Critical functions of Rpa3/Ssb3 in S-phase DNA damage responses in fission yeast.
ABSTRACT: Replication Protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding complex required for DNA replication and repair, homologous recombination, DNA damage checkpoint signaling, and telomere maintenance. Whilst the larger RPA subunits, Rpa1 and Rpa2, have essential interactions with ssDNA, the molecular functions of the smallest subunit Rpa3 are unknown. Here, we investigate the Rpa3 ortholog Ssb3 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and find that it is dispensable for cell viability, checkpoint signaling, RPA foci formation, and meiosis. However, increased spontaneous Rad11Rpa1 and Rad22Rad52 nuclear foci in ssb3? cells indicate genome maintenance defects. Moreover, Ssb3 is required for resistance to genotoxins that disrupt DNA replication. Genetic interaction studies indicate that Ssb3 has a close functional relationship with the Mms1-Mms22 protein complex, which is required for survival after DNA damage in S-phase, and with the mitotic functions of Mus81-Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase that is required for recovery from replication fork collapse. From these studies we propose that Ssb3 plays a critical role in mediating RPA functions that are required for repair or tolerance of DNA lesions in S-phase. Rpa3 orthologs in humans and other species may have a similar function.
Project description:Mms1 and Mms22 are subunits of an Rtt101-based E3 ubiquitin ligase required for replication of damaged DNA templates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The function and evolutionary conservation of this DNA repair module are unknown. Here we report the characterization of an Mms1 ortholog in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Fission yeast Mms1 was discovered through its physical association with S. pombe Mms22 (also known as Mus7). Loss of S. pombe Mms1 results in the accumulation of spontaneous DNA damage, mitotic delay, and hypersensitivity to genotoxins such as camptothecin that perturb replisome progression. Homologous recombination repair proteins Rhp51 and Rad22 (Rad51 and Rad52 orthologs, respectively) are critical for survival in the absence of Mms1; however, there is no such requirement for Mus81-Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase that is essential for recovery from broken replication forks. Mms1 and Mms22 mutants share similar phenotypes and are genetically epistatic under unperturbed growth conditions and following exposure to genotoxins. From these data we conclude that an evolutionary conserved Mms1-Mms22 complex is required for replication of damaged DNA in fission yeast.
Project description:The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has three cullin proteins, which act as platforms for Cullin-based E3 ubiquitin ligases. Genetic evidence indicates that Cul8, together with Mms1, Mms22, and Esc4, is involved in the repair of DNA damage that can occur during DNA replication. Cul8 is thought to form a complex with these proteins, but the composition and the function of Cul8-based E3 ubiquitin ligases remain largely uncharacterized. Herein, we report a comprehensive biochemical analysis of Cul8 complexes. Cul8 was found to form a Cul8-Mms1-Mms22-Esc4 complex under physiological conditions, with Mms1 bridging Cul8 and Mms22 and Mms22 bridging Mms1 and Esc4. Domain analysis demonstrated that the N-terminal region of Mms1 and the C-terminal region of Mms22 are required for the Mms1-Mms22 interaction, whereas the N-terminal region of Mms22 is required for the Mms22-Esc4 interaction. We also found other Cul8-Mms1-binding proteins Ctf4, Esc2, and Orc5 using yeast two-hybrid screening. Esc4 and Ctf4 bound to Mms22 directly and bound to Cul8-Mms1 in the presence of Mms22, whereas Esc2 and Orc5 interacted with both Cul8 and Mms1, independently. We found that Cul8, Mms1, and Mms22 participated in the regulation of transcriptional silencing of yeast telomeres. These results suggest that Cul8-Mms1, as part of various protein complexes, is involved in the regulation of chromatin metabolism.
Project description:Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein consisting of RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3 subunits that binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with high affinity. The response to replication stress requires the recruitment of RPA and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex. RPA bound to ssDNA stabilizes stalled replication forks by recruiting checkpoint proteins involved in fork stabilization. MRN can bind DNA structures encountered at stalled or collapsed replication forks, such as ssDNA-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) junctions or breaks, and promote the restart of DNA replication. Here, we demonstrate that RPA2 phosphorylation regulates the assembly of DNA damage-induced RPA and MRN foci. Using purified proteins, we observe a direct interaction between RPA with both NBS1 and MRE11. By utilizing RPA bound to ssDNA, we demonstrate that substituting RPA with phosphorylated RPA or a phosphomimetic weakens the interaction with the MRN complex. Also, the N-terminus of RPA1 is a critical component of the RPA-MRN protein-protein interaction. Deletion of the N-terminal oligonucleotide-oligosaccharide binding fold (OB-fold) of RPA1 abrogates interactions of RPA with MRN and individual proteins of the MRN complex. Further identification of residues critical for MRN binding in the N-terminus of RPA1 shows that substitution of Arg31 and Arg41 with alanines disrupts the RPA-MRN interaction and alters cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Thus, the N-terminus of RPA1 and phosphorylation of RPA2 regulate RPA-MRN interactions and are important in the response to DNA damage.
