Enzymatic activity of the human 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase isoform 11: upregulated in breast and cervical cancers.
ABSTRACT: The conversion of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid is carried out by the microsomal enzymes 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferases (AGPATs). These enzymes are specific for acylating LPA at the sn-2 (carbon 2) position on the glycerol backbone and are important, because they provide substrates for the synthesis of phospholipids and triglycerides. At least, mutations in one isoform, AGPAT2, cause near complete loss of adipose tissue in humans. We cloned a cDNA predicted to be an AGPAT isoform, AGPAT11. This cDNA has been recently identified also as lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2) and lyso platelet-activating factor acetyltransferase. When AGPAT11/LPCAT2/lyso platelet-activating factor acetyltransferase cDNA was expressed in CHO and HeLa cells, the protein product localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. In vitro enzymatic activity using lysates of Human Embryonic Kidney-293 cells infected with recombinant AGPAT11/LPCAT2/lyso platelet-activating factor-acetyltransferase cDNA adenovirus show that the protein has an AGPAT activity but lacks glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase enzymatic activity. The AGPAT11 efficiently uses C18:1 LPA as acyl acceptor and C18:1 fatty acid as an acyl donor. Thus, it has similar substrate specificities for LPA and acyl-CoA as shown for AGPAT9 and 10. Expression of AGPAT11 mRNA was significantly upregulated in human breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer tissues, indicating its adjuvant role in the progression of these cancers. Our enzymatic assays strongly suggest that the cDNA previously identified as LPCAT2/lyso platelet-activating factor-acetyltransferase cDNA has AGPAT activity and thus we prefer to identify this clone as AGPAT11 as well.
Project description:Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent pro-inflammatory phospholipid mediator. In response to extracellular stimuli, PAF is rapidly biosynthesized by lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (lyso-PAFAT). Previously, we identified two types of lyso-PAFATs: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT)1, mostly expressed in the lungs where it produces PAF and dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine essential for respiration, and LPCAT2, which biosynthesizes PAF and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the inflammatory cells. Under inflammatory conditions, LPCAT2, but not LPCAT1, is activated and upregulated to produce PAF. Thus, it is important to develop inhibitors specific for LPCAT2 in order to ameliorate PAF-related inflammatory diseases. Here, we report the first identification of LPCAT2-specific inhibitors, N-phenylmaleimide derivatives, selected from a 174,000-compound library using fluorescence-based high-throughput screening followed by the evaluation of the effects on LPCAT1 and LPCAT2 activities, cell viability, and cellular PAF production. Selected compounds competed with acetyl-CoA for the inhibition of LPCAT2 lyso-PAFAT activity and suppressed PAF biosynthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with a calcium ionophore. These compounds had low inhibitory effects on LPCAT1 activity, indicating that adverse effects on respiratory functions may be avoided. The identified compounds and their derivatives will contribute to the development of novel drugs for PAF-related diseases and facilitate the analysis of LPCAT2 functions in phospholipid metabolism in vivo.
Project description:Synthesis of phospholipids can occur de novo or via remodeling of the existing phospholipids. Synthesis of triglycerides, a form of energy storage in cells, is an end product of these pathways. Several 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferases (AGPATs) acylate lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) at the sn-2 (carbon 2) position to produce phosphatidic acid (PA). These enzymes are involved in phospholipids and triglyceride synthesis through an evolutionary conserved process involving serial acylations of glycerol-3-phosphate. We cloned a cDNA predicted to be an AGPAT isoform (AGPAT10). This cDNA has been recently identified as glycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase isoform 3 (GPAT3). When this AGPAT10/GPAT3 cDNA was expressed in Chinese Hamster ovary cells, the protein product localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. In vitro enzymatic activity using lysates of human embryonic kidney-293 cells infected with recombinant AGPAT10/GPAT3 adenovirus show that the protein has a robust AGPAT activity with an apparent V(max) of 2 nmol/min per mg protein, but lacks GPAT enzymatic activity. This AGPAT has similar substrate specificities for LPA and acyl-CoA as shown for another known isoform, AGPAT2. We further show that when overexpressed in human Huh-7 cells depleted of endogenous AGPAT activity by sh-RNA-AGPAT2-lentivirus, the protein again demonstrates AGPAT activity. These observations strongly suggest that the cDNA previously identified as GPAT3 has AGPAT activity and thus we prefer to identify this clone as AGPAT10 as well.
