Differential gene expression in benign prostate epithelium of men with and without prostate cancer: evidence for a prostate cancer field effect.
ABSTRACT: Several malignancies are known to exhibit a "field effect," whereby regions beyond tumor boundaries harbor histologic or molecular changes that are associated with cancer. We sought to determine if histologically benign prostate epithelium collected from men with prostate cancer exhibits features indicative of premalignancy or field effect.Prostate needle biopsies from 15 men with high-grade (Gleason 8-10) prostate cancer and 15 age- and body mass index-matched controls were identified from a biospecimen repository. Benign epithelia from each patient were isolated by laser capture microdissection. RNA was isolated, amplified, and used for microarray hybridization. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the expression of specific genes of interest. Alterations in protein expression were analyzed through immunohistochemistry.Overall patterns of gene expression in microdissected benign prostate-associated benign epithelium (BABE) and cancer-associated benign epithelium (CABE) were similar. Two genes previously associated with prostate cancer, PSMA and SSTR1, were significantly upregulated in the CABE group (false discovery rate <1%). Expression of other prostate cancer-associated genes, including ERG, HOXC4, HOXC5, and MME, were also increased in CABE by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, although other genes commonly altered in prostate cancer were not different between the BABE and CABE samples. The expression of MME and PSMA proteins on immunohistochemistry coincided with their mRNA alterations.Gene expression profiles between benign epithelia of patients with and without prostate cancer are very similar. However, these tissues exhibit differences in the expression levels of several genes previously associated with prostate cancer development or progression. These differences may comprise a field effect and represent early events in carcinogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:PSMA expression in the prostate epithelium is controlled by a cis-element, PSMA enhancer (PSME). PSME contains multiple binding sites for Sox proteins, and in this study, we identified Sox7 protein as a negative regulator of PSMA expression through its interaction with PSME. METHODS:The statistical correlation between Sox7 and PSMA mRNA expression was evaluated using five prostate cancer studies from cBioportal. In vitro and in vivo interaction between Sox7 and PSME was evaluated by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and luciferase reporter assay. Synthetic oligonucleotides were generated to define the sites in PSME that interact with Sox7 protein. Sox7 mutants were generated to identify the region of this protein required to regulate PSMA expression. Sox7 was also stably expressed in LNCaP/C4-2 and 22Rv1 cells to validate the regulation of PSMA expression by Sox7 in vivo. RESULTS:Sox7 mRNA expression negatively correlated with PSMA/FOLH1 and PSMAL/FOLH1B mRNA expression in Broad/Cornell, TCGA and MSKCC studies, but not in two studies containing only metastatic prostate tumors. PC-3 cells mostly expressed the 48.5 KDa isoform 2 of Sox7, and the depletion of this isoform did not restore PSMA expression. Ectopic expression of canonical, wild-type Sox7 in C4-2 and 22Rv1 cells suppressed PSMA protein expression. ChIP assay revealed that canonical Sox7 protein preferentially interacts with PSME in vivo, and EMSA identified the SOX box sites #2 and #4 in PSME as required for its interaction. Sox7 was capable of directly binding to PSME and suppressed PSME-mediated transcription. The NLS regions of Sox7, but not its ?-catenin interacting motif, are essential for this suppressing activity. Furthermore, restoration of wild-type Sox7 expression but not Sox7-NLS mutant in Sox7-null prostate cancer cell lines suppressed PSMA expression. CONCLUSIONS:The inactivation of canonical Sox7 is responsible for the upregulated expression of PSMA in non-metastatic prostate cancer.
Project description:PSMA (prostate-specific membrane antigen) is physiologically expressed in normal prostate tissue and over expressed in prostate cancer cells, therefore constituting a potential target for antibody-based radioligand therapy. Very recent imaging findings reported PSMA-PET/CT uptake in various thyroid lesions. We were therefore encouraged to systematically analyse PSMA expression in different benign and malignant thyroid lesions.Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PSMA expression in 101 thyroid lesions, while neovasculature was identified by CD34 immunostaining.PSMA expression in the neovasculature was significantly more frequent in malignant tumors (36/63; 57.1%) compared to benign diseases (5/38; 13.2%; p = 0.0001). In addition, PSMA expression levels in the neovasculature of poorly and undifferentiated thyroid cancers were significantly higher compared to differentiated thyroid tumors (p = 0.021). However, one case with a strong expression in follicular adenoma was identified.We conclude that neovascular PSMA expression is common in thyroid cancer but may also rarely be found in benign thyroid diseases, such as follicular adenoma. High expression in the tumor-associated neovasculature is predominantly found in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancer. This knowledge is highly relevant when interpreting PSMA/PET-CT scans from patients with prostate cancer. In addition, our findings might provide a rationale for further evaluation of PSMA-targeted anti-neovascular or radioligand therapy in metastatic dedifferentiated thyroid cancer.
