Functional characterization of the central hydrophilic linker region of the urea transporter UT-A1: cAMP activation and snapin binding.
ABSTRACT: Of the three major protein variants produced by the UT-A gene (UT-A1, UT-A2, and UT-A3) UT-A1 is the largest. It contains UT-A3 as its NH(2)-terminal half and UT-A2 as its COOH-terminal half. When being part of UT-A1, UT-A3 and UT-A2 are joined by a segment, Lp, whose central part, Lc, is not part of UT-A3 or UT-A2 but is present only in UT-A1. Lc contains the phosphorylation sites S486 and S499 that are involved in protein kinase A-dependent activation, as well as the binding site for snapin, a protein involved in soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated vesicle trafficking and fusion to the plasma membrane. We attached Lc to UT-A2 and UT-A3 to test how these phosphorylation sites influenced their urea transport activity. Adding Lc to UT-A2 conferred stimulation by cAMP to the cAMP-unresponsive UT-A2, and adding Lc to UT-A3 did not further enhance its already existing cAMP response. These findings suggest that the responsiveness to vasopressin that is observed with UT-A1 can be introduced into the unresponsive UT-A2 variant through the Lc segment that is unique to UT-A1. In UT-A3, however, the Lc segment plays no significant role in its activation by cAMP. In addition, the Lc segment also gave UT-A2 the ability to bind snapin and, in Xenopus oocytes, to be stimulated in its urea transport activity by snapin and syntaxins 3 and 4, in the same way as UT-A1.
Project description:To investigate the role of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) urea transporters in the renal concentrating mechanism, we deleted 3 kb of the UT-A urea transporter gene containing a single 140-bp exon (exon 10). Deletion of this segment selectively disrupted expression of the two known IMCD isoforms of UT-A, namely UT-A1 and UT-A3, producing UT-A1/3(-/-) mice. In isolated perfused IMCDs from UT-A1/3(-/-) mice, there was a complete absence of phloretin-sensitive or vasopressin-stimulated urea transport. On a normal protein intake (20% protein diet), UT-A1/3(-/-) mice had significantly greater fluid consumption and urine flow and a reduced maximal urinary osmolality relative to wild-type controls. These differences in urinary concentrating capacity were nearly eliminated when urea excretion was decreased by dietary protein restriction (4% by weight), consistent with the 1958 Berliner hypothesis stating that the chief role of IMCD urea transport in the concentrating mechanism is the prevention of urea-induced osmotic diuresis. Analysis of inner medullary tissue after water restriction revealed marked depletion of urea in UT-A1/3(-/-) mice, confirming the concept that phloretin-sensitive IMCD urea transporters play a central role in medullary urea accumulation. However, there were no significant differences in mean inner medullary Na(+) or Cl(-) concentrations between UT-A1/3(-/-) mice and wild-type controls, indicating that the processes that concentrate NaCl were intact. Thus, these results do not corroborate the predictions of passive medullary concentrating models stating that NaCl accumulation in the inner medulla depends on rapid vasopressin-regulated urea transport across the IMCD epithelium.
Project description:The urea channel UT-A1 and the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) mediate vasopressin-regulated transport in the renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). To identify the proteins that interact with UT-A1 and AQP2 in native rat IMCD cells, we carried out chemical cross-linking followed by detergent solubilization, immunoprecipitation, and LC-MS/MS analysis of the immunoprecipitated material. The analyses revealed 133 UT-A1-interacting proteins and 139 AQP2-interacting proteins, each identified in multiple replicates. Fifty-three proteins that were present in both the UT-A1 and the AQP2 interactomes can be considered as mediators of housekeeping interactions, likely common to all plasma membrane proteins. Among proteins unique to the UT-A1 list were those involved in posttranslational modifications: phosphorylation (protein kinases Cdc42bpb, Phkb, Camk2d, and Mtor), ubiquitylation/deubiquitylation (Uba1, Usp9x), and neddylation (Nae1 and Uba3). Among the proteins unique to the AQP2 list were several Rab proteins (Rab1a, Rab2a, Rab5b, Rab5c, Rab7a, Rab11a, Rab11b, Rab14, Rab17) involved in membrane trafficking. UT-A1 was found to interact with UT-A3, although quantitative proteomics revealed that most UT-A1 molecules in the cell are not bound to UT-A3. In vitro incubation of UT-A1 peptides with the protein kinases identified in the UT-A1 interactome revealed that all except Mtor were capable of phosphorylating known sites in UT-A1. Overall, the UT-A1 and AQP2 interactomes provide a snapshot of a dynamic process in which UT-A1 and AQP2 are produced in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, processed through the Golgi apparatus, delivered to endosomes that move into and out of the plasma membrane, and are regulated in the plasma membrane.