Project description:Envenomation by the brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) may cause local dermonecrosis and, rarely, coagulopathies, kidney failure and death. A venom phospholipase, SMaseD (sphingomyelinase D), is responsible for the pathological manifestations of envenomation. Recently, the recombinant SMaseD from Loxosceles laeta was demonstrated to hydrolyse LPC (lysophosphatidylcholine) to produce LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) and choline. Therefore activation of LPA signalling pathways may be involved in some manifestations of Loxosceles envenomation. To begin investigating this idea, we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding L. reclusa SMaseD. The 305 amino acid sequence of the L. reclusa enzyme is 87, 85 and 60% identical with those of L. arizonica, L. intermedia and L. laeta respectively. The recombinant enzyme expressed in bacteria had broad substrate specificity. The lysophospholipids LPC, LPI (18:1-1-oleyol lysophosphatidylinositol), LPS, LPG (18:1-1-oleoyl-lysophosphatidylglycerol), LBPA (18:1-1-oleoyl-lysobisphosphatidic acid) (all with various acyl chains), lyso-platelet-activating factor (C16:0), cyclic phosphatidic acid and sphingomyelin were hydrolysed, whereas sphingosylphosphorylcholine, PC (phosphatidylcholine; C22:6, C20:4 and C6:0), oxidized PCs and PAF (platelet-activating factor; C16:0) were not hydrolysed. The PAF analogue, edelfosine, inhibited enzyme activity. Recombinant enzyme plus LPC (C18:1) induced the migration of A2058 melanoma cells, and this activity was blocked by the LPA receptor antagonist, VPC32183. The recombinant spider enzyme was haemolytic, but this activity was absent from catalytically inactive H37N (His37-->Asn) and H73N mutants. Our results demonstrate that Loxosceles phospholipase D hydrolyses a wider range of lysophospholipids than previously supposed, and thus the term 'SMaseD' is too limited in describing this enzyme.
Project description:Platelet activation initiates an upsurge in polyunsaturated (18:2 and 20:4) lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) production. The biochemical pathway(s) responsible for LPA production during blood clotting are not yet fully understood. Here we describe the purification of a phospholipase A(1) (PLA(1)) from thrombin-activated human platelets using sequential chromatographic steps followed by fluorophosphonate (FP)-biotin affinity labeling and proteomics characterization that identified acyl-protein thioesterase 1 (APT1), also known as lysophospholipase A-I (LYPLA-I; accession code O75608) as a novel PLA(1). Addition of this recombinant PLA(1) significantly increased the production of sn-2-esterified polyunsaturated LPCs and the corresponding LPAs in plasma. We examined the regioisomeric preference of lysophospholipase D/autotaxin (ATX), which is the subsequent step in LPA production. To prevent acyl migration, ether-linked regioisomers of oleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-PAF) were synthesized. ATX preferred the sn-1 to the sn-2 regioisomer of lyso-PAF. We propose the following LPA production pathway in blood: 1) Activated platelets release PLA(1); 2) PLA(1) generates a pool of sn-2 lysophospholipids; 3) These newly generated sn-2 lysophospholipids undergo acyl migration to yield sn-1 lysophospholipids, which are the preferred substrates of ATX; and 4) ATX cleaves the sn-1 lysophospholipids to generate sn-1 LPA species containing predominantly 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids.
