The marine sponge metabolite mycothiazole: a novel prototype mitochondrial complex I inhibitor.
ABSTRACT: A natural product chemistry-based approach was applied to discover small-molecule inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). A Petrosaspongia mycofijiensis marine sponge extract yielded mycothiazole (1), a solid tumor selective compound with no known mechanism for its cell line-dependent cytotoxic activity. Compound 1 inhibited hypoxic HIF-1 signaling in tumor cells (IC(50) 1nM) that correlated with the suppression of hypoxia-stimulated tumor angiogenesis in vitro. However, 1 exhibited pronounced neurotoxicity in vitro. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 selectively suppresses mitochondrial respiration at complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Unlike rotenone, MPP(+), annonaceous acetogenins, piericidin A, and other complex I inhibitors, mycothiazole is a mixed polyketide/peptide-derived compound with a central thiazole moiety. The exquisite potency and structural novelty of 1 suggest that it may serve as a valuable molecular probe for mitochondrial biology and HIF-mediated hypoxic signaling.
Project description:Products that contain twig extracts of pawpaw (Asimina triloba) are widely consumed anticancer alternative medicines. Pawpaw crude extract (CE) and purified acetogenins inhibited hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-mediated hypoxic signaling pathways in tumor cells. In T47D cells, pawpaw CE and the acetogenins 10-hydroxyglaucanetin (1), annonacin (2), and annonacin A (3) inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC(50) values of 0.02 microg/mL, 12 nM, 13 nM, and 31 nM, respectively. This inhibition correlates with the suppression of the hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes VEGF and GLUT-1. The induction of secreted VEGF protein represents a key event in hypoxia-induced tumor angiogenesis. Both the extract and the purified acetogenins blocked the angiogenesis-stimulating activity of hypoxic T47D cells in vitro. Pawpaw extract and acetogenins inhibited HIF-1 activation by blocking the hypoxic induction of nuclear HIF-1alpha protein. The inhibition of HIF-1 activation was associated with the suppression of mitochondrial respiration at complex I. Thus, the inhibition of HIF-1 activation and hypoxic tumor angiogenesis constitutes a novel mechanism of action for these anticancer alternative medicines.
Project description:Hypoxia occurs in a variety of pathological events, including the formation of solid tumors. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? is stabilized under hypoxic conditions and is a key molecule in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Seeking to develop novel cancer therapeutics, we investigated small molecules from our in-house chemical libraries to target HIF-1?. We employed a dual-luciferase assay that uses a luciferase (Luc) reporter vector harboring five copies of hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) in the promoter. Under hypoxic conditions that increased Luc reporter activity by four-fold, we screened 144 different compounds, nine of which showed 30-50% inhibition of hypoxia-induced Luc reporter activity. Among these, "Compound 12, a benzopyranyl 1,2,3-triazole" was the most efficient at inhibiting the expression of HIF-1? under hypoxic conditions, reducing its expression by 80%. Under hypoxic conditions, the half maximal IC50 of the compound was 24 nM in HEK-293 human embryonic kidney cells, and 2 nM in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Under hypoxic conditions, Compound 12 increased hydroxylated HIF-1? levels and HIF-1? ubiquitination, and also dose-dependently decreased HIF-1? target gene expression as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. Furthermore, this compound inhibited VEGF-induced in vitro angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and in vivo, it inhibited chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis. In allogaft assays, cotreatment with Compound 12 and gefitinib significantly inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis. Compound 12 can be a novel inhibitor of HIF-1? by accelerating its degradation, and shows much potential as an anti-cancer agent through its ability to suppress tumor growth and angiogenesis.
Project description:Five bioactive Annonaceous acetogenins, including three new compounds, annonamuricins A (1), B (2), and C (3), one registered but no spectral data reported compounds, annonamuricin D (4), and one known compound annonacin (5) were isolated from Graviola fruit (Annona muricata) and further determined through bioassay-guided fractionation. All five compounds are C35 Anonnonaceous acetogenins with a mono-tetrahydrofuran ring and four hydroxyls. Their structures were elucidated using spectral methods as well as chemical modification after isolation via chromatographic techniques and HPLC purification. These acetogenins demonstrated potent anti-proliferative activities against human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.
