A new data mining approach for profiling and categorizing kinetic patterns of metabolic biomarkers after myocardial injury.
ABSTRACT: The discovery of new and unexpected biomarkers in cardiovascular disease is a highly data-driven process that requires the complementary power of modern metabolite profiling technologies, bioinformatics and biostatistics. Clinical biomarkers of early myocardial injury are lacking. A prospective biomarker cohort study was carried out to identify, categorize and profile kinetic patterns of early metabolic biomarkers of planned myocardial infarction (PMI) and spontaneous (SMI) myocardial infarction. We applied a targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolite profiling platform to serial blood samples drawn from carefully phenotyped patients undergoing alcohol septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy serving as a human model of PMI. Patients with SMI and patients undergoing catheterization without induction of myocardial infarction served as positive and negative controls to assess generalizability of markers identified in PMI.To identify metabolites of high predictive value in tandem mass spectrometry data, we introduced a new feature selection method for the categorization of metabolic signatures into three classes of weak, moderate and strong predictors, which can be easily applied to both paired and unpaired samples. Our paradigm outperformed standard null-hypothesis significance testing and other popular methods for feature selection in terms of the area under the receiver operating curve and the product of sensitivity and specificity. Our results emphasize that this new method was able to identify, classify and validate alterations of levels in multiple metabolites participating in pathways associated with myocardial injury as early as 10 min after PMI.The algorithm as well as supplementary material is available for download at: www.umit.at/page.cfm?vpath=departments/technik/iebe/tools/bi
Project description:Emerging metabolomic tools have created the opportunity to establish metabolic signatures of myocardial injury. We applied a mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling platform to 36 patients undergoing alcohol septal ablation treatment for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, a human model of planned myocardial infarction (PMI). Serial blood samples were obtained before and at various intervals after PMI, with patients undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography and patients with spontaneous myocardial infarction (SMI) serving as negative and positive controls, respectively. We identified changes in circulating levels of metabolites participating in pyrimidine metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and its upstream contributors, and the pentose phosphate pathway. Alterations in levels of multiple metabolites were detected as early as 10 minutes after PMI in an initial derivation group and were validated in a second, independent group of PMI patients. A PMI-derived metabolic signature consisting of aconitic acid, hypoxanthine, trimethylamine N-oxide, and threonine differentiated patients with SMI from those undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography with high accuracy, and coronary sinus sampling distinguished cardiac-derived from peripheral metabolic changes. Our results identify a role for metabolic profiling in the early detection of myocardial injury and suggest that similar approaches may be used for detection or prediction of other disease states.
Project description:We developed a pipeline to integrate the proteomic technologies used from the discovery to the verification stages of plasma biomarker identification and applied it to identify early biomarkers of cardiac injury from the blood of patients undergoing a therapeutic, planned myocardial infarction (PMI) for treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Sampling of blood directly from patient hearts before, during and after controlled myocardial injury ensured enrichment for candidate biomarkers and allowed patients to serve as their own biological controls. LC-MS/MS analyses detected 121 highly differentially expressed proteins, including previously credentialed markers of cardiovascular disease and >100 novel candidate biomarkers for myocardial infarction (MI). Accurate inclusion mass screening (AIMS) qualified a subset of the candidates based on highly specific, targeted detection in peripheral plasma, including some markers unlikely to have been identified without this step. Analyses of peripheral plasma from controls and patients with PMI or spontaneous MI by quantitative multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry or immunoassays suggest that the candidate biomarkers may be specific to MI. This study demonstrates that modern proteomic technologies, when coherently integrated, can yield novel cardiovascular biomarkers meriting further evaluation in large, heterogeneous cohorts.
