Cep152 acts as a scaffold for recruitment of Plk4 and CPAP to the centrosome.
ABSTRACT: Both gain and loss of function studies have identified the Polo-like kinase Plk4/Sak as a crucial regulator of centriole biogenesis, but the mechanisms governing centrosome duplication are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that the pericentriolar material protein, Cep152, interacts with the distinctive cryptic Polo-box of Plk4 via its N-terminal domain and is required for Plk4-induced centriole overduplication. Reduction of endogenous Cep152 levels results in a failure in centriole duplication, loss of centrioles, and formation of monopolar mitotic spindles. Interfering with Cep152 function prevents recruitment of Plk4 to the centrosome and promotes loss of CPAP, a protein required for the control of centriole length in Plk4-regulated centriole biogenesis. Our results suggest that Cep152 recruits Plk4 and CPAP to the centrosome to ensure a faithful centrosome duplication process.
Project description:Centrioles are microtubule-based structures that organize the centrosome and nucleate cilia. Centrioles duplicate once per cell cycle, and duplication requires Plk4, a member of the Polo-like kinase family; however, the mechanism linking Plk4 activity and centriole formation is unknown. In this study, we show in human and frog cells that Plk4 interacts with the centrosome protein Cep152, the orthologue of Drosophila melanogaster Asterless. The interaction requires the N-terminal 217 residues of Cep152 and the crypto Polo-box of Plk4. Cep152 and Plk4 colocalize at the centriole throughout the cell cycle. Overexpression of Cep152 (1-217) mislocalizes Plk4, but both Cep152 and Plk4 are able to localize to the centriole independently of the other. Depletion of Cep152 prevents both normal centriole duplication and Plk4-induced centriole amplification and results in a failure to localize Sas6 to the centriole, an early step in duplication. Cep152 can be phosphorylated by Plk4 in vitro, suggesting that Cep152 acts with Plk4 to initiate centriole formation.
Project description:Centrosomes play an important role in various cellular processes, including spindle formation and chromosome segregation. They are composed of two orthogonally arranged centrioles, whose duplication occurs only once per cell cycle. Accurate control of centriole numbers is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Although it is well appreciated that polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) plays a central role in centriole biogenesis, how it is recruited to centrosomes and whether this step is necessary for centriole biogenesis remain largely elusive. Here we showed that Plk4 localizes to distinct subcentrosomal regions in a temporally and spatially regulated manner, and that Cep192 and Cep152 serve as two distinct scaffolds that recruit Plk4 to centrosomes in a hierarchical order. Interestingly, Cep192 and Cep152 competitively interacted with the cryptic polo box of Plk4 through their homologous N-terminal sequences containing acidic-?-helix and N/Q-rich motifs. Consistent with these observations, the expression of either one of these N-terminal fragments was sufficient to delocalize Plk4 from centrosomes. Furthermore, loss of the Cep192- or Cep152-dependent interaction with Plk4 resulted in impaired centriole duplication that led to delayed cell proliferation. Thus, the spatiotemporal regulation of Plk4 localization by two hierarchical scaffolds, Cep192 and Cep152, is critical for centriole biogenesis.
Project description:The centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles and surrounding pericentriolar material (PCM). Many vertebrate cells also have an array of granules, termed centriolar satellites, that localize around the centrosome and are associated with centrosome and cilium function. Centriole duplication occurs once per cell cycle and is effected by a set of proteins including PLK4, CEP192, CEP152, CEP63, and CPAP. Information on the relationships between these components is limited due to the difficulty in assaying interactions in the context of the centrosome. Here, we used proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) to identify proximity interactions among centriole duplication proteins. PLK4, CEP192, and CEP152 BioID identified known physically interacting proteins and a new interaction between CEP152 and CDK5RAP2 consistent with a function of CEP152 in PCM recruitment. BioID for CEP63 and its paralog CCDC67 revealed extensive proximity interactions with centriolar satellite proteins. Focusing on these satellite proteins identified two new regulators of centriole duplication, CCDC14 and KIAA0753. Both proteins colocalize with CEP63 to satellites, bind to CEP63, and identify other satellite proteins by BioID. KIAA0753 positively regulates centriole duplication and CEP63 centrosome localization, whereas CCDC14 negatively regulates both processes. These results suggest that centriolar satellites have a previously unappreciated function in regulating centriole duplication.
