Characterization of midgut stem cell- and enteroblast-specific Gal4 lines in drosophila.
ABSTRACT: The homeostasis of Drosophila midgut is maintained by multipotent intestinal stem cells (ISCs), each of which gives rise to a new ISC and an immature daughter cell, enteroblast (EB), after one asymmetric cell division. In Drosophila, the Gal4-UAS system is widely used to manipulate gene expression in a tissue- or cell-specific manner, but in Drosophila midgut, there are no ISC- or EB-specific Gal4 lines available. Here we report the generation and characterization of Dl-Gal4 and Su(H)GBE-Gal4 lines, which are expressed specifically in the ISCs and EBs separately. Additionally, we demonstrate that Dl-Gal4 and Su(H)GBE-Gal4 are expressed in adult midgut progenitors (AMPs) and niche peripheral cells (PCs) separately in larval midgut. These two Gal4 lines will serve as invaluable tools for navigating ISC behaviors.
Project description:Homeostasis in the Drosophila midgut is maintained by stem cells [1, 2]. The intestinal epithelium contains two types of differentiated cells that are lost and replenished: enteroendocrine (EE) cells and enterocytes (ECs). Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are the only cells in the adult midgut that proliferate [3, 4], and ISC divisions give rise to an ISC and an enteroblast (EB), which differentiates into an EC or an EE cell [3-5]. If the midgut epithelium is damaged, then ISC proliferation increases [6-12]. Damaged ECs express secreted ligands (Unpaired proteins) that activate Jak-Stat signaling in ISCs and EBs to promote their proliferation and differentiation [7, 9, 13, 14]. We show that the Hippo pathway components Warts and Yorkie mediate a transition from low- to high-level ISC proliferation to facilitate regeneration. The Hippo pathway regulates growth in diverse organisms and has been linked to cancer [15, 16]. Yorkie is activated in ECs in response to tissue damage or activation of the damage-sensing Jnk pathway. Activation of Yorkie promotes expression of unpaired genes and triggers a nonautonomous increase in ISC proliferation. Our observations uncover a role for Hippo pathway components in regulating stem cell proliferation and intestinal regeneration.
Project description:Functional mature cells are continually replenished by stem cells to maintain tissue homoeostasis. In the adult Drosophila posterior midgut, both terminally differentiated enterocyte (EC) and enteroendocrine (EE) cells are generated from an intestinal stem cell (ISC). However, it is not clear how the two differentiated cells are generated from the ISC. In this study, we found that only ECs are generated through the Su(H)GBE(+) immature progenitor enteroblasts (EBs), whereas EEs are generated from ISCs through a distinct progenitor pre-EE by a novel lineage-tracing system. EEs can be generated from ISCs in three ways: an ISC becoming an EE, an ISC becoming a new ISC and an EE through asymmetric division, or an ISC becoming two EEs through symmetric division. We further identified that the transcriptional factor Prospero (Pros) regulates ISC commitment to EEs. Our data provide direct evidence that different differentiated cells are generated by different modes of stem cell lineage specification within the same tissues.
Project description:Intestinal stem cell (ISC) differentiation in the Drosophila midgut requires Delta/Notch-mediated lateral inhibition, which separates the fate of ISCs from differentiating enteroblasts (EBs). Although a canonical Notch signaling cascade is involved in the lateral inhibition, its regulation at the transcriptional level is still unclear. Here we show that the establishment of lateral inhibition between ISC-EB requires two evolutionarily conserved transcriptional co-repressors Groucho (Gro) and C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) that act differently. Gro functions in EBs with E(spl)-C proteins to suppress Delta expression, inhibit cell-cycle re-entry, and promote cell differentiation, whereas CtBP functions specifically in ISCs to mediate transcriptional repression of Su(H) targets and maintain ISC fate. Interestingly, several E(spl)-C genes are also expressed in ISCs that cooperate with Gro to inhibit cell proliferation. Collectively, our study demonstrates separable and cell-type-specific functions of Gro and CtBP in a lateral inhibition process that controls the proliferation and differentiation of tissue stem cells.
