BAG3 and Hsc70 interact with actin capping protein CapZ to maintain myofibrillar integrity under mechanical stress.
ABSTRACT: A homozygous disruption or genetic mutation of the bag3 gene, a member of the Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family proteins, causes cardiomyopathy and myofibrillar myopathy that is characterized by myofibril and Z-disc disruption. However, the detailed disease mechanism is not yet fully understood.bag3(-/-) mice exhibit differences in the extent of muscle degeneration between muscle groups with muscles experiencing the most usage degenerating at an accelerated rate. Usage-dependent muscle degeneration suggests a role for BAG3 in supporting cytoskeletal connections between the Z-disc and myofibrils under mechanical stress. The mechanism by which myofibrillar structure is maintained under mechanical stress remains unclear. The purpose of the study is to clarify the detailed molecular mechanism of BAG3-mediated muscle maintenance under mechanical stress.To address the question of whether bag3 gene knockdown induces myofibrillar disorganization caused by mechanical stress, in vitro mechanical stretch experiments using rat neonatal cardiomyocytes and a short hairpin RNA-mediated gene knockdown system of the bag3 gene were performed. As expected, mechanical stretch rapidly disrupts myofibril structures in bag3 knockdown cardiomyocytes. BAG3 regulates the structural stability of F-actin through the actin capping protein, CapZ?1, by promoting association between Hsc70 and CapZ?1. BAG3 facilitates the distribution of CapZ?1 to the proper location, and dysfunction of BAG3 induces CapZ ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. Inhibition of CapZ?1 function by overexpressing CapZ?2 increased myofibril vulnerability and fragmentation under mechanical stress. On the other hand, overexpression of CapZ?1 inhibits myofibrillar disruption in bag3 knockdown cells under mechanical stress. As a result, heart muscle isolated from bag3(-/-) mice exhibited myofibrillar degeneration and lost contractile activity after caffeine contraction.These results suggest novel roles for BAG3 and Hsc70 in stabilizing myofibril structure and inhibiting myofibrillar degeneration in response to mechanical stress. These proteins are possible targets for further research to identify therapies for myofibrillar myopathy or other degenerative diseases.
Project description:Mutations in B cell lymphoma 2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) are recurrently associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and muscular dystrophy. Using isogenic genome-edited human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs), we examined how a DCM-causing BAG3 mutation (R477H), as well as complete loss of BAG3 (KO), impacts myofibrillar organization and chaperone networks. Although unchanged at baseline, fiber length and alignment declined markedly in R477H and KO iPSC-CMs following proteasome inhibition. RNA sequencing revealed extensive baseline changes in chaperone- and stress response protein-encoding genes, and protein levels of key BAG3 binding partners were perturbed. Molecular dynamics simulations of the BAG3-HSC70 complex predicted a partial disengagement by the R477H mutation. In line with this, BAG3-R477H bound less HSC70 than BAG3-WT in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Finally, myofibrillar disarray triggered by proteasome inhibition in R477H cells was mitigated by overexpression of the stress response protein heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). These studies reveal the importance of BAG3 in coordinating protein quality control subsystem usage within the cardiomyocyte and suggest that augmenting HSF1 activity might be beneficial as a means to mitigate proteostatic stress in the context of BAG3-associated DCM.
Project description:The inability to remove protein aggregates in post-mitotic cells such as muscles or neurons is a cellular hallmark of aging cells and is a key factor in the initiation and progression of protein misfolding diseases. While protein aggregate disorders share common features, the molecular level events that culminate in abnormal protein accumulation cannot be explained by a single mechanism. Here we show that loss of the serine/threonine kinase NUAK causes cellular degeneration resulting from the incomplete clearance of protein aggregates in Drosophila larval muscles. In NUAK mutant muscles, regions that lack the myofibrillar proteins F-actin and Myosin heavy chain (MHC) instead contain damaged organelles and the accumulation of select proteins, including Filamin (Fil) and CryAB. NUAK biochemically and genetically interacts with Drosophila Starvin (Stv), the ortholog of mammalian Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3). Consistent with a known role for the co-chaperone BAG3 and the Heat shock cognate 71 kDa (HSC70)/HSPA8 ATPase in the autophagic clearance of proteins, RNA interference (RNAi) of Drosophila Stv, Hsc70-4, or autophagy-related 8a (Atg8a) all exhibit muscle degeneration and muscle contraction defects that phenocopy NUAK mutants. We further demonstrate that Fil is a target of NUAK kinase activity and abnormally accumulates upon loss of the BAG3-Hsc70-4 complex. In addition, Ubiquitin (Ub), ref(2)p/p62, and Atg8a are increased in regions of protein aggregation, consistent with a block in autophagy upon loss of NUAK. Collectively, our results establish a novel role for NUAK with the Stv-Hsc70-4 complex in the autophagic clearance of proteins that may eventually lead to treatment options for protein aggregate diseases.
