MMP12, lung function, and COPD in high-risk populations.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Genetic variants influencing lung function in children and adults may ultimately lead to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly in high-risk groups. METHODS:We tested for an association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) and a measure of lung function (prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)]) in more than 8300 subjects in seven cohorts that included children and adults. Within the Normative Aging Study (NAS), a cohort of initially healthy adult men, we tested for an association between SNPs that were associated with FEV(1) and the time to the onset of COPD. We then examined the relationship between MMP12 SNPs and COPD in two cohorts of adults with COPD or at risk for COPD. RESULTS:The minor allele (G) of a functional variant in the promoter region of MMP12 (rs2276109 [-82A-->G]) was positively associated with FEV(1) in a combined analysis of children with asthma and adult former and current smokers in all cohorts (P=2x10(-6)). This allele was also associated with a reduced risk of the onset of COPD in the NAS cohort (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 0.92; P=0.02) and with a reduced risk of COPD in a cohort of smokers (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.88; P=0.005) and among participants in a family-based study of early-onset COPD (P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS:The minor allele of a SNP in MMP12 (rs2276109) is associated with a positive effect on lung function in children with asthma and in adults who smoke. This allele is also associated with a reduced risk of COPD in adult smokers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine which probably plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), -174G/C, in the promoter region of IL6. It was hypothesised that IL6 SNPs influence susceptibility for impaired lung function and COPD in smokers. METHODS:Seven and five SNPs in IL6 were genotyped in two nested case-control samples derived from the Lung Health Study (LHS) based on phenotypes of rate of decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) over 5 years and baseline FEV(1) at the beginning of the LHS. Serum IL6 concentrations were measured for all subjects. A partially overlapping panel of nine IL6 SNPs was genotyped in 389 cases of COPD from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and 420 controls from the Normative Aging Study (NAS). RESULTS:In the LHS, three IL6 SNPs were associated with decline in FEV(1) (0.023< or =p< or =0.041 in additive models). Among them, the IL6_-174C allele was associated with a rapid decline in lung function. The association was more significant in a genotype-based analysis (p = 0.006). In the NETT-NAS study, IL6_-174G/C and four other IL6 SNPs, all of which are in linkage disequilibrium with IL6_-174G/C, were associated with susceptibility to COPD (0.01< or =p< or =0.04 in additive genetic models). CONCLUSION:The results suggest that the IL6_-174G/C SNP is associated with a rapid decline in FEV(1) and susceptibility to COPD in smokers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Major symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic bronchitis and emphysema leading from lung tissue destruction, that is an effect of an imbalance between metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors activity. As potential factor involved in this COPD pathogenesis, MMP-12 is considered. We investigated the role of genetic polymorphism and protein level of MMP-12 in the COPD development among Poles. METHODS:We analyzed -?82 A?>?G SNP in the promoter region of MMP-12 gene (rs2276109) among 335 smoked COPD patients and 309 healthy individuals, including 110 smokers. Additionally, 60 COPD patients and 61 controls (23 smokers) were tested for serum levels of MMP-12 using ELISA. All subjects were analyzed for lung function using spirometry (FEV1% and FEV1/FVC parameters). RESULTS:We observed that -82G allele and -82GG homozygous genotype frequencies of the SNP rs2276109 were significantly lower in COPD patients than in controls (12.5% vs 16.9%, respectively; ?2?=?4.742, p?=?0.02 for allele and 0.5% vs 3.9%, respectively; ?2?=?9.0331, p?=?0.01 for genotype). Moreover, -82G allele was more frequent in controls smokers than in non-smokers (22.3% vs 14.1%, ?2?=?6.7588, p?=?0.01). Serum level of MMP-12 was significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls groups (6.8?ng/ml vs 3.3?ng/ml, respectively; F?=?7.433, p?<?0.0001), although independently of analyzed gene polymorphisms. Additionally, no correlation between parameters of lung function (FEV1% and FEV1/FVC) and protein level was found. CONCLUSIONS:We found that -82G allele of SNP rs2276109 was associated with reduced risk of COPD, and COPD patients released more MMP-12 than healthy individuals, but independently on this SNP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We have previously identified Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (PLAUR) as an asthma susceptibility gene. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that PLAUR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determine baseline lung function and contribute to the development of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in smokers. METHODS:25 PLAUR SNPs were genotyped in COPD subjects and individuals with smoking history (n = 992). Linear regression was used to determine the effects of polymorphism on baseline lung function (FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC) in all smokers. Genotype frequencies were compared in spirometry defined smoking controls (n = 176) versus COPD cases (n = 599) and COPD severity (GOLD stratification) using logistic regression. RESULTS:Five SNPs showed a significant association (p < 0.01) with baseline lung function; rs2302524(Lys220Arg) and rs2283628(intron 3) were associated with lower and higher FEV(1) respectively. rs740587(-22346), rs11668247(-20040) and rs344779(-3666) in the 5'region were associated with increased FEV(1)/FVC ratio. rs740587 was also protective for COPD susceptibility and rs11668247 was protective for COPD severity although no allele dose relationship was apparent. Interestingly, several of these associations were driven by male smokers not females. CONCLUSION:This study provides tentative evidence that the asthma associated gene PLAUR also influences baseline lung function in smokers. However the case-control analyses do not support the conclusion that PLAUR is a major COPD susceptibility gene in smokers. PLAUR is a key serine protease receptor involved in the generation of plasmin and has been implicated in airway remodelling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is an autoimmune disease triggered by acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the modulation of immune responses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of MMP1, 3, and 12 promoter polymorphisms with RHD in a Han population in Southern China since the 3 genes are localized on the same chromosome and have a combined effect. METHODS:DNA samples were obtained from 90 adult patients with RHD and 90 control subjects. Polymorphisms in MMP1 (rs1799750), MMP3 (rs3025058), and MMP12 (rs2276109) were genotyped by direct sequencing. Differences in genotype and allele frequencies of these polymorphisms were compared between the cases and the controls using Unconditional logistic regression models and Chi-squared test. RESULTS:The 2G/2G genotype of rs1799750 in MMP1 was associated with a significantly higher risk of RHD when compared with the 1G/1G genotype (OR?=?3.227; 95% CI:1.118-9.31; p?=?0.03). The frequency of allele 2G was higher in patients with RHD compared to the controls (69.4% vs. 58.9%; p?=?0.048) No significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies of rs3025058 in MMP3 and rs2276109 in MMP12 were found between the patients with RHD and the controls (p?>?0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that rs1799750 in MMP1 might be a risk factor for RHD in a Han population in Southern China, and individuals carrying the 2G/2G genotype are likely more susceptible to RHD. In contrast, rs3025058 in MMP3 and rs2276109 in MMP12 might not contribute to the risk of developing RHD in this population. Further studies with larger samples and other ethnic populations are required to confirm these findings.
Project description:Antioxidant enzymes play an important role in the defense against oxidative stress in the lung and in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sequence variation in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes may alter susceptibility to COPD by affecting longitudinal change in lung function in adults. We genotyped 384 sequence variants in 56 candidate genes in 1281 African American and 1794 European American elderly adults in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Single-marker associations and gene-by-smoking interactions with rate of change in FEV? and FEV?/FVC were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models, stratified by race/ethnicity. In European Americans, rs17883901 in GCLC was statistically significantly associated with rate of change in FEV?/FVC; the recessive genotype (TT) was associated with a 0.9% per year steeper decline (P = 4.50 × 10(-5)). Statistically significant gene-by-smoking interactions were observed for variants in two genes in European Americans: the minor allele of rs2297765 in mGST3 attenuated the accelerated decline in FEV?/FVC in smokers by 0.45% per year (P = 1.13 × 10(-4)); for participants with greater baseline smoking pack-years, the minor allele of rs2073192 in IDH3B was associated with an accelerated decline in FEV?/FVC (P = 2.10 × 10(-4)). For both genes, nominally significant interactions (P < 0.01) were observed at the gene level in African Americans (P = 0.007 and 4.60 × 10(-4), respectively). Nominally significant evidence of association was observed for variants in SOD3 and GLRX2 in multiple analyses. This study identifies two novel genes associated with longitudinal lung function phenotypes in both African and European Americans and confirms a prior finding for GCLC. These findings suggest novel mechanisms and molecular targets for future research and advance the understanding of genetic determinants of lung function and COPD risk.