Project description:Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors, and the extent of tumor hypoxia correlates with advanced disease stages and treatment resistance. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) represents an important tumor-selective molecular target for anticancer drug discovery directed at tumor hypoxia. A natural product chemistry-based approach was employed to discover small molecule inhibitors of HIF-1. Bioassay-guided isolation of an active lipid extract of the tropical legumaceous plant Lonchocarpus glabrescens and structure elucidation afforded two new HIF-1 inhibitors: alpinumisoflavone (compound 1) and 4'-O-methylalpinumisoflavone (compound 2). In human breast tumor T47D cells, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC(50) values of 5 and 0.6 mum, respectively. At the concentrations that in hibited HIF-1 activation, compound 2 inhibited hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes (CDKN1A, GLUT-1, and VEGF), tumor angiogenesis in vitro, cell migration, and chemotaxis. Compound 2 inhibits HIF-1 activation by blocking the induction of nuclear HIF-1alpha protein, the oxygen-regulated subunit that controls HIF-1 activity. Mechanistic studies indicate that, unlike rotenone and other mitochondrial inhibitors, compound 2 represents the first small molecule that inhibits HIF-1 activation by simultaneously suppressing mitochondrial respiration and disrupting protein translation in vitro. This unique mechanism distinguishes compound 2 from other small molecule HIF-1 inhibitors that are simple mitochondrial inhibitors or flavanoid-based protein kinase inhibitors.
Project description:The hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF) 1? and HIF-2? play a critical role in cellular response to hypoxia. Elevated HIF-? expression correlates with poor patient survival in a large number of cancers. Recent evidence suggests that HIF-2? appears to be preferentially expressed in neuronal tumor cells that exhibit cancer stem cell characteristics. These observations suggest that expression of HIF-1? and HIF-2? is differentially regulated in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of HIF-1? and HIF-2? under different physiologically relevant hypoxic conditions. We found that transcription of HIF-2? was consistently increased by hypoxia, whereas transcription of HIF-1? showed variable levels of repression. Mechanistically, differential regulation of HIF-? transcription involved hypoxia-induced changes in acetylation of core histones H3 and H4 associated with the proximal promoters of the HIF-1? or HIF-2? gene. We also found that, although highly stable under acute hypoxia, HIF-1? and HIF-2? proteins become destabilized under chronic hypoxia. Our results have thus provided new mechanistic insights into the differential regulation of HIF-1? and HIF-2? by the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. These findings also suggest an important role of HIF-2? in the regulation of tumor progression under chronic hypoxia.
Project description:Tumor cycling hypoxia is now a well-recognized phenomenon in animal and human solid tumors. However, how tumor cycling hypoxia impacts chemotherapy is unclear. In the present study, we explored the impact and the mechanism of cycling hypoxia on tumor microenvironment-mediated chemoresistance. Hoechst 33342 staining and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activation labeling together with immunofluorescence imaging and fluorescence-activated cell sorting were used to isolate hypoxic tumor subpopulations from human glioblastoma xenografts. ABCB1 expression, P-glycoprotein function, and chemosensitivity in tumor cells derived from human glioblastoma xenografts or in vitro cycling hypoxic stress-treated glioblastoma cells were determined using Western blot analysis, drug accumulation and efflux assays, and MTT assay, respectively. ABCB1 expression and P-glycoprotein function were upregulated under cycling hypoxia in glioblastoma cells concomitant with decreased responses to doxorubicin and BCNU. However, ABCB1 knockdown inhibited these effects. Moreover, immunofluorescence imaging and flow cytometric analysis for ABCB1, HIF-1 activation, and Hoechst 3342 in glioblastoma revealed highly localized ABCB1 expression predominantly in potentially cycling hypoxic areas with HIF-1 activation and blood perfusion in the solid tumor microenvironment. The cycling hypoxic tumor cells derived from glioblastoma xenografts exhibited higher ABCB1 expression, P-glycoprotein function, and chemoresistance, compared with chronic hypoxic and normoxic cells. Tumor-bearing mice that received YC-1, an HIF-1? inhibitor, exhibited suppressed tumor microenvironment-induced ABCB1 induction and enhanced survival rate in BCNU chemotherapy. Cycling hypoxia plays a vital role in tumor microenvironment-mediated chemoresistance through the HIF-1-dependent induction of ABCB1. HIF-1 blockade before and concurrent with chemotherapy could suppress cycling hypoxia-induced chemoresistance.
