Productive replication of Vif-chimeric HIV-1 in feline cells.
ABSTRACT: Nonprimate animal models of HIV-1 infection are prevented by missing cellular cofactors and by antiviral actions of species-specific host defense factors. These blocks are profound in rodents but may be less abundant in certain Carnivora. Here, we enabled productive, spreading replication and passage of HIV-1 in feline cells. Feline fibroblasts, T-cell lines, and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells supported early and late HIV-1 life cycle phases in a manner equivalent to that of human cells, except that produced virions had low infectivity. Stable expression of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Vif-green fluorescent protein (GFP) in HIV-1 entry receptor-complemented feline (CrFK) cells enabled robust spreading HIV-1 replication. FIV Vif colocalized with feline APOBEC3 (fA3) proteins, targeted them for degradation, and prevented G-->A hypermutation of the HIV-1 cDNA by fA3CH and fA3H. HIV-1 Vif was inactive against fA3s as expected and even paradoxically augmented restriction in some assays. In an interesting contrast, simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac Vif had substantial anti-fA3 activities, which were complete against fA3CH and partial against fA3H. Moreover, both primate lentiviral Vifs colocalized with fA3s and could be pulled down from cell lysates by fA3CH. HIV-1 molecular clones that encode FIV Vif or SIVmac Vif (HIV-1(VF) and HIV-1(VS)) were then constructed. These viruses replicated productively in HIV-1 receptor-expressing CrFK cells and could be passaged serially to uninfected cells. Thus, with the exception of entry receptors, the cat genome can supply the dependency factors needed by HIV-1, and a main restriction can be countered by vif chimerism. The results raise the possibility that the domestic cat could yield an animal model of HIV-1 infection.
Project description:To get more insight into the role of APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases in the species-specific restriction of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) of the domestic cat, we tested the A3 proteins present in big cats (puma, lion, tiger, and lynx). These A3 proteins were analyzed for expression and sensitivity to the Vif protein of FIV. While A3Z3s and A3Z2-Z3s inhibited Deltavif FIV, felid A3Z2s did not show any antiviral activity against Deltavif FIV or wild-type (wt) FIV. All felid A3Z3s and A3Z2-Z3s were sensitive to Vif of the domestic cat FIV. Vif also induced depletion of felid A3Z2s. Tiger A3s showed a moderate degree of resistance against the Vif-mediated counter defense. These findings may imply that the A3 restriction system does not play a major role to prevent domestic cat FIV transmission to other Felidae. In contrast to the sensitive felid A3s, many nonfelid A3s actively restricted wt FIV replication. To test whether Vif(FIV) can protect also the distantly related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a chimeric HIV-1.Vif(FIV) was constructed. This HIV-1.Vif(FIV) was replication competent in nonpermissive feline cells expressing human CD4/CCR5 that did not support the replication of wt HIV-1. We conclude that the replication of HIV-1 in some feline cells is inhibited only by feline A3 restriction factors and the absence of the appropriate receptor or coreceptor.
Project description:Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a global pathogen of Felidae species and a model system for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced AIDS. In felids such as the domestic cat (Felis catus), APOBEC3 (A3) genes encode for single-domain A3Z2s, A3Z3 and double-domain A3Z2Z3 anti-viral cytidine deaminases. The feline A3Z2Z3 is expressed following read-through transcription and alternative splicing, introducing a previously untranslated exon in frame, encoding a domain insertion called linker. Only A3Z3 and A3Z2Z3 inhibit Vif-deficient FIV. Feline A3s also are restriction factors for HIV and Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV). Surprisingly, HIV-2/SIV Vifs can counteract feline A3Z2Z3.To identify residues in feline A3s that Vifs need for interaction and degradation, chimeric human-feline A3s were tested. Here we describe the molecular direct interaction of feline A3s with Vif proteins from cat FIV and present the first structural A3 model locating these interaction regions. In the Z3 domain we have identified residues involved in binding of FIV Vif, and their mutation blocked Vif-induced A3Z3 degradation. We further identified additional essential residues for FIV Vif interaction in the A3Z2 domain, allowing the generation of FIV Vif resistant A3Z2Z3. Mutated feline A3s also showed resistance to the Vif of a lion-specific FIV, indicating an evolutionary conserved Vif-A3 binding. Comparative modelling of feline A3Z2Z3 suggests that the residues interacting with FIV Vif have, unlike Vif-interacting residues in human A3s, a unique location at the domain interface of Z2 and Z3 and that the linker forms a homeobox-like domain protruding of the Z2Z3 core. HIV-2/SIV Vifs efficiently degrade feline A3Z2Z3 by possible targeting the linker stretch connecting both Z-domains.Here we identified in feline A3s residues important for binding of FIV Vif and a unique protein domain insertion (linker). To understand Vif evolution, a structural model of the feline A3 was developed. Our results show that HIV Vif binds human A3s differently than FIV Vif feline A3s. The linker insertion is suggested to form a homeo-box domain, which is unique to A3s of cats and related species, and not found in human and mouse A3s. Together, these findings indicate a specific and different A3 evolution in cats and human.
