Compromized geranylgeranylation of RhoA and Rac1 in mevalonate kinase deficiency.
ABSTRACT: Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is an autoinflammatory disorder caused by mutations in the MVK gene resulting in decreased activity of the enzyme mevalonate kinase (MK). Although MK is required for biosynthesis of all isoprenoids, in MKD, in particular, the timely synthesis of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate appears to be compromised. Because small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) depend on geranylgeranylation for their proper signaling function, we studied the effect of MK deficiency on geranylgeranylation and activation of the two small GTPases, RhoA and Rac1. We demonstrate that both geranylgeranylation and activation of the two GTPases are more easily disturbed in MKD cells than in control cells when the flux though the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway is suppressed by low concentrations of simvastatin. The limited capacity of geranylgeranylation in MKD cells readily leads to markedly increased levels of nonisoprenylated and activated GTPases, which will affect proper signaling by these GTPases.
Project description:Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is an autoinflammatory metabolic disorder characterized by life-long recurring episodes of fever and inflammation, often without clear cause. MKD is caused by bi-allelic pathogenic variants in the <i>MVK</i> gene, resulting in a decreased activity of the encoded enzyme mevalonate kinase (MK). MK is an essential enzyme in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway, which generates both non-sterol and sterol isoprenoids. The inflammatory symptoms of patients with MKD point to a major role for isoprenoids in the regulation of the innate immune system. In particular a temporary shortage of the non-sterol isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) is increasingly linked with inflammation in MKD. The shortage of GGPP compromises protein prenylation, which is thought to be one of the main causes leading to the inflammatory episodes in MKD. In this review, we discuss current views and the state of knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms in MKD, with particular focus on the role of compromised protein prenylation.
Project description:Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn disorder of cholesterol biosynthesis caused by mutations in the mevalonate kinase (MK) gene, leading to MK enzyme decreased activity. The consequent shortage of mevalonate-derived isoprenoid compounds results in an inflammatory phenotype, caused by the activation of the NALP3 inflammasome that determines an increased caspase-1 activation and IL-1 ? release. In MKD, febrile temperature can further decrease the residual MK activity, leading to mevalonate pathway modulation and to possible disease worsening. We previously demonstrated that the administration of exogenous isoprenoids such as geraniol or the modulation of the enzymatic pathway with drugs, such as Tipifarnib, partially rescues the inflammatory phenotype associated with the defective mevalonic pathway. However, it has not been investigated yet how temperature can affect the success of these treatments. Thus, we investigated the effect of temperature on primary human monocytes from MKD patients. Furthermore the ability of geraniol and Tipifarnib to reduce the abnormal inflammatory response, already described at physiological temperature in MKD, was studied in a febrile condition. We evidenced the role of temperature in the modulation of the inflammatory events and suggested strongly considering this variable in future researches aimed at finding a treatment for MKD.
Project description:The rare autoinflammatory disease mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD, which includes HIDS and mevalonic aciduria) is caused by recessive, pathogenic variants in the MVK gene encoding mevalonate kinase. Deficiency of this enzyme decreases the synthesis of isoprenoid lipids and thus prevents the normal post-translational prenylation of small GTPase proteins, which then accumulate in their unprenylated form. We recently optimized a sensitive assay capable of detecting unprenylated Rab GTPase proteins in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and showed that this assay distinguished MKD from other autoinflammatory diseases. We have now analyzed PBMCs from an additional six patients with genetically-confirmed MKD (with different compound heterozygous MVK genotypes), and compared these with PBMCs from three healthy volunteers and four unaffected control individuals heterozygous for the commonest pathogenic variant, MVK V377I . We detected a clear accumulation of unprenylated Rab proteins, as well as unprenylated Rap1A by western blotting, in all six genetically-confirmed MKD patients compared to heterozygous controls and healthy volunteers. Furthermore, in the three subjects for whom measurements of residual mevalonate kinase activity was available, enzymatic activity inversely correlated with the extent of the defect in protein prenylation. Finally, a heterozygous MVK V377I patient presenting with autoinflammatory symptoms did not have defective prenylation, indicating a different cause of disease. These findings support the notion that the extent of loss of enzyme function caused by biallelic MVK variants determines the severity of defective protein prenylation, and the accumulation of unprenylated proteins in PBMCs may be a sensitive and consistent biomarker that could be used to aid, or help rule out, diagnosis of MKD.
