Metamorphic enzyme assembly in polyketide diversification.
ABSTRACT: Natural product chemical diversity is fuelled by the emergence and ongoing evolution of biosynthetic pathways in secondary metabolism. However, co-evolution of enzymes for metabolic diversification is not well understood, especially at the biochemical level. Here, two parallel assemblies with an extraordinarily high sequence identity from Lyngbya majuscula form a beta-branched cyclopropane in the curacin A pathway (Cur), and a vinyl chloride group in the jamaicamide pathway (Jam). The components include a halogenase, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl enzyme cassette for polyketide beta-branching, and an enoyl reductase domain. The halogenase from CurA, and the dehydratases (ECH(1)s), decarboxylases (ECH(2)s) and enoyl reductase domains from both Cur and Jam, were assessed biochemically to determine the mechanisms of cyclopropane and vinyl chloride formation. Unexpectedly, the polyketide beta-branching pathway was modified by introduction of a gamma-chlorination step on (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl mediated by Cur halogenase, a non-haem Fe(ii), alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent enzyme. In a divergent scheme, Cur ECH(2) was found to catalyse formation of the alpha,beta enoyl thioester, whereas Jam ECH(2) formed a vinyl chloride moiety by selectively generating the corresponding beta,gamma enoyl thioester of the 3-methyl-4-chloroglutaconyl decarboxylation product. Finally, the enoyl reductase domain of CurF specifically catalysed an unprecedented cyclopropanation on the chlorinated product of Cur ECH(2) instead of the canonical alpha,beta C = C saturation reaction. Thus, the combination of chlorination and polyketide beta-branching, coupled with mechanistic diversification of ECH(2) and enoyl reductase, leads to the formation of cyclopropane and vinyl chloride moieties. These results reveal a parallel interplay of evolutionary events in multienzyme systems leading to functional group diversity in secondary metabolites.
Project description:The natural product curacin A, a potent anticancer agent, contains a rare cyclopropane group. The five enzymes for cyclopropane biosynthesis are highly similar to enzymes that generate a vinyl chloride moiety in the jamaicamide natural product. The structural biology of this remarkable catalytic adaptability is probed with high-resolution crystal structures of the curacin cyclopropanase (CurF ER), an in vitro enoyl reductase (JamJ ER), and a canonical curacin enoyl reductase (CurK ER). The JamJ and CurK ERs catalyze NADPH-dependent double bond reductions typical of enoyl reductases (ERs) of the medium-chain dehydrogenase reductase (MDR) superfamily. Cyclopropane formation by CurF ER is specified by a short loop which, when transplanted to JamJ ER, confers cyclopropanase activity on the chimeric enzyme. Detection of an adduct of NADPH with the model substrate crotonyl-CoA provides indirect support for a recent proposal of a C2-ene intermediate on the reaction pathway of MDR enoyl-thioester reductases.
Project description:The gene loci fcs, encoding feruloyl coenzyme A (feruloyl-CoA) synthetase, ech, encoding enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, and aat, encoding beta-ketothiolase, which are involved in the catabolism of ferulic acid and eugenol in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 (DSM7063), were localized on a DNA region covered by two EcoRI fragments (E230 and E94), which were recently cloned from a Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 genomic library in the cosmid pVK100. The nucleotide sequences of parts of fragments E230 and E94 were determined, revealing the arrangement of the aforementioned genes. To confirm the function of the structural genes fcs and ech, they were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant strains harboring both genes were able to transform ferulic acid to vanillin. The feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase activities of the fcs and ech gene products, respectively, were confirmed by photometric assays and by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. To prove the essential involvement of the fcs, ech, and aat genes in the catabolism of ferulic acid and eugenol in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199, these genes were inactivated separately by the insertion of omega elements. The corresponding mutants Pseudomonas sp. strain HRfcsOmegaGm and Pseudomonas sp. strain HRechOmegaKm were not able to grow on ferulic acid or on eugenol, whereas the mutant Pseudomonas sp. strain HRaatOmegaKm exhibited a ferulic acid- and eugenol-positive phenotype like the wild type. In conclusion, the degradation pathway of eugenol via ferulic acid and the necessity of the activation of ferulic acid to the corresponding CoA ester was confirmed. The aat gene product was shown not to be involved in this catabolism, thus excluding a beta-oxidation analogous degradation pathway for ferulic acid. Moreover, the function of the ech gene product as an enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase suggests that ferulic acid degradation in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 proceeds via a similar pathway to that recently described for Pseudomonas fluorescens AN103.