Project description:Urea transporters are a family of urea-selective channel proteins expressed in multiple tissues that play an important role in the urine-concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney. Previous studies have shown that knockout of urea transporter (UT)-B, UT-A1/A3, or all UTs leads to urea-selective diuresis, indicating that urea transporters have important roles in urine concentration. Here, we sought to determine the role of UT-A1 in the urine-concentrating mechanism in a newly developed UT-A1-knockout mouse model. Phenotypically, daily urine output in UT-A1-knockout mice was nearly 3-fold that of WT mice and 82% of all-UT-knockout mice, and the UT-A1-knockout mice had significantly lower urine osmolality than WT mice. After 24-h water restriction, acute urea loading, or high-protein (40%) intake, UT-A1-knockout mice were unable to increase urine-concentrating ability. Compared with all-UT-knockout mice, the UT-A1-knockout mice exhibited similarly elevated daily urine output and decreased urine osmolality, indicating impaired urea-selective urine concentration. Our experimental findings reveal that UT-A1 has a predominant role in urea-dependent urine-concentrating mechanisms, suggesting that UT-A1 represents a promising diuretic target.
Project description:Activation of V2 receptors (V2R) during antidiuresis increases the permeability of the inner medullary collecting duct to urea and water. Extracellular osmolality is elevated as the concentrating capacity of the kidney increases. Osmolality is known to contribute to the regulation of collecting duct water (aquaporin-2; AQP2) and urea transporter (UT-A1, UT-A3) regulation. AQP1KO mice are a concentrating mechanism knockout, a defect attributed to the loss of high interstitial osmolality. A V2R-specific agonist, deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP), was infused into wild-type and AQP1KO mice for 7 days. UT-A1 mRNA and protein abundance were significantly increased in the medullas of wild-type and AQP1KO mice following dDAVP infusion. The mRNA and protein abundance of UT-A3, the basolateral urea transporter, was significantly increased by dDAVP in both wild-type and AQP1KO mice. Semiquantitative immunoblots revealed that dDAVP infusion induced a significant increase in the medullary expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone GRP78. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that GRP78 expression colocalized with AQP2 in principal cells of the papillary tip of the renal medulla. Using immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy, we demonstrate that vasopressin induced a marked apical targeting of GRP78 in medullary principal cells. Urea-sensitive genes, GADD153 and ATF4 (components of the ER stress pathway), were significantly increased in AQP1KO mice by dDAVP infusion. These findings strongly support an important role of vasopressin in the activation of an ER stress response in renal collecting duct cells, in addition to its role in activating an increase in UT-A1 and UT-A3 abundance.