Project description:Centriole duplication is the process by which two new daughter centrioles are generated from the proximal end of preexisting mother centrioles. Accurate centriole duplication is important for many cellular and physiological events, including cell division and ciliogenesis. Centrosomal protein 4.1-associated protein (CPAP), centrosomal protein of 152 kDa (CEP152), and centrobin are known to be essential for centriole duplication. However, the precise mechanism by which they contribute to centriole duplication is not known. In this study, we show that centrobin interacts with CEP152 and CPAP, and the centrobin-CPAP interaction is critical for centriole duplication. Although depletion of centrobin from cells did not have an effect on the centriolar levels of CEP152, it caused the disappearance of CPAP from both the preexisting and newly formed centrioles. Moreover, exogenous expression of the CPAP-binding fragment of centrobin also caused the disappearance of CPAP from both the preexisting and newly synthesized centrioles, possibly in a dominant negative manner, thereby inhibiting centriole duplication and the PLK4 overexpression-mediated centrosome amplification. Interestingly, exogenous overexpression of CPAP in the centrobin-depleted cells did not restore CPAP localization to the centrioles. However, restoration of centrobin expression in the centrobin-depleted cells led to the reappearance of centriolar CPAP. Hence, we conclude that centrobin-CPAP interaction is critical for the recruitment of CPAP to procentrioles to promote the elongation of daughter centrioles and for the persistence of CPAP on preexisting mother centrioles. Our study indicates that regulation of CPAP levels on the centrioles by centrobin is critical for preserving the normal size, shape, and number of centrioles in the cell.
Project description:Tight control of centriole duplication is critical for normal chromosome segregation and the maintenance of genomic stability. Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) is a key regulator of centriole biogenesis. How Plk4 dynamically promotes its symmetry-breaking relocalization and achieves its procentriole-assembly state remains unknown. Here we show that Plk4 is a unique kinase that utilizes its autophosphorylated noncatalytic cryptic polo-box (CPB) to phase separate and generate a nanoscale spherical condensate. Analyses of the crystal structure of a phospho-mimicking, condensation-proficient CPB mutant reveal that a disordered loop at the CPB PB2-tip region is critically required for Plk4 to generate condensates and induce procentriole assembly. CPB phosphorylation also promotes Plk4's dissociation from the Cep152 tether while binding to downstream STIL, thus allowing Plk4 condensate to serve as an assembling body for centriole biogenesis. This study uncovers the mechanism underlying Plk4 activation and may offer strategies for anti-Plk4 intervention against genomic instability and cancer.
Project description:Centrosomes consist of two centrioles embedded in pericentriolar material and function as the main microtubule organising centres in dividing animal cells. They ensure proper formation and orientation of the mitotic spindle and are therefore essential for the maintenance of genome stability. Centrosome function is crucial during embryonic development, highlighted by the discovery of mutations in genes encoding centrosome or spindle pole proteins that cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly, including Cep63 and Cep152. In this study we show that Cep63 functions to ensure that centriole duplication occurs reliably in dividing mammalian cells. We show that the interaction between Cep63 and Cep152 can occur independently of centrosome localisation and that the two proteins are dependent on one another for centrosomal localisation. Further, both mouse and human Cep63 and Cep152 cooperate to ensure efficient centriole duplication by promoting the accumulation of essential centriole duplication factors upstream of SAS-6 recruitment and procentriole formation. These observations describe the requirement for Cep63 in maintaining centriole number in dividing mammalian cells and further establish the order of events in centriole formation.