Project description:The development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, upon exposure to tobacco smoke, is the cumulative effect of defects in several genes. With the aim of understanding the genetic structure that is characteristic of our patient population, we selected forty two single nucleotide polymorphisms of twenty genes based on previous studies and genotyped a total of 382 samples, which included 236 patients and 146 controls using Sequenom MassARRAY system. Allele frequencies of rs2276109 (MMP12) and rs1800925 (IL13) differed significantly between patients and controls (p?=?0.013 and 0.044 respectively). Genotype analysis showed association of rs2276109 (MMP12) under additive and dominant models (p?=?0.017, p?=?0.012 respectively), rs1800925 (IL13) under additive model (p?=?0.047) and under recessive model, rs1695 (GSTP1; p?=?0.034), rs729631, rs975278, rs7583463 (SERPINE2; p?=?0.024, 0.024 and 0.012 respectively), rs2568494, rs10851906 (IREB2; p?=?0.026 and 0.041 respectively) and rs7671167 (FAM13A; p?=?0.029). The minor alleles of rs1695 (G), rs7671167 (T), rs729631 (G), rs975278 (A) and rs7583463 (A) showed significant negative association whereas those of rs2276109 (G), rs2568494 (A), rs10851906 (G) and rs1800469 (T; TGF-?) showed significant positive association with lung function under different genetic models. Haplotypes carrying A allele of rs2276109, G allele of rs1695 showed negative correlation with lung function. Haplotypes carrying major alleles of rs7671167 (C) of FAM13A and rs729631 (C), rs975278 (G), rs7583463 (C) of SERPINE2 had protective effect on lung function. Haplotypes of IREB2 carrying major alleles of rs2568494 (G), rs2656069 (A), rs10851906 (A), rs965604 (C) and minor alleles of rs1964678 (T), rs12593229 (T) showed negative correlation with lung function. In conclusion, our study replicated the results of most of the previous studies. However, the positive correlation between the minor alleles of rs2568494 (A) and rs10851906 (G) of IREB2 and lung function needs further investigation.
Project description:RATIONALE:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci influencing lung function, but fewer genes influencing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are known. OBJECTIVES:Perform meta-analyses of GWAS for airflow obstruction, a key pathophysiologic characteristic of COPD assessed by spirometry, in population-based cohorts examining all participants, ever smokers, never smokers, asthma-free participants, and more severe cases. METHODS:Fifteen cohorts were studied for discovery (3,368 affected; 29,507 unaffected), and a population-based family study and a meta-analysis of case-control studies were used for replication and regional follow-up (3,837 cases; 4,479 control subjects). Airflow obstruction was defined as FEV(1) and its ratio to FVC (FEV(1)/FVC) both less than their respective lower limits of normal as determined by published reference equations. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The discovery meta-analyses identified one region on chromosome 15q25.1 meeting genome-wide significance in ever smokers that includes AGPHD1, IREB2, and CHRNA5/CHRNA3 genes. The region was also modestly associated among never smokers. Gene expression studies confirmed the presence of CHRNA5/3 in lung, airway smooth muscle, and bronchial epithelial cells. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in HTR4, a gene previously related to FEV(1)/FVC, achieved genome-wide statistical significance in combined meta-analysis. Top single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADAM19, RARB, PPAP2B, and ADAMTS19 were nominally replicated in the COPD meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest an important role for the CHRNA5/3 region as a genetic risk factor for airflow obstruction that may be independent of smoking and implicate the HTR4 gene in the etiology of airflow obstruction.