Project description:Urea transporter (UT)-A1 in the kidney inner medulla plays a critical role in the urinary concentrating mechanism and thereby in the regulation of water balance. The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of seven isoforms. They are multifunctional regulatory proteins that mainly bind to phosphorylated serine/threonine residues in target proteins. In the present study, we found that all seven 14-3-3 isoforms were detected in the kidney inner medulla. However, only the 14-3-3 ?-isoform was specifically and highly associated with UT-A1, as demonstrated by a glutathione-S-transferase-14-3-3 pulldown assay. The cAMP/adenylyl cyclase stimulator forskolin significantly enhanced their binding. Coinjection of 14-3-3? cRNA into oocytes resulted in a decrease of UT-A1 function. In addition, 14-3-3? increased UT-A1 ubiquitination and protein degradation. 14-3-3? can interact with both UT-A1 and mouse double minute 2, the E3 ubiquitin ligase for UT-A1. Thus, activation of cAMP/PKA increases 14-3-3? interactions with UT-A1 and stimulates mouse double minute 2-mediated UT-A1 ubiquitination and degradation, thereby forming a novel regulatory mechanism of urea transport activity.
Project description:Uremic cardiomyopathy, characterized by hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis, is a complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Urea transporter (UT) inhibition increases the excretion of water and urea, but the effect on uremic cardiomyopathy has not been studied. We tested UT inhibition by dimethylthiourea (DMTU) in 5/6 nephrectomy mice. This treatment suppressed CKD-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. In CKD mice, cardiac fibrosis was associated with upregulation of UT and vimentin abundance. Inhibition of UT suppressed vimentin amount. Left ventricular mass index in DMTU-treated CKD was less compared with non-treated CKD mice as measured by echocardiography. Nephrectomy was performed in UT-A1/A3 knockout (UT-KO) to further confirm our finding. UT-A1/A3 deletion attenuates the CKD-induced increase in cardiac fibrosis and hypertension. The amount of α-smooth muscle actin and tgf-β were significantly less in UT-KO with CKD than WT/CKD mice. To study the possibility that UT inhibition could benefit heart, we measured the mRNA of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and found both were sharply increased in CKD heart; DMTU treatment and UT-KO significantly abolished these increases. Conclusion: Inhibition of UT reduced hypertension, cardiac fibrosis, and improved heart function. These changes are accompanied by inhibition of renin and ACE.
Project description:The urea channel Slc14a2 (or UT-A1) mediates vasopressin-regulated urea transport across the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). Previously, UT-A1 was found to present in a high molecular weight complex, suggesting UT-A1 is involved in certain protein-protein interactions. The present study sought to identify the proteins that interact with UT-A1 in this complex for a better understanding of how UT-A1 is regulated. Rat IMCD suspensions were treated with or without V2 receptor agonist, dDAVP, followed by in-cell crosslinking using BSOCOES and detergent solubilization. Immunoprecipitation using Dynabeads coated with UT-A1 specific antibody successfully pulled down the UT-A1 proteins. In-gel digestion protocol was carried out to prepare samples for liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic peptides using a Velos-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The peptides passing stringent spectral quality thresholds were quantified (label-free) to identify those with (UTA-1 antibody/preimmune IgG) >4. A total of 128 UT-A1 interacting proteins were identified. Gene Ontology analysis maps the distribution of these proteins throughout major cell compartments: endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, endosomes, cytosol and plasma membrane. Among them are four protein kinases (Cdc42bpb, Phkb, Camk2d, Mtor) that play roles in vasopressin-regulated phosphorylation of UT-A1. Non-label quantification was also performed to determine the stoichiometry of UT-A3 with UT-A1, the result does not support an oligomeric complex formation of UT-A1/A3. In conclusion, we have provided a refined list of UT-A1 binding proteins which can be useful for further analysis of the vasopressin signaling pathway in regulation of UT-A1 in IMCD.