Project description:Various feline APOBEC3 (fA3) proteins exhibit broad antiviral activities against a wide range of viruses, such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline foamy virus (FFV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV), as well as those of other species. This activity can be counteracted by the FIV Vif protein, but the mechanism by which FIV Vif suppresses fA3s is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that FIV Vif could act via a proteasome-dependent pathway to overcome fA3s. FIV Vif interacted with feline cellular proteins Cullin5 (Cul5), ElonginB, and ElonginC to form an E3 complex to induce degradation of fA3s. Both the dominant-negative Cul5 mutant and a C-terminal hydrophilic replacement ElonginC mutant potently disrupted the FIV Vif activity against fA3s. Furthermore, we identified a BC-box motif in FIV Vif that was essential for the recruitment of E3 ubiquitin ligase and also required for FIV Vif-mediated degradation of fA3s. Moreover, despite the lack of either a Cul5-box or a HCCH zinc-binding motif, FIV Vif specifically selected Cul5. Therefore, FIV Vif may interact with Cul5 via a novel mechanism. These finding imply that SOCS proteins may possess distinct mechanisms to bind Cul5 during formation of the Elongin-Cullin-SOCS box complex.
Project description:Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Vif protein counteracts feline APOBEC3s (FcaA3s) restriction factors by inducing their proteasomal degradation. The functional domains in FIV Vif for interaction with FcaA3s are poorly understood. Here, we have identified several motifs in FIV Vif that are important for selective degradation of different FcaA3s. Cats (Felis catus) express three types of A3s: single-domain A3Z2, single-domain A3Z3, and double-domain A3Z2Z3. We proposed that FIV Vif would selectively interact with the Z2 and the Z3 A3s. Indeed, we identified two N-terminal Vif motifs (12LF13 and 18GG19) that specifically interacted with the FcaA3Z2 protein but not with A3Z3. In contrast, the exclusive degradation of FcaA3Z3 was regulated by a region of three residues (M24, L25, and I27). Only a FIV Vif carrying a combination of mutations from both interaction sites lost the capacity to degrade and counteract FcaA3Z2Z3. However, alterations in the specific A3s interaction sites did not affect the cellular localization of the FIV Vif protein and binding to feline A3s. Pulldown experiments demonstrated that the A3 binding region localized to FIV Vif residues 50 to 80, outside the specific A3 interaction domain. Finally, we found that the Vif sites specific to individual A3s are conserved in several FIV lineages of domestic cat and nondomestic cats, while being absent in the FIV Vif of pumas. Our data support a complex model of multiple Vif-A3 interactions in which the specific region for selective A3 counteraction is discrete from a general A3 binding domain.Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Vif proteins counteract their host's APOBEC3 restriction factors. However, these two Vif proteins have limited sequence homology. The molecular interaction between FIV Vif and feline APOBEC3s are not well understood. Here, we identified N-terminal FIV Vif sites that regulate the selective interaction of Vif with either feline APOBEC3Z2 or APOBEC3Z3. These specific Vif sites are conserved in several FIV lineages of domestic cat and nondomestic cats, while being absent in FIV Vif from puma. Our findings provide important insights for future experiments describing the FIV Vif interaction with feline APOBEC3s and also indicate that the conserved feline APOBEC3s interaction sites of FIV Vif allow FIV transmissions in Felidae.