Project description:The identification of gene-by-environment interactions is important for understanding the genetic basis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many COPD genetic association analyses assume a linear relationship between pack-years of smoking exposure and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)); however, this assumption has not been evaluated empirically in cohorts with a wide spectrum of COPD severity.The relationship between FEV(1) and pack-years of smoking exposure was examined in four large cohorts assembled for the purpose of identifying genetic associations with COPD. Using data from the Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Genetic Modifiers Study, the accuracy and power of two different approaches to model smoking were compared by performing a simulation study of a genetic variant with a range of gene-by-smoking interaction effects.Non-linear relationships between smoking and FEV(1) were identified in the four cohorts. It was found that, in most situations where the relationship between pack-years and FEV(1) is non-linear, a piecewise linear approach to model smoking and gene-by-smoking interactions is preferable to the commonly used total pack-years approach. The piecewise linear approach was applied to a genetic association analysis of the PI*Z allele in the Norway Case-Control cohort and a potential PI*Z-by-smoking interaction was identified (p=0.03 for FEV(1) analysis, p=0.01 for COPD susceptibility analysis).In study samples of subjects with a wide range of COPD severity, a non-linear relationship between pack-years of smoking and FEV(1) is likely. In this setting, approaches that account for this non-linearity can be more powerful and less biased than the more common approach of using total pack-years to model the smoking effect.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of disability and death. The most common cause of COPD is smoking. There is evidence suggesting that genetic factors influence COPD susceptibility and variants in several candidate genes have been significantly associated with COPD. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible association of the TNF-α -308, SPB+1580, IL-13 -1055 gene polymorphisms and latent adenovirus C infection with COPD in an Egyptian population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our study included 115 subjects (75 smokers with COPD, 25 resistant smokers and 15 non-smokers) who were subjected to spirometric measurements, identification of adenovirus C and genotyping of TNF-α -308G/A, SP-B+1580 C/T and IL-13 -1055 C/T polymorphisms by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The adenovirus C gene was identified in all subjects. The distribution of TNF-α genotypes showed no significant differences between different groups. However, homozygous A genotype was associated with a significant decrease in FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC and FEF25/75% of predicted in COPD (p < 0.05). As regards SP-B genotypes, resistant smokers had a significantly higher homozygous T genotype frequency compared to COPD and non smokers (p = 0.005). Interleukin 13 genotypes showed no significant difference between different groups. There was a significant decrease in FEF25/75% of predicted in T allele carriers in COPD patients (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COPD is a disease caused by the interaction of combined genes and environmental influences, in the presence of smoking and latent adenovirus C infection, TNF-α -308A, SPB +1580 T and IL-13 -1055 T polymorphisms predispose to the development of COPD.
Project description:Never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of patients with COPD. Their characteristics and possible risk factors in this population are not yet well defined.We analyzed data from 14 countries that participated in the international, population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Participants were aged ? 40 years and completed postbronchodilator spirometry testing plus questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors. A diagnosis of COPD was based on the postbronchodilator FEV?/FVC ratio, according to current GOLD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease) guidelines. In addition to this, the lower limit of normal (LLN) was evaluated as an alternative threshold for the FEV?/FVC ratio.Among 4,291 never smokers, 6.6% met criteria for mild (GOLD stage I) COPD, and 5.6% met criteria for moderate to very severe (GOLD stage II+) COPD. Although never smokers were less likely to have COPD and had less severe COPD than ever smokers, never smokers nonetheless comprised 23.3% (240/1,031) of those classified with GOLD stage II+ COPD. This proportion was similar, 20.5% (171/832), even when the LLN was used as a threshold for the FEV?/FVC ratio. Predictors of COPD in never smokers include age, education, occupational exposure, childhood respiratory diseases, and BMI alterations.This multicenter international study confirms previous evidence that never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of individuals with COPD. Our data suggest that, in addition to increased age, a prior diagnosis of asthma and, among women, lower education levels are associated with an increased risk for COPD among never smokers.