Project description:Intestinal epithelial renewal is mediated by intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that exist in a state of neutral drift, wherein individual ISC lineages are regularly lost and born but ISC numbers remain constant. To test whether an active mechanism maintains stem cell pools in the Drosophila midgut, we performed partial ISC depletion. In contrast to the mouse intestine, Drosophila ISCs failed to repopulate the gut after partial depletion. Even when the midgut was challenged to regenerate by infection, ISCs retained normal proportions of asymmetric division and ISC pools did not increase. We discovered, however, that the loss of differentiated midgut enterocytes (ECs) slows when ISC division is suppressed and accelerates when ISC division increases. This plasticity in rates of EC turnover appears to facilitate epithelial homeostasis even after stem cell pools are compromised. Our study identifies unique behaviors of Drosophila midgut cells that maintain epithelial homeostasis.
Project description:The stem cell genomic stability forms the basis for robust tissue homeostasis, particularly in high-turnover tissues. For the genomic stability, DNA damage response (DDR) is essential. This study was focused on the role of two major DDR-related factors, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR) kinases, in the maintenance of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the adultDrosophila midgut. We explored the role of ATM and ATR, utilizing immunostaining with an anti-pS/TQ antibody as an indicator of ATM/ATR activation, ?-irradiation as a DNA damage inducer, and the UAS/GAL4 system for cell type-specific knockdown of ATM, ATR, or both during adulthood. The results showed that the pS/TQ signals got stronger with age and after oxidative stress. The pS/TQ signals were found to be more dependent on ATR rather than on ATM in ISCs/enteroblasts (EBs). Furthermore, an ISC/EB-specific knockdown of ATR, ATM, or both decreased the number of ISCs and oxidative stress-induced ISC proliferation. The phenotypic changes that were caused by the ATR knockdown were more pronounced than those caused by the ATM knockdown; however, our data indicate that ATR and ATM are both needed for ISC maintenance and proliferation; ATR seems to play a bigger role than does ATM.
Project description:The speed of stem cell differentiation has to be properly coupled with self-renewal, both under basal conditions for tissue maintenance and during regeneration for tissue repair. Using the Drosophila midgut model, we analyze at the cellular and molecular levels the differentiation program required for robust regeneration. We observe that the intestinal stem cell (ISC) and its differentiating daughter, the enteroblast (EB), form extended cell-cell contacts in regenerating intestines. The contact between progenitors is stabilized by cell adhesion molecules, and can be dynamically remodeled to elicit optimal juxtacrine Notch signaling to determine the speed of progenitor differentiation. Notably, increasing the adhesion property of progenitors by expressing Connectin is sufficient to induce rapid progenitor differentiation. We further demonstrate that JAK/STAT signaling, Sox21a and GATAe form a functional relay to orchestrate EB differentiation. Thus, our study provides new insights into the complex and sequential events that are required for rapid differentiation following stem cell division during tissue replenishment.
Project description:Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) maintain the midgut epithelium in Drosophila melanogaster Proper cellular turnover and tissue function rely on tightly regulated rates of ISC division and appropriate differentiation of daughter cells. However, aging and epithelial injury cause elevated ISC proliferation and decreased capacity for terminal differentiation of daughter enteroblasts (EBs). The mechanisms causing functional decline of stem cells with age remain elusive; however, recent findings suggest that stem cell metabolism plays an important role in the regulation of stem cell activity. Here, we investigate how alterations in mitochondrial homeostasis modulate stem cell behavior in vivo via RNA interference-mediated knockdown of factors involved in mitochondrial dynamics. ISC/EB-specific knockdown of the mitophagy-related genes Pink1 or Parkin suppresses the age-related loss of tissue homeostasis, despite dramatic changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure and mitochondrial damage in ISCs/EBs. Maintenance of tissue homeostasis upon reduction of Pink1 or Parkin appears to result from reduction of age- and stress-induced ISC proliferation, in part, through induction of ISC senescence. Our results indicate an uncoupling of cellular, tissue, and organismal aging through inhibition of ISC proliferation and provide insight into strategies used by stem cells to maintain tissue homeostasis despite severe damage to organelles.