Project description:Members of the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC3 [A3]) family of DNA cytidine deaminases are intrinsic restriction factors against retroviruses. In felids such as the domestic cat (Felis catus), the A3 genes encode the A3Z2, A3Z3, and A3Z2Z3 antiviral cytidine deaminases. Only A3Z3 and A3Z2Z3 inhibit viral infectivity factor (Vif)-deficient feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The FIV Vif protein interacts with Cullin (CUL), Elongin B (ELOB), and Elongin C (ELOC) to form an E3 ubiquitination complex to induce the degradation of feline A3s. However, the functional domains in FIV Vif for the interaction with Cullin are poorly understood. Here, we found that the expression of dominant negative CUL5 prevented the degradation of feline A3s by FIV Vif, while dominant negative CUL2 had no influence on the degradation of A3. In coimmunoprecipitation assays, FIV Vif bound to CUL5 but not CUL2. To identify the CUL5 interaction site in FIV Vif, the conserved amino acids from positions 47 to 160 of FIV Vif were mutated, but these mutations did not impair the binding of Vif to CUL5. By focusing on a potential zinc-binding motif (K175-C161-C184-C187) of FIV Vif, we found a conserved hydrophobic region (174IR175) that is important for the CUL5 interaction. Mutation of this region also impaired the FIV Vif-induced degradation of feline A3s. Based on a structural model of the FIV Vif-CUL5 interaction, the 52LW53 region in CUL5 was identified as mediating binding to FIV Vif. By comparing our results to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif-CUL5 interaction surface (120IR121, a hydrophobic region that is localized in the zinc-binding motif), we suggest that the CUL5 interaction surface in the diverse HIV-1 and FIV Vifs is evolutionarily conserved, indicating a strong structural constraint. However, the FIV Vif-CUL5 interaction is zinc independent, which contrasts with the zinc dependence of HIV-1 Vif.IMPORTANCE Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), which is similar to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), replicates in its natural host in T cells and macrophages that express the antiviral restriction factor APOBEC3 (A3). To escape A3s, FIV and HIV induce the degradation of these proteins by building a ubiquitin ligase complex using the viral protein Vif to connect to cellular proteins, including Cullin 5. Here, we identified the protein residues that regulate this interaction in FIV Vif and Cullin 5. While our structural model suggests that the diverse FIV and HIV-1 Vifs use conserved residues for Cullin 5 binding, FIV Vif binds Cullin 5 independently of zinc, in contrast to HIV-1 Vif.
Project description:Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) DNA cytosine deaminases can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentiviral replication. On the other hand, viral infectivity factor (Vif) of lentiviruses antagonizes A3-mediated antiviral activities by degrading A3 proteins. It is known that domestic cat (Felis catus) APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), the ortholog of human APOBEC3H, potently suppresses the infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Although a recent report has shown that domestic cat encodes 7 haplotypes (hap I to hap VII) of A3Z3, the relevance of A3Z3 polymorphism in domestic cats with FIV Vif has not yet been addressed. In this study, we demonstrated that these feline A3Z3 variants suppress vif-defective FIV infectivity. We also revealed that codon 65 of feline A3Z3 is a positively selected site and that A3Z3 hap V is subject to positive selection during evolution. It is particularly noteworthy that feline A3Z3 hap V is resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation and still inhibits vif-proficient viral infection. Moreover, the side chain size, but not the hydrophobicity, of the amino acid at position 65 determines the resistance to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses have led to the inference that feline A3Z3 hap V emerged approximately 60,000 years ago. Taken together, these findings suggest that feline A3Z3 hap V may have been selected for escape from an ancestral FIV. This is the first evidence for an evolutionary "arms race" between the domestic cat and its cognate lentivirus.Gene diversity and selective pressure are intriguing topics in the field of evolutionary biology. A direct interaction between a cellular protein and a viral protein can precipitate an evolutionary arms race between host and virus. One example is primate APOBEC3G, which potently restricts the replication of primate lentiviruses (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) if its activity is not counteracted by the viral Vif protein. Here we investigate the ability of 7 naturally occurring variants of feline APOBEC3, APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), to inhibit FIV replication. Interestingly, one feline A3Z3 variant is dominant, restrictive, and naturally resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the ancestral change that generated this variant could have been caused by positive Darwinian selection, presumably due to an ancestral FIV infection. The experimental-phylogenetic investigation sheds light on the evolutionary history of the domestic cat, which was likely influenced by lentiviral infection.
Project description:Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) induces a disease state in the domestic cat that is similar to AIDS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. As with HIV, FIV can be divided into primary and cell culture-adapted isolates. Adaptation of FIV to replicate and form syncytia in the Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cell line is accompanied by an increase in the net charge of the V3 loop of the envelope glycoprotein, mirroring the changes observed in the V3 loop of HIV gp120 with the switch from a non-syncytium-inducing phenotype to a syncytium-inducing phenotype. These data suggest a common mechanism of infection with FIV and HIV. In this study, we demonstrate that cell culture-adapted strains of FIV are able to use the alpha-chemokine receptor CXCR4 for cell fusion. Following ectopic expression of human CXCR4 on nonpermissive human cells, the cells are able to fuse with FIV-infected feline cells. Moreover, fusion between FIV-infected feline cells and CXCR4-transfected human cells is inhibited by both anti-CXCR4 and anti-FIV antibodies. cDNAs encoding the feline CXCR4 homolog were cloned from both T-lymphoblastoid and kidney cell lines. Feline CXCR4 displayed 94.9% amino acid sequence identity with human CXCR4 and was found to be expressed widely on cell lines susceptible to infection with cell culture-adapted strains FIV. Ectopic expression of feline CXCR4 on human cells rendered the cells susceptible to FIV-dependent fusion. Moreover, feline CXCR4 was found to be as efficient as human CXCR4 in supporting cell fusion between CD4-expressing murine fibroblast cells and either HIV type 1 (HIV-1) or HIV-2 Env-expressing human cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that feline cells expressing human CD4 are not susceptible to infection with HIV-1; therefore, further restrictions to HIV-1 Env-dependent fusion may exist in feline cells. As feline and human CXCR4 support both FIV- and HIV-dependent cell fusion, these results suggest a close evolutionary link between FIV and HIV and a common mechanism of infection involving an interaction between the virus and a member of the seven-transmembrane domain chemokine receptor family of molecules.