Project description:The known mammalian glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases (GP-PDEs) hydrolyze glycerophosphodiesters. In this study, two novel members of the mammalian GP-PDE family, GDE4 and GDE7, were isolated, and the molecular basis of mammalian GP-PDEs was further explored. The GDE4 and GDE7 sequences are highly homologous and evolutionarily close. GDE4 is expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, spermatids, and macrophages, whereas GDE7 is particularly expressed in gastro-esophageal epithelial cells. Unlike other mammalian GP-PDEs, GDE4 and GDE7 cannot hydrolyze either glycerophosphoinositol or glycerophosphocholine. Unexpectedly, both GDE4 and GDE7 show a lysophospholipase D activity toward lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC). We purified the recombinant GDE4 and GDE7 proteins and show that these enzymes can hydrolyze lyso-PC to produce lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Further characterization of purified recombinant GDE4 showed that it can also convert lyso-platelet-activating factor (1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; lyso-PAF) to alkyl-LPA. These data contribute to our current understanding of mammalian GP-PDEs and of their physiological roles via the control of lyso-PC and lyso-PAF metabolism in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and macrophages.
Project description:Lysophosphatidic acid (1-acyl-2-lyso-snglycero-3-phosphate, LPA) is a multifunctional lipid mediator found in a variety of organisms that span the phylogenetic tree from humans to plants. Although its physiological function is not clearly understood, LPA is a potent regulator of mammalian cell proliferation; it is one of the major mitogens found in blood serum. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, LPA elicits oscillatory Cl- currents. This current, like other effects of LPA, is consistent with a plasma membrane receptor-mediated activation of G protein-linked signal transduction pathways. Herein we report the identification of a complementary DNA from Xenopus that encodes a functional high-affinity LPA receptor. The predicted structure of this protein of 372 amino acids contains features common to members of the seven transmembrane receptor superfamily with a predicted extracellular amino and intracellular carboxyl terminus. An antisense oligonucleotide derived from the first 5-11 predicted amino acids, selectively inhibited the expression of the endogenous high-affinity LPA receptors in Xenopus oocytes, whereas the same oligonucleotide did not affect the low-affinity LPA receptor. Expression of the full-length cRNA in oocytes led to an increase in maximal Cl- current due to increased expression of the high-affinity LPA receptor, but activation of the low-affinity receptor was, again, unaffected. Oocytes expressing cRNA prepared from this clone showed no response to other lipid mediators including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, sphingosine 1-phosphate, sphingosylphosphorylcholine, and platelet-activating factor, suggesting that the receptor is highly selective for LPA.
Project description:The metabolism of platelet-activating factor (PAF; identified as AGEPC: 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and lyso-PAF (lyso-GEPC: 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) was investigated in cultured rat Kupffer cells. The rat Kupffer cells accumulated [3H]AGEPC and deacetylated this compound to the corresponding [3H]lyso-GEPC, which was the major metabolic product of [3H]AGEPC. [3H]Lyso-GEPC was distributed primarily in the supernatant fraction of incubated cells throughout the experimental interval. Only a very small portion of the [3H]lyso-GEPC was further converted to 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (alkylacyl-GPC), indicating that this acylation process was not particularly active in these cells. When [3H]lyso-GEPC was incubated with Kupffer cells, the conversion of lyso-GEPC to AGEPC via the acetyltransferase reaction increased up to 30 min and declined thereafter. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) had a substantial influence on both the cellular uptake and the metabolism of [3H]AGEPC. An increase in the BSA concentration in the incubation media reduced the cellular uptake of [3H]AGEPC and the subsequent formation of lyso-GEPC. The results of this study suggest that the hepatic Kupffer cells play an important role in the metabolism of PAF. Moreover, these results infer that the regulation of the PAF level in certain hepatic pathophysiological situations may be a consequence of the production and subsequent metabolism of this potent lipid autacoid in the Kupffer cells of the liver.