Project description:The activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an essential role in tumor development, tumor progression, and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. In order to identify compounds targeting the HIF pathway, a small molecule library was screened using a luciferase-driven HIF-1 reporter cell line under hypoxia. The high-throughput screening led to the identification of a class of aminoalkyl-substituted compounds that inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 target gene expression in human lung cancer cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations. Lead structure BAY 87-2243 was found to inhibit HIF-1? and HIF-2? protein accumulation under hypoxic conditions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line H460 but had no effect on HIF-1? protein levels induced by the hypoxia mimetics desferrioxamine or cobalt chloride. BAY 87-2243 had no effect on HIF target gene expression levels in RCC4 cells lacking Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) activity nor did the compound affect the activity of HIF prolyl hydroxylase-2. Antitumor activity of BAY 87-2243, suppression of HIF-1? protein levels, and reduction of HIF-1 target gene expression in vivo were demonstrated in a H460 xenograft model. BAY 87-2243 did not inhibit cell proliferation under standard conditions. However under glucose depletion, a condition favoring mitochondrial ATP generation as energy source, BAY 87-2243 inhibited cell proliferation in the nanomolar range. Further experiments revealed that BAY 87-2243 inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity but has no effect on complex III activity. Interference with mitochondrial function to reduce hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activity in tumors might be an interesting therapeutic approach to overcome chemo- and radiotherapy-resistance of hypoxic tumors.
Project description:A small library of 2H-benzo[b][1,4] oxazine derivative was synthesized and their biological activity was tested on HepG2 cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. From preliminary screening, we found compound 10 and 11 specifically inhibit hypoxic cancer cell growth IC(50) 87+/-1.8microM and IC(50) 10+/-3.7microM while sparing 'normoxic' cells IC(50) >600M and >1mM (not applicable), respectively. We tested the effect of 10 on MTT, clonogenic and hypoxia induced genes. The MTT correlates with clonogenic assays and most importantly compound 10 down regulates hypoxia induces genes (HIF-1alpha, P21 and VEGF) appropriately. We are in the process to explore the molecular mechanism of action of oxazine derivative compounds on hypoxia tumor cells.
Project description:Down-regulation by small interfering RNA or absence of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1alpha) has been shown to lead to increased sensitivity to glycolytic inhibitors in hypoxic tumor cells. In surveying a number of tumor types for differences in intrinsic levels of HIF under hypoxia, we find that the reduction of the upstream pathways of HIF, AKT, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) correlates with increased toxic effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) in lung cancer cell lines when treated under hypoxia. Because HIF-1alpha translation is regulated by mTOR, we examined the effects of blocking mTOR under hypoxia with an analogue of rapamycin (CCI-779) in those cell lines that showed increased mTOR and AKT activity and found that HIF-1alpha down-regulation coincided with increased 2-DG killing. CCI-779, however, was ineffective in increasing 2-DG toxicity in cell lines that did not express HIF. These results support the hypothesis that although mTOR inhibition leads to the blockage of numerous downstream targets, CCI-779 increases the toxicity of 2-DG in hypoxic cells through down-regulation of HIF-1alpha. Overall, our findings show that CCI-779 hypersensitizes hypoxic tumor cells to 2-DG and suggests that the intrinsic expression of AKT, mTOR, and HIF in lung cancer, as well as other tumor types, may be important in dictating the decision on how best to use 2-DG alone or in combination with CCI-799 to kill hypoxic tumor cells clinically.
Project description:The compound APR-246 (PRIMA-1MET) is a known reactivator of (mutant) p53 and inducer of oxidative stress which can sensitize cancer cells to platinum-based chemotherapeutics. However, the effect of a hypoxic tumor environment has been largely overlooked in this interaction. This study focusses on the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the p53 tumor suppressor protein in hypoxia-induced cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and the potential of APR-246 to overcome this resistance. We observed that hypoxia-induced cisplatin resistance only occurred in the p53 mutant NCI-H2228Q331* cell line, and not in the wild type A549 and mutant NCI-H1975R273H cell lines. Cisplatin reduced HIF-1α protein levels in NCI-H2228Q331* cells, leading to a shift in expression from HIF-1α-dependent to p53-dependent transcription targets under hypoxia. APR-246 was able to overcome hypoxia-induced cisplatin resistance in NCI-H2228Q331* cells in a synergistic manner without affecting mutant p53Q331* transcriptional activity, but significantly depleting total glutathione levels more efficiently under hypoxic conditions. Synergism was dependent on the presence of mutant p53Q331* and the induction of reactive oxygen species, with depletion of one or the other leading to loss of synergism. Our data further support the rationale of combining APR-246 with cisplatin in NSCLC, since their synergistic interaction is retained or enforced under hypoxic conditions in the presence of mutant p53.