Project description:A feline immunodeficiency virus-like virus (FIV-Oma) isolated from a Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul) is highly cytopathic in CrFK cells, in contrast to the chronic, noncytolytic infection established by an FIV isolate from a domestic cat (FIV-Fca). The virions have typical lentivirus morphology, density, and magnesium-dependent reverse transcriptase activity. The major core protein is antigenically cross-reactive with that of FIV-Fca; however, FIV-Oma transcripts do not cross-hybridize with FIV-Fca. A conserved region of the FIV-Oma pol gene has 76 to 80% nucleic acid identify with the corresponding pol regions of other feline lentiviruses and 64 to 69% identity with those of human, ovine, and equine lentiviruses.
Project description:Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally occurring T-cell tropic lentiviral disease of felids with many similarities to HIV/AIDS in humans. Similar to primate lentiviral-host interactions, feline APOBEC3 (A3) has been shown to inhibit FIV infection in a host-specific manner and feline A3 degradation is mediated by FIV Vif. Further, infection of felids with non-native FIV strains results in restricted viral replication in both experimental and naturally occurring infections. However, the link between molecular A3-Vif interactions and A3 biological activity during FIV infection has not been well characterized. We thus examined expression of the feline A3 genes A3Z2, A3Z3 and A3Z2-Z3 during experimental infection of domestic cats with host-adapted domestic cat FIV (referred to as FIV) and non-adapted Puma concolor FIV (referred to as puma lentivirus, PLV). We determined A3 expression in different tissues and blood cells from uninfected, FIV-infected, PLV-infected and FIV/PLV co-infected cats; and in purified blood cell subpopulations from FIV-infected and uninfected cats. Additionally, we evaluated regulation of A3 expression by cytokines, mitogens, and FIV infection in cultured cells. In all feline cells and tissues studied, there was a striking difference in expression between the A3 genes which encode FIV inhibitors, with A3Z3 mRNA abundance exceeding that of A3Z2-Z3 by 300-fold or more. Interferon-alpha treatment of cat T cells resulted in upregulation of A3 expression, while treatment with interferon-gamma enhanced expression in cat cell lines. In cats, secondary lymphoid organs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) had the highest basal A3 expression levels and A3 genes were differentially expressed among blood T cells, B cells, and monocytes. Acute FIV and PLV infection of cats, and FIV infection of primary PBMC resulted in no detectable change in A3 expression with the exception of significantly elevated A3 expression in the thymus, the site of highest FIV replication. We conclude that cat A3 expression is regulated by cytokine treatment but, by and large, lentiviral infection did not appear to alter expression. Differences in A3 expression in different blood cell subsets did not appear to impact FIV viral replication kinetics within these cells. Furthermore, the relative abundance of A3Z3 mRNA compared to A3Z2-Z3 suggests that A3Z3 may be the major active anti-lentiviral APOBEC3 gene product in domestic cats.
Project description:Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between two FIV molecular clones with divergent disease potentials: a highly pathogenic isolate that replicates rapidly in vitro and is associated with significant immunopathology in vivo, FIV-C36 (referred to here as high-virulence FIV [HV-FIV]), and a less-pathogenic strain, FIV-PPR (referred to here as low-virulence FIV [LV-FIV]). Using PCR-driven overlap extension, we produced viruses in which vif, orfA, or both genes from virulent HV-FIV replaced equivalent genes in LV-FIV. The generation of these chimeras is more straightforward in FIV than in primate lentiviruses, since FIV accessory gene open reading frames have very little overlap with other genes. All three chimeric viruses exhibited increased replication kinetics in vitro compared to the replication kinetics of LV-FIV. Chimeras containing HV-Vif or Vif/OrfA had replication rates equivalent to those of the virulent HV-FIV parental virus. Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown of feline APOBEC3 genes resulted in equalization of replication rates between LV-FIV and LV-FIV encoding HV-FIV Vif. These findings demonstrate that Vif-APOBEC interactions play a key role in controlling the replication and pathogenicity of this immunodeficiency-inducing virus in its native host species and that accessory genes act as mediators of lentiviral strain-specific virulence.