Project description:In budding yeast the cullin Rtt101 promotes replication fork progression through natural pause sites and areas of DNA damage, but its relevant subunits and molecular mechanism remain poorly understood. Here, we show that in budding yeast Mms1 and Mms22 are functional subunits of an Rtt101-based ubiquitin ligase that associates with the conjugating-enzyme Cdc34. Replication forks in mms1Delta, mms22Delta and rtt101Delta cells are sensitive to collisions with drug-induced DNA lesions, but not to transient pausing induced by nucleotide depletion. Interaction studies and sequence analysis have shown that Mms1 resembles human DDB1, suggesting that Rtt101(Mms1) is the budding yeast counterpart of the mammalian CUL4(DDB1) ubiquitin ligase family. Rtt101 interacts in an Mms1-dependent manner with the putative substrate-specific adaptors Mms22 and Crt10, the latter being a regulator of expression of ribonucleotide reductase. Taken together, our data suggest that the Rtt101(Mms1) ubiquitin ligase complex might be required to reorganize replication forks that encounter DNA lesions.
Project description:Meiotic recombination permits exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. The replication protein A (RPA) complex, the predominant ssDNA-binding complex, is required for nearly all aspects of DNA metabolism, but its role in mammalian meiotic recombination remains unknown due to the embryonic lethality of RPA mutant mice. RPA is a heterotrimer of RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3. We find that loss of RPA1, the largest subunit, leads to disappearance of RPA2 and RPA3, resulting in the absence of the RPA complex. Using an inducible germline-specific inactivation strategy, we find that loss of RPA completely abrogates loading of RAD51/DMC1 recombinases to programmed meiotic DNA double strand breaks, thus blocking strand invasion required for chromosome pairing and synapsis. Surprisingly, loading of MEIOB, SPATA22, and ATR to DNA double strand breaks is RPA-independent and does not promote RAD51/DMC1 recruitment in the absence of RPA. Finally, inactivation of RPA reduces crossover formation. Our results demonstrate that RPA plays two distinct roles in meiotic recombination: an essential role in recombinase recruitment at early stages and an important role in promoting crossover formation at later stages.
Project description:Faithful DNA replication and repair requires the activity of cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL4), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The budding yeast Cul4 homologue, Rtt101, in complex with the linker Mms1 and the putative substrate adaptor Mms22 promotes progression of replication forks through damaged DNA. Here we characterized the interactome of Mms22 and found that the Rtt101(Mms22) ligase associates with the replisome progression complex during S-phase via the amino-terminal WD40 domain of Ctf4. Moreover, genetic screening for suppressors of the genotoxic sensitivity of rtt101? cells identified a cluster of replication proteins, among them a component of the fork protection complex, Mrc1. In contrast to rtt101? and mms22? cells, mrc1? rtt101? and mrc1? mms22? double mutants complete DNA replication upon replication stress by facilitating the repair/restart of stalled replication forks using a Rad52-dependent mechanism. Our results suggest that the Rtt101(Mms22) E3 ligase does not induce Mrc1 degradation, but specifically counteracts Mrc1's replicative function, possibly by modulating its interaction with the CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) complex at stalled forks.