Project description:Purpose: We isolated Drosophila midgut cells : Delta+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs), Su(H)+enteroblasts (EBs), Esg+ cells (ISC+EB), Myo1A+Enterocytes (ECs), Pros+Enteroendocrine cells (EEs) and How+Visceral muscle cells (VM) from whole midguts to identify stem cell specific genes and study cell type specificities of midgut cells. We also isolated all the cell types from the 5 major regions (R1-R5) of the Drosophila midgut to study differences in cells in different regions. Methods: 3-7 day old female flies were dissected. Flies with GFP/YFP marking different cell types (using the GAL4-UAS system) were used to separate cells of the midgut.The midguts were dissociated with Elastase and FACS sorted using FACS AriaIII. RNA was extracted, amplified and sequenced. Whole midgut samples were sequenced on Illumina GAIIX and regional cell populations were sequenced on HiSeq2000. Methods:Raw fastqc reads were mapped to the Drosophila genome (Drosophila_melanogaster.BDGP5.70.dna.toplevel.fa) using Tophat 2.0.9 at default (using boost_1_54_0, bowtie2-2.1.0, samtools-0.1.19). Methods: For differential expression analysis, DESeq (p-value adjustment 0.05 by method Benjamini-Hochberg) was used. The reads were normalized also to Reads per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads (RPKM). Results: More than 50% of the genome is expressed in the adult midgut (FlyAtlas- Chintapalli et al., 2007), of these genes about 50% (2457) were differentially expressed (DE) between all 4 cell types (ISCs, EBs, ECs and EEs) atleast 2 folds with 95% confidence Results: 159 genes that were specifically enriched in ISCs, 509 genes were specifically repressed in ISCs Conclusions: Our study represents the first detailed analysis of Drosophila intestinal cell transcriptomes, with biologic replicates, generated by RNA-seq technology.Our data facilitates comparative investigations of expression profiles of cells and reveals novel stem cell genes. Further region specific profiling adds precision to the analysis of variances in the midgut regions. We identify transcriptional regulators and regional transcription factors which modulate the midgut physiology. The dataset will be a great resource for hypothesis generation, tool building and fine tuned studies on the Drosophila midgut. mRNA profiles of Drosophila intestinal cells from whole midguts and midgut regions were generated by Deep Sequencing. Whole midgut profiles were generated in triplicates (Illumina GAIIx, 72 bp read length) and regional cell type profiles were genrated in duplicates (HiSeq 2000, 50bp read length).
Project description:Drosophila intestinal stem cells (ISCs) generate enterocytes (ECs) and enteroendocrine (ee) cells. Previous work suggests that different levels of the Notch ligand Delta (Dl) in ISCs unidirectionally activate Notch in daughters to control multipotency. However, the mechanisms driving different outcomes remain unknown. We found that during ee cell formation, the ee cell marker Prospero localizes to the basal side of dividing ISCs. After asymmetric division, the ee daughter cell acts as a source of Dl that induces low Notch activity in the ISC to maintain identity. Alternatively, ISCs expressing Dl induce high Notch activity in daughter cells to promote EC formation. Our data reveal a conserved role for Notch in Drosophila and mammalian ISC maintenance and suggest that bidirectional Notch signaling may regulate multipotency in other systems.
Project description:It is important to understand how age-related changes in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) may contribute to age-associated intestinal diseases, including cancer. Drosophila midgut is an excellent model system for the study of ISC proliferation and differentiation. Recently, age-related changes in the Drosophila midgut have been shown to include an increase in ISC proliferation and accumulation of mis-differentiated ISC daughter cells. Here, we show that the p38b MAPK pathway contributes to the age-related changes in ISC and progenitor cells in Drosophila. D-p38b MAPK is required for an age-related increase of ISC proliferation. In addition, this pathway is involved in age and oxidative stress-associated mis-differentiation of enterocytes and upregulation of Delta, a Notch receptor ligand. Furthermore, we also show that D-p38b acts downstream of PVF2/PVR signaling in these age-related changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that p38 MAPK plays a crucial role in the balance between ISC proliferation and proper differentiation in the adult Drosophila midgut.