-AR and an increase in Ca(v)1.2, beta2-AR, and Galphai3 protein levels. Ca(2+) transient and sarcomere shortening in KO myocytes were unchanged at 1-Hz but reduced at 3-Hz stimulation. Echocardiography in conscious mice revealed an increased basal contractility in KO mice. However, cardiac reserve to work load and beta-adrenergic stimulation was reduced. Surprisingly, KO mice showed a reduced heart rate in response to work load or beta-adrenergic stimulation.Our results implicate physiological CaMKII activity in maintaining normal I(Ca), Ca(2+) handling, excitation-contraction coupling, and the in vivo heart function in response to cardiac stress.
Project description:Excessive activation of calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) causes arrhythmias and heart failure, but the cellular mechanisms for CaMKII-targeted proteins causing disordered cell membrane excitability and myocardial dysfunction remain uncertain. Failing human cardiomyocytes exhibit increased CaMKII and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (Ca(V)1.2) activity, and enhanced expression of a specific Ca(V)1.2 beta-subunit protein isoform (beta(2a)). We recently identified Ca(V)1.2 beta(2a) residues critical for CaMKII phosphorylation (Thr 498) and binding (Leu 493), suggesting the hypothesis that these amino acids are crucial for cardiomyopathic consequences of CaMKII signaling. Here we show WT beta(2a) expression causes cellular Ca(2+) overload, arrhythmia-triggering cell membrane potential oscillations called early afterdepolarizations (EADs), and premature death in paced adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. Prevention of intracellular Ca(2+) release by ryanodine or global cellular CaMKII inhibition reduced EADs and improved cell survival to control levels in WT beta(2a)-expressing ventricular myocytes. In contrast, expression of beta(2a) T498A or L493A mutants mimicked the protective effects of ryanodine or global cellular CaMKII inhibition by reducing Ca(2+) entry through Ca(V)1.2 and inhibiting EADs. Furthermore, Ca(V)1.2 currents recorded from cells overexpressing CaMKII phosphorylation- or binding-incompetent beta(2a) subunits were incapable of entering a CaMKII-dependent high-activity gating mode (mode 2), indicating that beta(2a) Thr 498 and Leu 493 are required for Ca(V)1.2 activation by CaMKII in native cells. These data show that CaMKII binding and phosphorylation sites on beta(2a) are concise but pivotal components of a molecular and biophysical and mechanism for EADs and impaired survival in adult cardiomyocytes.
Project description:In heart failure (HF), abnormal myocyte Ca(2+) handling has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the relationships between Ca(2+) handling, reduced myocyte contractility, and enhanced arrhythmogenesis during HF progression in a canine model of non-ischaemic HF.Key Ca(2+) handling parameters were determined by measuring cytosolic and intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) [Ca(2+)] in isolated ventricular myocytes at different stages of HF. The progression of HF was associated with an early and continuous increase in ryanodine receptor (RyR2)-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak. The increase in RyR2 activity was paralleled by an increase in the frequency of diastolic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves (SCWs) in HF myocytes under conditions of ?-adrenergic stimulation. In addition to causing arrhythmogenic-delayed afterdepolarizations, SCWs decreased the amplitude of subsequent electrically evoked Ca(2+) transients by depleting SR Ca(2+). At late stages of HF, Ca(2+) release oscillated essentially independent of electrical pacing. The increased propensity for the generation of SCWs in HF myocytes was attributable to reduced ability of the RyR2 channels to become refractory following Ca(2+) release. The progressive alterations in RyR2 function and Ca(2+) cycling in HF myocytes were associated with sequential modifications of RyR2 by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation and thiol oxidation.These findings suggest that destabilized RyR2 activity due to excessive CaMKII phopshorylation and oxidation resulting in impaired post-release refractoriness is a common mechanism involved in arrhythmogenesis and contractile dysfunction in the failing heart.