Project description:The CurA halogenase (Hal) catalyzes a cryptic chlorination leading to cyclopropane ring formation in the synthesis of the natural product curacin A. Hal belongs to a family of enzymes that use Fe(2+), O(2) and alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG) to perform a variety of halogenation reactions in natural product biosynthesis. Crystal structures of the enzyme in five ligand states reveal strikingly different open and closed conformations dependent on alphaKG binding. The open form represents ligand-free enzyme, preventing substrate from entering the active site until both alphaKG and chloride are bound, while the closed form represents the holoenzyme with alphaKG and chloride coordinated to iron. Candidate amino acid residues involved in substrate recognition were identified by site-directed mutagenesis. These new structures provide direct evidence of a conformational switch driven by alphaKG leading to chlorination of an early pathway intermediate.
Project description:Beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids and branched-chain fatty acids is carried out in mammalian peroxisomes by a multifunctional enzyme (MFE) or D-bifunctional protein, with separate domains for hydroxyacyl coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and steroid carrier protein SCP2. We have found that Dictyostelium has a gene, mfeA, encoding MFE1 with homology to the hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and SCP2 domains. A separate gene, mfeB, encodes MFE2 with homology to the enoyl-CoA hydratase domain. When grown on a diet of bacteria, Dictyostelium cells in which mfeA is disrupted accumulate excess cyclopropane fatty acids and are unable to develop beyond early aggregation. Axenically grown mutant cells, however, developed into normal fruiting bodies composed of spores and stalk cells. Comparative analysis of whole-cell lipid compositions revealed that bacterially grown mutant cells accumulated cyclopropane fatty acids that remained throughout the developmental stages. Such a persistent accumulation was not detected in wild-type cells or axenically grown mutant cells. Bacterial phosphatidylethanolamine that contains abundant cyclopropane fatty acids inhibited the development of even axenically grown mutant cells, while dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine did not. These results suggest that MFE1 protects the cells from the increase of the harmful xenobiotic fatty acids incorporated from their diets and optimizes cellular lipid composition for proper development. Hence, we propose that this enzyme plays an irreplaceable role in the survival strategy of Dictyostelium cells to form spores for their efficient dispersal in nature.
Project description:The mitochondrial beta-oxidation of octa-2,4,6-trienoic acid was studied with the aim of elucidating the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds. Octa-2,4,6-trienoic acid was found to be a respiratory substrate of coupled rat liver mitochondria, but not of rat heart mitochondria. Octa-2,4,6-trienoyl-CoA, the product of the inner-mitochondrial activation of the acid, was chemically synthesized and its degradation by purified enzymes of beta-oxidation was studied spectrophotometrically and by use of h.p.l.c. This compound is a substrate of NADPH-dependent 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase or 4-enoyl-CoA reductase (EC 18.104.22.168), which facilitates its further beta-oxidation. The product obtained after the NADPH-dependent reduction of octa-2,4,6-trienoyl-CoA and one round of beta-oxidation was hex-4-enoyl-CoA, which can be completely degraded via beta-oxidation. It is concluded that polyunsaturated fatty acids with two conjugated double bonds extending from even-numbered carbon atoms can be completely degraded via beta-oxidation because their presumed 2,4,6-trienoyl-CoA intermediates are substrates of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase.
Project description:C-1027 is a potent antitumor antibiotic composed of an apo-protein and a reactive enediyne chromophore. The chromophore consists of four different chemical subunits including an (S)-3-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-beta-phenylalanine moiety, the biosynthesis of which from l-alpha-tyrosine is catalyzed by six proteins, SgcC, SgcC1, SgcC2, SgcC3, SgcC4, and SgcC5. Biochemical characterization of SgcC3 unveiled the following: (i) SgcC3 is a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent halogenase; (ii) SgcC3 acts only on the SgcC2 peptidyl carrier protein-tethered substrates; (iii) SgcC3-catalyzed halogenation requires O2 and reduced FAD and either the C-1027 pathway-specific flavin reductase SgcE6 or E. coli flavin reductase (Fre) can support the SgcC3 activity; (iv) SgcC3 also efficiently catalyzes bromination but not fluorination or iodination; (v) SgcC3 can utilize both (S)- and (R)-beta-tyrosyl-S-SgcC2 but not 3-hydroxy-beta-tyrosyl-S-SgcC2 as a substrate. These results establish that SgcC3 catalyzes the third enzymatic transformation during the biosynthesis of the (S)-3-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-beta-phenylalanine moiety of C-1027 from l-alpha-tyrosine. SgcC3 now represents the second biochemically characterized flavin-dependent halogenase that acts on a carrier protein-tethered substrate. These findings will facilitate the engineering of new C-1027 analogs by combinatorial biosynthesis methods.