Project description:In budding yeast, Cdc13, Stn1, and Ten1 form a heterotrimeric complex (CST) that is essential for telomere protection and maintenance. Previous bioinformatics analysis revealed a putative oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold at the N terminus of Stn1 (Stn1N) that shows limited sequence similarity to the OB fold of Rpa2, a subunit of the eukaryotic ssDNA-binding protein complex replication protein A (RPA). Here we present functional and structural analyses of Stn1 and Ten1 from multiple budding and fission yeast. The crystal structure of the Candida tropicalis Stn1N complexed with Ten1 demonstrates an Rpa2N-Rpa3-like complex. In both structures, the OB folds of the two components pack against each other through interactions between two C-terminal helices. The structure of the C-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Stn1 (Stn1C) was found to comprise two related winged helix-turn-helix (WH) motifs, one of which is most similar to the WH motif at the C terminus of Rpa2, again supporting the notion that Stn1 resembles Rpa2. The crystal structure of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Stn1N-Ten1 complex exhibits a virtually identical architecture as the C. tropicalis Stn1N-Ten1. Functional analyses of the Candida albicans Stn1 and Ten1 proteins revealed critical roles for these proteins in suppressing aberrant telomerase and recombination activities at telomeres. Mutations that disrupt the Stn1-Ten1 interaction induce telomere uncapping and abolish the telomere localization of Ten1. Collectively, our structural and functional studies illustrate that, instead of being confined to budding yeast telomeres, the CST complex may represent an evolutionarily conserved RPA-like telomeric complex at the 3' overhangs that works in parallel with or instead of the well-characterized POT1-TPP1/TEBPalpha-beta complex.
Project description:Radioresistance-induced residual and recurrent tumours are the main cause of treatment failure in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Thus, the mechanisms of NPC radioresistance and predictive markers of NPC prognosis and radioresistance need to be investigated and identified. In this study, we identified RPA3 as a candidate radioresistance marker using RNA-seq of NPC samples. In vitro studies further confirmed that RPA3 affected the radiosensitivity of NPC cells. Specifically, the overexpression of RPA3 enhanced radioresistance and the capacity for DNA repair of NPC cells, whereas inhibiting RPA3 expression sensitized NPC cells to irradiation and decreased the DNA repair capacity. Furthermore, the overexpression of RPA3 enhanced RAD51 foci formation in NPC cells after irradiation. Immunohistochemical assays in 104 NPC specimens and 21 normal epithelium specimens indicated that RPA3 was significantly up-regulated in NPC tissues, and a log-rank test suggested that in patients with NPC, high RPA3 expression was associated with shorter overall survival (OS) and a higher recurrence rate compared with low expression (5-year OS rates: 67.2% versus 86.2%; 5-year recurrence rates: 14.8% versus 2.3%). Moreover, TCGA data also indicated that high RPA3 expression correlated with poor OS and a high recurrence rate in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) after radiotherapy. Taken together, the results of our study demonstrated that RPA3 regulated the radiosensitivity and DNA repair capacity of NPC cells. Thus, RPA3 may serve as a new predictive biomarker for NPC prognosis and radioresistance to help guide the diagnosis and individualized treatment of patients with NPC.
Project description:Histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for the maintenance of genome stability under normal conditions and upon DNA replication stress. Here we show that in the absence of H3 lysine 56 acetylation replisome components become deleterious when replication forks collapse at natural replication block sites. This lethality is not a direct consequence of chromatin assembly defects during replication fork progression. Rather, our genetic analyses suggest that in the presence of replicative stress H3 lysine 56 acetylation uncouples the Cdc45-Mcm2-7-GINS DNA helicase complex and DNA polymerases through the replisome component Ctf4. In addition, we discovered that the N-terminal domain of Ctf4, necessary for the interaction of Ctf4 with Mms22, an adaptor protein of the Rtt101-Mms1 E3 ubiquitin ligase, is required for the function of the H3 lysine 56 acetylation pathway, suggesting that replicative stress promotes the interaction between Ctf4 and Mms22. Taken together, our results indicate that Ctf4 is an essential member of the H3 lysine 56 acetylation pathway and provide novel mechanistic insights into understanding the role of H3 lysine 56 acetylation in maintaining genome stability upon replication stress.
Project description:Generation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is required for the template strand formation during DNA replication. Replication Protein A (RPA) is an ssDNA-binding protein essential for protecting ssDNA at replication forks in eukaryotic cells. While significant progress has been made in characterizing the role of the RPA-ssDNA complex, how RPA is loaded at replication forks remains poorly explored. Here, we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein regulator of Ty1 transposition 105 (Rtt105) binds RPA and helps load it at replication forks. Cells lacking Rtt105 exhibit a dramatic reduction in RPA loading at replication forks, compromised DNA synthesis under replication stress, and increased genome instability. Mechanistically, we show that Rtt105 mediates the RPA-importin interaction and also promotes RPA binding to ssDNA directly in vitro, but is not present in the final RPA-ssDNA complex. Single-molecule studies reveal that Rtt105 affects the binding mode of RPA to ssDNA These results support a model in which Rtt105 functions as an RPA chaperone that escorts RPA to the nucleus and facilitates its loading onto ssDNA at replication forks.