Project description:Patterns of clinical symptoms and outcomes of perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) in elderly patients after hip fracture repair surgery are not well defined.A retrospective 1:2 case-control study in a cohort of 1212 elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery from 1988 to 2002 in Olmsted County, Minnesota.The mean age was 85.3 ± 7.4 years; 76% female. PMI occurred in 167 (13.8%) patients within 7 days, of which 153 (92%) occurred in first 48 hours; 75% of patients were asymptomatic. Among patients with PMI, in-hospital mortality was 14.4%, 30-day mortality was 29 (17.4%), and 1-year mortality was 66 (39.5%). PMI was associated with a higher inpatient mortality rate (odds ratio [OR], 15.1; confidence interval [CI], 4.6-48.8), 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 4.3; CI, 2.1-8.9), and 1-year mortality (HR, 1.9; CI, 1.4-2.7).Elderly patients, after hip fracture surgery, have a higher incidence of PMI and mortality than what guidelines indicate. The majority of elderly patients with PMI did not experience ischemic symptoms and required cardiac biomarkers for diagnosis. The results of our study support the measurement of troponin in postoperative elderly patients for the diagnosis of PMI, in order to implement in-hospital preventive strategies to reduce PMI-associated mortality.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.<h4>Methods</h4>We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-0.49; P<0.00001) and 39% relative reduction in MACE (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.45-0.83; P = 0.002). The benefit of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50-0.95; P = 0.02) and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12-0.65; P = 0.003); and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34-0.79; P = 0.003), but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45-1.10; P = 0.12). Long-term effects on survival were less obvious.<h4>Conclusions</h4>High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin-naïve patients and patients with prior treatment. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE is significant for patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Project description:Ischemia-reperfusion injury following ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a leading determinant of clinical outcome. In experimental models of myocardial ischemia, succinate accumulation leading to mitochondrial dysfunction is a major cause of ischemia-reperfusion injury; however, the potential importance and specificity of myocardial succinate accumulation in human STEMI is unknown. We sought to identify the metabolites released from the heart in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for emergency treatment of STEMI.Blood samples were obtained from the coronary artery, coronary sinus, and peripheral vein in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute STEMI and in control patients undergoing nonemergency coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina or non-STEMI. Plasma metabolites were analyzed by targeted liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Metabolite levels for coronary artery, coronary sinus, and peripheral vein were compared to derive cardiac and systemic release ratios. In STEMI patients, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed 2 days and 6 months after primary percutaneous coronary intervention to quantify acute myocardial edema and final infarct size, respectively. In total, 115 patients undergoing acute STEMI and 26 control patients were included. Succinate was the only metabolite significantly increased in coronary sinus blood compared with venous blood in STEMI patients, indicating cardiac release of succinate. STEMI patients had higher succinate concentrations in arterial, coronary sinus, and peripheral venous blood than patients with non-STEMI or stable angina. Furthermore, cardiac succinate release in STEMI correlated with the extent of acute myocardial injury, quantified by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.Succinate release by the myocardium correlates with the extent of ischemia.
Project description:Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. For a large number of patients with CHD, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery remains the preferred strategy for coronary revascularization. Over the last 10 years, the number of high-risk patients undergoing CABG surgery has increased significantly, resulting in worse clinical outcomes in this patient group. This appears to be related to the ageing population, increased co-morbidities (such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, stroke), concomitant valve disease, and advances in percutaneous coronary intervention which have resulted in patients with more complex coronary artery disease undergoing surgery. These high-risk patients are more susceptible to peri-operative myocardial injury and infarction (PMI), a major cause of which is acute global ischaemia/reperfusion injury arising from inadequate myocardial protection during CABG surgery. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are required to protect the heart in this high-risk patient group. In this article, we review the aetiology of PMI during CABG surgery, its diagnosis and clinical significance, and the endogenous and pharmacological therapeutic strategies available for preventing it. By improving cardioprotection during CABG surgery, we may be able to reduce PMI, preserve left ventricular systolic function, and reduce morbidity and mortality in these high-risk patients with CHD.
Project description:Discovery of novel biomarkers is critical for early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Serum metabolite profiling of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), unstable angina (UA) and healthy controls was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS), solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR). Multivariate data analysis revealed a metabolic signature that could robustly discriminate STEMI patients from both healthy controls and UA patients. This panel of biomarkers consisted of 19 metabolites identified in the serum of STEMI patients. One of the most intriguing biomarkers among these metabolites is hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gasotransmitter with profound effect on the heart. Serum H2S absolute levels were further investigated using a quantitative double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This highly sensitive immunoassay confirmed the elevation of serum H2S in STEMI patients. H2S level discriminated between UA and STEMI groups, providing an initial insight into serum-free H2S bioavailability during ACS. In conclusion, the current study provides a detailed map illustrating the most predominant altered metabolic pathways and the biochemical linkages among the biomarker metabolites identified in STEMI patients. Metabolomics analysis may yield novel predictive biomarkers that will potentially allow for an earlier medical intervention.
Project description:This study sought to assess patterns and functional consequences of mitral apparatus infarction after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).The mitral apparatus contains 2 myocardial components: papillary muscles and the adjacent left ventricular (LV) wall. Delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (DE-CMR) enables in vivo study of inter-relationships and potential contributions of LV wall and papillary muscle infarction (PMI) to mitral regurgitation (MR).Multimodality imaging was performed: CMR was used to assess mitral geometry and infarct pattern, including 3D DE-CMR for PMI. Echocardiography was used to measure MR. Imaging occurred 27 ± 8 days after AMI (CMR, echocardiography within 1 day).A total of 153 patients with first AMI were studied; PMI was present in 30% (n = 46 [72% posteromedial, 39% anterolateral]). When stratified by angiographic culprit vessel, PMI occurred in 65% of patients with left circumflex, 48% with right coronary, and only 14% of patients with left anterior descending infarctions (p <0.001). Patients with PMI had more advanced remodeling as measured by LV size and mitral annular diameter (p <0.05). Increased extent of PMI was accompanied by a stepwise increase in mean infarct transmurality within regional LV segments underlying each papillary muscle (p <0.001). Prevalence of lateral wall infarction was 3-fold higher among patients with PMI compared to patients without PMI (65% vs. 22%, p <0.001). Infarct distribution also impacted MR, with greater MR among patients with lateral wall infarction (p = 0.002). Conversely, MR severity did not differ on the basis of presence (p = 0.19) or extent (p = 0.12) of PMI, or by angiographic culprit vessel. In multivariable analysis, lateral wall infarct size (odds ratio 1.20/% LV myocardium [95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 1.39], p = 0.01) was independently associated with substantial (moderate or greater) MR even after controlling for mitral annular (odds ratio 1.22/mm [1.04 to 1.43], p = 0.01), and LV end-diastolic diameter (odds ratio 1.11/mm [0.99 to 1.23], p = 0.056).Papillary muscle infarction is common after AMI, affecting nearly one-third of patients. Extent of PMI parallels adjacent LV wall injury, with lateral infarction-rather than PMI-associated with increased severity of post-AMI MR.