Project description:Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a member of a conserved family of cyto-protective proteins that bind to and regulate Hsp70 family molecular chaperones. Here, we show that BAG3 is prominently expressed in striated muscle and colocalizes with Z-disks. Mice with homozygous disruption of the bag3 gene developed normally but deteriorated postnatally with stunted growth evident by 1 to 2 weeks of age and death by 4 weeks. BAG3-deficient animals developed a fulminant myopathy characterized by noninflammatory myofibrillar degeneration with apoptotic features. Knockdown of bag3 expression in cultured C2C12 myoblasts increased apoptosis on induction of differentiation, suggesting a need for bag3 for maintenance of myotube survival and confirming a cell autonomous role for bag3 in muscle. We conclude that although BAG3 is not required for muscle development, this co-chaperone appears to be critically important for maintenance of mature skeletal muscle.
Project description:Mutations in the molecular co-chaperone Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) are found to cause dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), resulting in systolic dysfunction and heart failure, as well as myofibrillar myopathy (MFM), which is characterized by protein aggregation and myofibrillar disintegration in skeletal muscle cells. Here, we generated a CRISPR/Cas9-induced Bag3 knockout zebrafish line and found the complete preservation of heart and skeletal muscle structure and function during embryonic development, in contrast to morpholino-mediated knockdown of Bag3. Intriguingly, genetic compensation, a process of transcriptional adaptation which acts independent of protein feedback loops, was found to prevent heart and skeletal muscle damage in our Bag3 knockout model. Proteomic profiling and quantitative real-time PCR analyses identified Bag2, another member of the Bag protein family, significantly upregulated on a transcript and protein level in bag3-/- mutants. This implied that the decay of bag3 mutant mRNA in homozygous bag3-/- embryos caused the transcriptional upregulation of bag2 expression. We further demonstrated that morpholino-mediated knockdown of Bag2 in bag3-/- embryos evoked severe functional and structural heart and skeletal muscle defects, which are similar to Bag3 morphants. However, Bag2 knockdown in bag3+/+ or bag3+/- embryos did not result in (cardio-)myopathy. Finally, we found that inhibition of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) machinery by knockdown of upf1, an essential NMD factor, caused severe heart and skeletal muscle defects in bag3-/- mutants due to the blockade of transcriptional adaptation of bag2 expression. Our findings provide evidence that genetic compensation might vitally influence the penetrance of disease-causing bag3 mutations in vivo.
Project description:A homozygous disruption or genetic mutation of the bag3 gene causes progressive myofibrillar myopathy in mouse and human skeletal and cardiac muscle disorder while mutations in the small heat shock protein ?B-crystallin gene (CRYAB) are reported to be responsible for myofibrillar myopathy. Here, we demonstrate that BAG3 directly binds to wild-type ?B-crystallin and the ?B-crystallin mutant R120G, via the intermediate domain of BAG3. Peptides that inhibit this interaction in an in vitro binding assay indicate that two conserved Ile-Pro-Val regions of BAG3 are involved in the interaction with ?B-crystallin, which is similar to results showing BAG3 binding to HspB8 and HspB6. BAG3 overexpression increased ?B-crystallin R120G solubility and inhibited its intracellular aggregation in HEK293 cells. BAG3 suppressed cell death induced by ?B-crystallin R120G overexpression in differentiating C2C12 mouse myoblast cells. Our findings indicate a novel function for BAG3 in inhibiting protein aggregation caused by the genetic mutation of CRYAB responsible for human myofibrillar myopathy.