Project description:Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is caused by mutations in a key enzyme of the mevalonate-cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, leading to recurrent autoinflammatory disease characterised by enhanced release of interleukin-1? (IL-1?). It is currently believed that the inflammatory phenotype of MKD is triggered by temperature-sensitive loss of mevalonate kinase activity and reduced biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids required for the prenylation of small GTPase proteins. However, previous studies have not clearly shown any change in protein prenylation in patient cells under normal conditions. With lymphoblast cell lines from two compound heterozygous MKD patients, we used a highly sensitive in vitro prenylation assay, together with quantitative mass spectrometry, to reveal a subtle accumulation of unprenylated Rab GTPases in cells cultured for 3 days or more at 40?°C compared with 37?°C. This included a 200% increase in unprenylated Rab7A, Rab14 and Rab1A. Inhibition of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) activation by fatostatin led to more pronounced accumulation of unprenylated Rab proteins in MKD cells but not parent cells, suggesting that cultured MKD cells may partially overcome the loss of isoprenoid lipids by SREBP-mediated upregulation of enzymes required for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, while inhibition of Rho/Rac/Rap prenylation promoted the release of IL-1?, specific inhibition of Rab prenylation by NE10790 had no effect in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or human THP-1 monocytic cells. These studies demonstrate for the first time that mutations in mevalonate kinase can lead to a mild, temperature-induced defect in the prenylation of small GTPases, but that loss of prenylated Rab GTPases is not the cause of enhanced IL-1? release in MKD.
Project description:Deficiency in mevalonate kinase (MVK) causes systemic inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms linking the mevalonate pathway to inflammation remain obscure. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, a non-sterol intermediate of the mevalonate pathway, is the substrate for protein geranylgeranylation, a protein post-translational modification that is catalyzed by protein geranylgeranyl transferase I (GGTase I). Pyrin is an innate immune sensor that forms an active inflammasome in response to bacterial toxins. Mutations in MEFV (encoding human PYRIN) result in autoinflammatory familial Mediterranean fever syndrome. We found that protein geranylgeranylation enabled Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) by promoting the interaction between the small GTPase Kras and the PI(3)K catalytic subunit p110?. Macrophages that were deficient in GGTase I or p110? exhibited constitutive release of interleukin 1? that was dependent on MEFV but independent of the NLRP3, AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes. In the absence of protein geranylgeranylation, compromised PI(3)K activity allows an unchecked TLR-induced inflammatory responses and constitutive activation of the Pyrin inflammasome.
Project description:Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is a rare hereditary auto-inflammatory syndrome due to mutations in mevalonate kinase, the second enzyme of mevalonate pathway of cholesterol, and nonsterol-isoprenoids biosynthesis. The shortage of mevalonate-derived intermediates, and in particular of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), has been linked with the activation of caspase-1 and thereby with the production of IL-1beta, but the true concatenation of these two events has not been clarified yet. We hypothesized that inflammasomes could mediate the activation of caspase-1 due to the shortage of GGPP. We monitored the expression of the principal proteins (NALP1, NALP3 and IPAF) of the three known inflammasomes, first in a cellular model of MKD and then in two MKD patients, after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. In healthy subjects, alendronate alone induced the expression of NALP1 and NALP3, and then together with LPS it induced a dramatic increase in NALP3 expression. In MKD patients, NALP3 expression was higher than in untreated healthy controls. Our results, although preliminary, showed that the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway led to a hyper-expression of NALP3, suggesting a possible involvement of NALP3-inflammasome in the activation of caspase-1 consequent to GGPP decrement. This is the first time that the involvement of the inflammasome complexes was shown in MKD pathogenesis.