Project description:Cep57 has been characterized as a component of a pericentriolar complex containing Cep63 and Cep152. Interestingly, Cep63 and Cep152 self-assemble into a pericentriolar cylindrical architecture, and this event is critical for the orderly recruitment of Plk4, a key regulator of centriole duplication. However, the way in which Cep57 interacts with the Cep63-Cep152 complex and contributes to the structure and function of Cep63-Cep152 self-assembly remains unknown. We demonstrate that Cep57 interacts with Cep63 through N-terminal motifs and associates with Cep152 via Cep63. Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) analyses suggested that the Cep57-Cep63-Cep152 complex is concentrically arranged around a centriole in a Cep57-in and Cep152-out manner. Cep57 mutant cells defective in Cep63 binding exhibited improper Cep63 and Cep152 localization and impaired Sas6 recruitment for procentriole assembly, proving the significance of the Cep57-Cep63 interaction. Intriguingly, Cep63 fused to a microtubule (MT)-binding domain of Cep57 functioned in concert with Cep152 to assemble around stabilized MTs in vitro Thus, Cep57 plays a key role in architecting the Cep63-Cep152 assembly around centriolar MTs and promoting centriole biogenesis. This study may offer a platform to investigate how the organization and function of the pericentriolar architecture are altered by disease-associated mutations found in the Cep57-Cep63-Cep152 complex.
Project description:Supernumerary centrosomes are a key cause of genomic instability in cancer cells. New centrioles can be generated by duplication with a mother centriole as a platform or, in the absence of preexisting centrioles, by formation de novo. Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) regulates both modes of centriole biogenesis, and Plk4 deregulation has been linked to tumor development. We show that Plx4, the Xenopus homolog of mammalian Plk4 and Drosophila Sak, induces de novo centriole formation in vivo in activated oocytes and in egg extracts, but not in immature or in vitro matured oocytes. Both kinase activity and the polo-box domain of Plx4 are required for de novo centriole biogenesis. Polarization microscopy in "cycling" egg extracts demonstrates that de novo centriole formation is independent of Cdk2 activity, a major difference compared to template-driven centrosome duplication that is linked to the nuclear cycle and requires cyclinA/E/Cdk2. Moreover, we show that the Mos-MAPK pathway blocks Plx4-dependent de novo centriole formation before fertilization, thereby ensuring paternal inheritance of the centrosome. The results define a new system for studying the biochemical and molecular basis of de novo centriole formation and centriole biogenesis in general.
Project description:Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) is a key regulator of centriole duplication, an event critical for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We show that Plk4 relocalizes from the inner Cep192 ring to the outer Cep152 ring as newly recruited Cep152 assembles around the Cep192-encircled daughter centriole. Crystal-structure analyses revealed that Cep192- and Cep152-derived peptides bind the cryptic polo box (CPB) of Plk4 in opposite orientations and in a mutually exclusive manner. The Cep152 peptide bound to the CPB markedly better than did the Cep192 peptide and effectively 'snatched' the CPB away from a preformed CPB-Cep192 peptide complex. A cancer-associated Cep152 mutation impairing the Plk4 interaction induced defects in procentriole assembly and chromosome segregation. Thus, Plk4 is intricately regulated in time and space through ordered interactions with two distinct scaffolds, Cep192 and Cep152, and a failure in this process may lead to human cancer.
Project description:Centriole biogenesis depends on the polo-like kinase (PLK4) and a small group of structural proteins. The spatiotemporal regulation of these proteins at pre-existing centrioles is essential to ensure that centriole duplication occurs once per cell cycle. Here, we report that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase type-1 gamma (PIP5K1C, hereafter referred to as PIPKI?) plays an important role in centriole fidelity. PIPKI? localized in a ring-like pattern in the intermediate pericentriolar materials around the proximal end of the centriole in G1, S and G2 phases, but not in M phase. This localization was dependent upon an association with centrosomal protein of 152 KDa (CEP152). Without detaining cells in S or M phase, the depletion of PIPKI? led to centriole amplification in a manner that was dependent upon PLK4 and spindle assembly abnormal protein 6 homolog (SAS6). The expression of exogenous PIPKI? reduced centriole amplification that occurred as a result of endogenous PIPKI? depletion, hydroxyurea treatment or PLK4 overexpression, suggesting that PIPKI? is likely to function at the PLK4 level to restrain centriole duplication. Importantly, we found that PIPKI? bound to the cryptic polo-box domain of PLK4 and that this binding reduced the kinase activity of PLK4. Together, our findings suggest that PIPKI? is a novel negative regulator of centriole duplication, which acts by modulating the homeostasis of PLK4 activity.