Project description:Intestinal microbiota determine severity of myocardial infarction in rats. We determined whether low molecular weight metabolites derived from intestinal microbiota and transported to the systemic circulation are linked to severity of myocardial infarction. Plasma from rats treated for seven days with the non-absorbed antibiotic vancomycin or a mixture of streptomycin, neomycin, polymyxin B and bacitracin was analyzed using mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling platforms. Antibiotic-induced changes in the abundance of individual groups of intestinal microbiota dramatically altered the host's metabolism. Hierarchical clustering of dissimilarities separated the levels of 284 identified metabolites from treated vs. untreated rats; 193 were altered by the antibiotic treatments with a tendency towards decreased metabolite levels. Catabolism of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine was the most affected pathway comprising 33 affected metabolites. Both antibiotic treatments decreased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction in vivo by 27% and 29%, respectively. We then determined whether microbial metabolites of the amino acids phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine were linked to decreased severity of myocardial infarction. Vancomycin-treated rats were administered amino acid metabolites prior to ischemia/reperfusion studies. Oral or intravenous pretreatment of rats with these amino acid metabolites abolished the decrease in infarct size conferred by vancomycin. Inhibition of JAK-2 (AG-490, 10 ?M), Src kinase (PP1, 20 ?M), Akt/PI3 kinase (Wortmannin, 100 nM), p44/42 MAPK (PD98059, 10 ?M), p38 MAPK (SB203580, 10 ?M), or KATP channels (glibenclamide, 3 ?M) abolished cardioprotection by vancomycin, indicating microbial metabolites are interacting with cell surface receptors to transduce their signals through Src kinase, cell survival pathways and KATP channels. These inhibitors have no effect on myocardial infarct size in untreated rats. This study links gut microbiota metabolites to severity of myocardial infarction and may provide future opportunities for novel diagnostic tests and interventions for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Project description:Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important component of innate immunity and activator of the lectin complement pathway. Within the MBL2 gene are seven 5' "secretor" haplotypes that code for altered serum MBL levels and complement activation. However, recent evidence suggests that 3' MBL2 haplotypes may also modify MBL function and circulating levels. Because MBL and the lectin complement pathway have been implicated in cardiovascular injury, we investigated whether MBL2 haplotypes are independently associated with an increased risk of postoperative myocardial infarction (PMI) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.Genotyping of 18 polymorphic sites within the MBL2 gene was performed in a prospective, longitudinal multi-institutional study of 978 patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass graft-only surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between August 2001 and May 2005. After adjustment for multiple comparisons by permutation testing, multivariate, stepwise logistic regression, including a score test, was performed controlling for patient demographics, preoperative risk factors, medications, and intraoperative variables to determine if MBL2 secretor haplotypes are independent predictors of PMI in whites undergoing primary coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Neither the 5' nor 3' MBL2 haplotypes alone were associated with an increased incidence of PMI. However, the incidence of PMI in whites (n=843) expressing the combined MBL2 5' LYQA secretor haplotype (CGTCGG) and 3' haplotype (CGGGT) was significantly higher than in whites not expressing the haplotype (38% versus 10%; P<0.007). Moreover, the combined MBL2 LYQA secretor haplotype was an independent predictor of PMI in whites after primary coronary artery bypass graft surgery after adjustment for other covariates (P<0.02; adjusted OR: 3.97; 95% CI: 1.30 to 12.07). The combined MBL2 LYQA secretor haplotype in whites was also an independent predictor of postoperative CKMB levels exceeding 60 ng/mL (P<0.02; adjusted OR: 4.48; 95% CI: 1.95 to 16.80). Inclusion of the combined MBL2 LYQA secretor haplotype improved prediction models for PMI based on traditional risk factors alone (C-statistic 0.715 versus 0.705).The combined MBL2 LYQA secretor haplotype is a novel independent predictor of PMI and may aid in preoperative risk stratification of whites undergoing primary coronary artery bypass graft surgery.