Project description:Thymocyte egress is a critical determinant of T cell homeostasis and adaptive immunity. Despite the roles of G protein-coupled receptors in thymocyte emigration, the downstream signaling mechanism remains poorly defined. Here, we report the discrete roles for the two branches of mevalonate metabolism-fueled protein prenylation pathway in thymocyte egress and immune homeostasis. The protein geranylgeranyltransferase Pggt1b is up-regulated in single-positive thymocytes, and loss of Pggt1b leads to marked defects in thymocyte egress and T cell lymphopenia in peripheral lymphoid organs in vivo. Mechanistically, Pggt1b bridges sphingosine-1-phosphate and chemokine-induced migratory signals with the activation of Cdc42 and Pak signaling and mevalonate-dependent thymocyte trafficking. In contrast, the farnesyltransferase Fntb, which mediates a biochemically similar process of protein farnesylation, is dispensable for thymocyte egress but contributes to peripheral T cell homeostasis. Collectively, our studies establish context-dependent effects of protein prenylation and unique roles of geranylgeranylation in thymic egress and highlight that the interplay between cellular metabolism and posttranslational modification underlies immune homeostasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mutations in the Mevalonate Kinase gene (MVK) are causes of a rare autoinflammatory disease: Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency and its more acute manifestation, Mevalonic Aciduria. The latter is characterized, among other features, by neuroinflammation, developmental delay and ataxia, due to failed cerebellar development or neuronal death through chronic inflammation. Pathogenesis of neuroinflammation in Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency and Mevalonic Aciduria has not yet been completely clarified, however different research groups have been suggesting the inflammasome complex as the key factor in the disease development. A strategy to mimic this disease is blocking the mevalonate pathway, using HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins), while knock-out mice for Mevalonate Kinase are non-vital and their hemyzygous (i.e only one copy of gene preserved) littermate display almost no pathological features. FINDINGS:We sought to generate a murine cellular model closely resembling the pathogenic conditions found in vivo, by direct silencing of Mevalonate Kinase gene. Knockdown of Mevalonate Kinase in a murine microglial cellular model (BV-2 cells) results in neither augmented NALP3 expression nor increase of apoptosis. On the contrary, statin treatment of BV-2 cells produces an increase both in Mevalonate Kinase and NALP3 expression. CONCLUSIONS:MKD deficiency could be due or affected by protein accumulation leading to NALP3 activation, opening novel questions about strategies to tackle this disease.
Project description:Ginkgolides and bilobalide, collectively termed terpene trilactones (TTLs), are terpenoids that form the main active substance of Ginkgo biloba. Terpenoids in the mevalonate (MVA) biosynthetic pathway include acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (AACT) and mevalonate kinase (MVK) as core enzymes. In this study, two full-length (cDNAs) encoding AACT (GbAACT, GenBank Accession No. KX904942) and MVK (GbMVK, GenBank Accession No. KX904944) were cloned from G. biloba. The deduced GbAACT and GbMVK proteins contain 404 and 396 amino acids with the corresponding open-reading frame (ORF) sizes of 1215 bp and 1194 bp, respectively. Tissue expression pattern analysis revealed that GbAACT was highly expressed in ginkgo fruits and leaves, and GbMVK was highly expressed in leaves and roots. The functional complementation of GbAACT in AACT-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ?erg10 and GbMVK in MVK-deficient strain ?erg12 confirmed that GbAACT mediated the conversion of mevalonate acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA and GbMVK mediated the conversion of mevalonate to mevalonate phosphate. This observation indicated that GbAACT and GbMVK are functional genes in the cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) biosynthesis pathway. After G. biloba seedlings were treated with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid, the expression levels of GbAACT and GbMVK increased, and TTL production was enhanced. The cloning, characterization, expression and functional analysis of GbAACT and GbMVK will be helpful to understand more about the role of these two genes involved in TTL biosynthesis.
Project description:Previous reports by us and others demonstrated that G protein-coupled receptors interact functionally with Rab GTPases. Here, we show that the ?(2)-adrenergic receptor (?(2)AR) interacts with the Rab geranylgeranyltransferase ?-subunit (RGGTA). Confocal microscopy showed that ?(2)AR co-localizes with RGGTA in intracellular compartments and at the plasma membrane. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that RGGTA binds to the L(339)L(340) motif in the ?(2)AR C terminus known to be involved in the transport of the receptor from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Modulation of the cellular levels of RGGTA protein by overexpression or siRNA-mediated knockdown of the endogenous protein demonstrated that RGGTA has a positive role in the maturation and anterograde trafficking of the ?(2)AR, which requires the interaction of RGGTA with the ?(2)AR L(339)L(340) motif. Furthermore, the ?(2)AR modulates the geranylgeranylation of Rab6a, Rab8a, and Rab11a, but not of other Rab proteins tested in this study. Regulation of Rab geranylgeranylation by the ?(2)AR was dependent on the RGGTA-interacting L(339)L(340) motif. Interestingly, a RGGTA-Y107F mutant was unable to regulate Rab geranylgeranylation but still promoted ?(2)AR maturation, suggesting that RGGTA may have functions independent of Rab geranylgeranylation. We demonstrate for the first time an interaction between a transmembrane receptor and RGGTA which regulates the maturation and anterograde transport of the receptor, as well as geranylgeranylation of Rab GTPases.