Project description:Three major acidic proteins of bovine seminal plasma, BSP-A1, BSP-A2 and BSP-A3, were purified to homogeneity, by employing fast protein liquid chromatography, gel filtration and h.p.l.c. The proteins were purified on the basis of their stimulatory effect on the basal release of gonadotropins by rat anterior-pituitary cells in culture. All three proteins migrated as distinct single bands in the presence or absence of 2-mercaptoethanol in SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Their Mr values were estimated to be between 15,000 and 16,500 by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Similar Mr estimates were obtained when they were subjected to gel filtration on a calibrated column of Sephadex G-75 equilibrated in 0.05 M-acetic acid, pH 3.0. However, BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 were eluted as aggregated molecules (Mr 60,000-120,000) during gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 equilibrated in 0.05 M-NH4HCO3, pH 8.5, or phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 0.15 M-NaCl. In the presence of 8 M-urea both BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 were eluted at positions corresponding to Mr values of 17,000-20,000. BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 had an identical amino acid composition, which differed largely from that of BSP-A3. All three proteins contained aspartic acid as the N-terminal residue, and cysteine was identified as the C-terminal residue. BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 are glycoproteins containing galactosamine, sialic acid and neutral sugars, but BSP-A3 did not contain any covalently attached sugars. Whereas BSP-A2 and BSP-A3 were eluted unadsorbed, BSP-A1 bound to wheat-germ lectin-Sepharose 6MB and could be eluted by the competing sugar N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Treatment of BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 with trypsin resulted in complete loss of gonadotropin-release activity, but BSP-A3 retained full activity. Antibody raised against BSP-A1 did not cross-react with BSP-A3, or vice versa. All these properties indicated marked structural differences between BSP-A3 and BSP-A1 (or BSP-A2). On the basis of amino acid composition it was concluded that BSP-A1, BSP-A2 and BSP-A3 are the same as the gonadostatins [Esch, Ling, Bohlen, Ying & Guillemin (1983) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 113, 861-867].
Project description:The urea transporter A1 (UT-A1) is a glycosylated protein with two glycoforms: 117 and 97 kD. In diabetes, the increased abundance of the heavily glycosylated 117-kD UT-A1 corresponds to an increase of kidney tubule urea permeability. We previously reported that diabetes not only causes an increase of UT-A1 protein abundance but also, results in UT-A1 glycan changes, including an increase of sialic acid content. Because activation of the diacylglycerol (DAG)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway is elevated in diabetes and PKC-? regulates UT-A1 urea transport activity, we explored the role of PKC in UT-A1 glycan sialylation. We found that activation of PKC specifically promotes UT-A1 glycan sialylation in both UT-A1-MDCK cells and rat kidney inner medullary collecting duct suspensions, and inhibition of PKC activity blocks high glucose-induced UT-A1 sialylation. Overexpression of PKC-? promoted UT-A1 sialylation and membrane surface expression. Conversely, PKC-?-deficient mice had significantly less sialylated UT-A1 compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, the effect of PKC-?-induced UT-A1 sialylation was mainly mediated by Src kinase but not Raf-1 kinase. Functionally, increased UT-A1 sialylation corresponded with enhanced urea transport activity. Thus, our results reveal a novel mechanism by which PKC regulates UT-A1 function by increasing glycan sialylation through Src kinase pathways, which may have an important role in preventing the osmotic diuresis caused by glucosuria under diabetic conditions.
Project description:Urea transporter (UT) proteins, including UT-A in kidney tubule epithelia and UT-B in vasa recta microvessels, facilitate urinary concentrating function. A screen for UT-A inhibitors was developed in MDCK cells expressing UT-A1, water channel aquaporin-1, and YFP-H148Q/V163S. An inwardly directed urea gradient produces cell shrinking followed by UT-A1-dependent swelling, which was monitored by YFP-H148Q/V163S fluorescence. Screening of ~90,000 synthetic small molecules yielded four classes of UT-A1 inhibitors with low micromolar half-maximal inhibitory concentration that fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport by a noncompetitive mechanism. Structure-activity analysis of >400 analogs revealed UT-A1-selective and UT-A1/UT-B nonselective inhibitors. Docking computations based on homology models of UT-A1 suggested inhibitor binding sites. UT-A inhibitors may be useful as diuretics ("urearetics") with a mechanism of action that may be effective in fluid-retaining conditions in which conventional salt transport-blocking diuretics have limited efficacy.