Project description:The role of Ca2+ in the activation of the enzyme lyso-(platelet-activating factor): acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase was studied in rat peritoneal macrophages in response to complement-coated zymosan particles and ionophore A23187. By using Ca2+-containing buffers, a threshold concentration of extracellular Ca2+ above 1 microM was found to be necessary to observe the activation of the enzyme in response to zymosan. By contrast, a significant role of intracellular Ca2+ in this process could be ruled out, since the putative intracellular calcium-transport antagonist TMB-8 [8-(NN-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate] did not inhibit the activation of the acetyltransferase induced by zymosan in the presence of extracellular Ca+. The link between acetyltransferase activation and extracellular Ca2+ transport was studied by measuring Ca2+ uptake in response to the stimuli. Zymosan particles induced a rapid increment in cell-associated Ca2+ which correlated well with the extent of acetyltransferase activation (r = 0.91) and with the release of platelet-activating factor (r = 0.95) in response to different doses of zymosan. Cellular Ca2+ efflux in response to zymosan particles was also measured and found to be increased, as compared with controls, when the activation of the acetyltransferase declined. In short, the data suggest that the entry of extracellular Ca2+ into the cell is a crucial event in the activation of acetyltransferase and, thereby, in the formation of platelet-activating factor in rat peritoneal macrophages.
Project description:The enzyme 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase (AGPAT) converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA). In this study, we show enzymatic properties, tissue distribution, and subcellular localization of human AGPAT3 and AGPAT5. In cells overexpressing these isoforms, the proteins were detected in the nuclear envelope and the endoplasmic reticulum. AGPAT5-GFP fusion protein was localized in the mitochondria of both Chinese hamster ovary and human epithelial cervical cancer cells. Using lysates of AD293 cells infected with AGPAT3 and AGPAT5 recombinant adenovirus, we show that AGPAT3 and AGPAT5 proteins have AGPAT activity. Both the isoforms have similar apparent V(max) of 6.35 and 2.42 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for similar LPA. The difference between the two isoforms is in their use of additional lysophospholipids. AGPAT3 shows significant esterification of lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) in the presence of C20:4 fatty acid, whereas AGPAT5 demonstrates significant acyltransferase activity toward lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) in the presence of C18:1 fatty acid. The AGPAT3 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues with several-fold differences in the expression pattern compared with the closely related AGPAT4. In summary, we show that in the presence of different fatty acids, AGPAT3 and AGPAT5 prefer different lysophospholipids as acyl acceptors. More importantly, localization of overexpressed AGPAT5 (this study) as well as GPAT1 and 2 (previous studies) in mitochondria supports the idea that the mitochondria might be capable of synthesizing some of their own glycerophospholipids.
Project description:The biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF), a phospholipid autocoid with potent ulcerogenic properties that is produced in secretory exocrine glands by physiological secretagogues, was assessed in microsomal preparations of glandular gastric mucosa. For this purpose, 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-PAF):acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (EC 188.8.131.52); the enzymes of the 'de novo' pathway: 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (alkyl-lyso-GP):acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (alkylacetyl-G):CDP-choline cholinephosphotransferase (EC 184.108.40.206); and some enzymes involved in the catabolism of PAF and lyso-PAF were assayed. Only the enzymes of the 'de novo' pathway and small amounts of PAF acetylhydrolase, phospholipase A2 and a lysophospholipase D acting on either lipids could be detected in the gastric preparations, whereas lyso-PAF:acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase activity was undetectable. The specific activity of alkyl-lyso-GP:acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase in the gastric mucosa was about one-tenth of that found in spleen microsomes and its apparent Km for acetyl-CoA was 454 microM compared with 277 microM in spleen microsomes. Glandular mucosa homogenates contained preformed PAF at a concentration of 2.7 +/- 0.7 ng equivalents of PAF (hexadecyl)/mg of protein. When gastric microsomes were incubated with micromolar concentrations of fatty acids (arachidonic, palmitic and oleic) prior to the assay of dithiothreitol (DTT)-insensitive cholinephosphotransferase, a dose-dependent reduction in the formation of PAF was observed, arachidonic acid being the most potent inhibitor, followed by linoleic acid (only tested on spleen microsomes) and oleic acid. By contrast, 1,2-diolein and phosphatidylcholine (dipalmitoyl) showed no or little effect. These results indicate that glandular gastric mucosa can produce PAF through the 'de novo' pathway, and that fatty acids, especially unsaturated, can reduce that synthesis by modulating the expression of DTT-insensitive cholinephosphotransferase.