Project description:The world's oceans are a rich source of natural products with extremely interesting chemistry. Biosynthetic pathways have been worked out for a few, and the story is being enriched with crystal structures of interesting pathway enzymes. By far, the greatest number of structural insights from marine biosynthetic pathways has originated with studies of curacin A, a poster child for interesting marine chemistry with its cyclopropane and thiazoline rings, internal cis double bond, and terminal alkene. Using the curacin A pathway as a model, structural details are now available for a novel loading enzyme with remarkable dual decarboxylase and acetyltransferase activities, an Fe(2+)/?-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenase that dictates substrate binding order through conformational changes, a decarboxylase that establishes regiochemistry for cyclopropane formation, and a thioesterase with specificity for ?-sulfated substrates that lead to terminal alkene offloading. The four curacin A pathway dehydratases reveal an intrinsic flexibility that may accommodate bulky or stiff polyketide intermediates. In the salinosporamide A pathway, active site volume determines the halide specificity of a halogenase that catalyzes for the synthesis of a halogenated building block. Structures of a number of putative polyketide cyclases may help in understanding reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities although their substrates are presently unknown.
Project description:The atomic view of the active site coupling termed channelling is a major subject in molecular biology. We have determined two distinct crystal structures of the bacterial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the last three sequential reactions in the fatty acid beta-oxidation cycle. The alpha2beta2 heterotetrameric structure shows the uneven ring architecture, where all the catalytic centers of 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECH), L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HACD) and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KACT) face a large inner solvent region. The substrate, anchored through the 3'-phosphate ADP moiety, allows the fatty acid tail to pivot from the ECH to HACD active sites, and finally to the KACT active site. Coupling with striking domain rearrangements, the incorporation of the tail into the KACT cavity and the relocation of 3'-phosphate ADP bring the reactive C2-C3 bond to the correct position for cleavage. The alpha-helical linker specific for the multienzyme contributes to the pivoting center formation and the substrate transfer through its deformation. This channelling mechanism could be applied to other beta-oxidation multienzymes, as revealed from the homology model of the human mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme complex.
Project description:Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria are the major causative agent of avian coccidiosis, leading to high economic losses in the poultry industry. Recent results show that Eimeria tenella harbours an apicoplast organelle, and that a key biosynthetic enzyme, enoyl reductase, is located in this organelle. In related parasites, enoyl reductase is one component of a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) and has proven to be an attractive target for antimicrobial compounds. We cloned and expressed the mature form of E. tenella enoyl reductase (EtENR) for biochemical and structural studies. Recombinant EtENR exhibits NADH-dependent enoyl reductase activity and is inhibited by triclosan with an IC50 value of 60 nm. The crystal structure of EtENR reveals overall similarity with other ENR enzymes; however, the active site of EtENR is unoccupied, a state rarely observed in other ENR structures. Furthermore, the position of the central beta-sheet appears to block NADH binding and would require significant movement to allow NADH binding, a feature not previously seen in the ENR family. We analysed the E. tenella genomic database for orthologues of well-characterized bacterial and apicomplexan FAS enzymes and identified 6 additional genes, suggesting that E. tenella contains a type II FAS capable of synthesizing saturated, but not unsaturated, fatty acids. Interestingly, we also identified sequences that appear to encode multifunctional type I FAS enzymes, a feature also observed in Toxoplasma gondii, highlighting the similarity between these apicomplexan parasites.
Project description:A novel family of [1,4]thiazino[2,3,4-<i>ij</i>]quinolin-4-ium derivatives was synthesized by annulation reactions of 8-quinolinesulfenyl chloride with unsaturated heteroatom and heterocyclic compounds. It was found that the reactions with 4-pentenoic and 5-hexenoic acids, allyl chloride and bromide, allyl cyanate and vinyl heterocyclic compounds (<i>N</i>-vinyl pyrrolidin-2-one and 1-vinylimidazole) proceeded in a regioselective mode but with the opposite regiochemistry. The reactions with vinyl heterocyclic compounds included electrophilic addition of the sulfur atom of 8-quinolinesulfenyl chloride to the β-carbon atom of the vinyl group. In the case of other substrates, the annulation proceeded with the attachment of the sulfur atom to the α-carbon atom of the vinyl group. The antibacterial activity of novel water-soluble compounds against <i>Enterococcus durans</i>, <i>Bacillus subtilis</i> and <i>Escherichia coli</i> was evaluated. Compounds with high antibacterial activity were found.