Project description:Muscle adaptation is a response to physiological demand elicited by changes in mechanical load, hormones, or metabolic stress. Cytoskeletal remodeling processes in many cell types are thought to be primarily regulated by thin filament formation due to actin-binding accessory proteins, such as the actin-capping protein. Here, we hypothesize that in muscle, the actin-capping protein (named CapZ) integrates signaling by a variety of pathways, including phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding, to regulate muscle fiber growth in response to mechanical load. To test this hypothesis, we assess mechanotransduction signaling that regulates muscle growth using neonatal rat ventricular myocytes cultured on substrates with the stiffness of the healthy myocardium (10 kPa), fibrotic myocardium (100 kPa), or glass. We investigate how PIP2 signaling affects CapZ using the PIP2 sequestering agent neomycin and the effect of PKC-mediated CapZ phosphorylation using the PKC-activating drug phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Molecular simulations suggest that close interactions between PIP2 and the ?-tentacle of CapZ are modified by phosphorylation at T267. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) demonstrates that the kinetic binding constant of CapZ to sarcomeric thin filaments in living muscle cells increases with stiffness or PMA treatment but is diminished by PIP2 reduction. Furthermore, CapZ with a deletion of the ?-tentacle that lacks the phosphorylation site T267 shows increased FRAP kinetics with lack of sensitivity to PMA treatment or PIP2 reduction. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes the molecular interactions between PIP2 and CapZ, which are decreased by PIP2 availability or by the ?-tentacle truncation. These data suggest that CapZ is bound to actin tightly in the idle, locked state, with little phosphorylation or PIP2 binding. However, this tight binding is loosened in growth states triggered by mechanical stimuli such as substrate stiffness, which may have relevance to fibrotic heart disease.
Project description:BAG3, a member of the Hsc70 binding co-chaperone BAG-family proteins, has critical roles in regulating actin organization, cell adhesion, cell motility and tumor metastasis. The PDZ domain containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (PDZGEF2) was cloned as a BAG3-interacting protein. PDZGEF2 induces activation of Rap1 and increases integrin-mediated cell adhesion. The PPDY motif at the C-terminus of PDZGEF2 binds to the WW domain of BAG3 in vitro and in vivo. BAG3 deletion mutant lacking the WW domain lose its cell adhesion and motility activity. Gene knockdown of PDZGEF2 leads to the loss of cell adhesion on fibronectin-coated plates while BAG3 overexpression increases cell adhesion in Cos7 cells, but not in PDZGEF2 gene knockdown cells indicating that PDZGEF2 is a critical partner for BAG3 in regulating cell adhesion.
Project description:Homeostasis of proteins involved in contractility of individual cardiomyocytes and those coupling adjacent cells is of critical importance as any abnormalities in cardiac electrical conduction may result in cardiac irregular activity and heart failure. Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a stress-induced protein whose role in stabilizing myofibril proteins as well as protein quality control pathways, especially in the cardiac tissue, has captured much attention. Mutations of BAG3 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac complications such as dilated cardiomyopathy. In this study, we have used an in vitro model of neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes to investigate potential impacts of BAG3 on electrophysiological activity by employing the microelectrode array (MEA) technology. Our MEA data showed that BAG3 plays an important role in the cardiac signal generation as reduced levels of BAG3 led to lower signal frequency and amplitude. Our analysis also revealed that BAG3 is essential to the signal propagation throughout the myocardium, as the MEA data-based conduction velocity, connectivity degree, activation time, and synchrony were adversely affected by BAG3 knockdown. Moreover, BAG3 deficiency was demonstrated to be connected with the emergence of independently beating clusters of cardiomyocytes. On the other hand, BAG3 overexpression improved the activity of cardiomyocytes in terms of electrical signal amplitude and connectivity degree. Overall, by providing more in-depth analyses and characterization of electrophysiological parameters, this study reveals that BAG3 is of critical importance for electrical activity of neonatal cardiomyocytes.
Project description:A hallmark of muscle atrophy is the excessive degradation of myofibrillar proteins primarily by the ubiquitin proteasome system. In mice, during the rapid muscle atrophy induced by fasting, the desmin cytoskeleton and the attached Z-band-bound thin filaments are degraded after ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (Trim32). To study the order of events leading to myofibril destruction, we investigated the slower atrophy induced by denervation (disuse). We show that myofibril breakdown is a two-phase process involving the initial disassembly of desmin filaments by Trim32, which leads to the later myofibril breakdown by enzymes, whose expression is increased by the paired box 4 (PAX4) transcription factor. After denervation of mouse tibialis anterior muscles, phosphorylation and Trim32-dependent ubiquitination of desmin filaments increased rapidly and stimulated their gradual depolymerization (unlike their rapid degradation during fasting). Trim32 down-regulation attenuated the loss of desmin and myofibrillar proteins and reduced atrophy. Although myofibrils and desmin filaments were intact at 7 d after denervation, inducing the dissociation of desmin filaments caused an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and rapid destruction of myofibrils. The myofibril breakdown normally observed at 14 d after denervation required not only dissociation of desmin filaments, but also gene induction by PAX4. Down-regulation of PAX4 or its target gene encoding the p97/VCP ATPase reduced myofibril disassembly and degradation on denervation or fasting. Thus, during atrophy, the initial loss of desmin is critical for the subsequent myofibril destruction, and over time, myofibrillar proteins become more susceptible to PAX4-induced enzymes that promote proteolysis.