Project description:Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) remains an important target for diagnostic and therapeutic application for human prostate cancer. Model cell lines have been recently developed to study canine prostate cancer but their PSMA expression and enzymatic activity have not been elucidated. The present study was focused on determining PSMA expression in these model canine cell lines and the use of fluorescent small-molecule enzyme inhibitors to detect canine PSMA expression by flow cytometry.Western blot and RT-PCR were used to determine the transcriptional and translational expression of PSMA on the canine cell lines Leo and Ace-1. An endpoint HPLC-based assay was used to monitor the enzymatic activity of canine PSMA and the potency of enzyme inhibitors. Flow cytometry was used to detect the PSMA expressed on Leo and Ace-1 cells using a fluorescently tagged PSMA enzyme inhibitor.Canine PSMA expression on the Leo cell line was confirmed by Western blot and RT-PCR, the enzyme activity, and flow cytometry. Kinetic parameters Km and Vmax of PSMA enzymatic activity for the synthetic substrate (PABG?G) were determined to be 393?nM and 220?pmol?min(-1) ?mg?protein(-1) , respectively. The inhibitor core 1 and fluorescent inhibitor 2 were found to be potent reversible inhibitors (IC50 ?=?13.2 and 1.6?nM, respectively) of PSMA expressed on the Leo cell line. Fluorescent labeling of Leo cells demonstrated that the fluorescent PSMA inhibitor 2 can be used for the detection of PSMA-positive canine prostate tumor cells. Expression of PSMA on Ace-1 was low and not detectable by flow cytometry.The results described herein have demonstrated that PSMA is expressed on canine prostate tumor cells and exhibits similar enzymatic characteristics as human PSMA. The findings show that the small molecule enzyme inhibitors currently being studied for use in diagnosis and therapy of human prostate cancer can also be extended to include canine prostate cancer. Importantly, the findings demonstrate that the potential of the inhibitors for use in diagnosis and therapy can be evaluated in an immunocompetent animal model that naturally develops prostate cancer before use in humans.
Project description:We previously demonstrated the ability to detect metastatic prostate cancer using N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-4-(18)F-fluorobenzyl-L-cysteine ((18)F-DCFBC), a low-molecular-weight radiotracer that targets the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). PSMA has been shown to be associated with higher Gleason grade and more aggressive disease. An imaging biomarker able to detect clinically significant high-grade primary prostate cancer reliably would address an unmet clinical need by allowing for risk-adapted patient management.We enrolled 13 patients with primary prostate cancer who were imaged with (18)F-DCFBC PET before scheduled prostatectomy, with 12 of these patients also undergoing pelvic prostate MR imaging. Prostate (18)F-DCFBC PET was correlated with MR imaging and histologic and immunohistochemical analysis on a prostate-segment (12 regions) and dominant-lesion basis. There were no incidental extraprostatic findings on PET suggestive of metastatic disease.MR imaging was more sensitive than (18)F-DCFBC PET for detection of primary prostate cancer on a per-segment (sensitivities of up to 0.17 and 0.39 for PET and MR imaging, respectively) and per-dominant-lesion analysis (sensitivities of 0.46 and 0.92 for PET and MR imaging, respectively). However, (18)F-DCFBC PET was more specific than MR imaging by per-segment analysis (specificities of 0.96 and 0.89 for PET and MR imaging for corresponding sensitivity, respectively) and specific for detection of high-grade lesions (Gleason 8 and 9) greater than 1.0 mL in size (4/4 of these patients positive by PET). (18)F-DCFBC uptake in tumors was positively correlated with Gleason score (? = 0.64; PSMA expression, ? = 0.47; and prostate-specific antigen, ? = 0.52). There was significantly lower (18)F-DCFBC uptake in benign prostatic hypertrophy than primary tumors (median maximum standardized uptake value, 2.2 vs. 3.5; P = 0.004).Although the sensitivity of (18)F-DCFBC for primary prostate cancer was less than MR imaging, (18)F-DCFBC PET was able to detect the more clinically significant high-grade and larger-volume tumors (Gleason score 8 and 9) with higher specificity than MR imaging. In particular, there was relatively low (18)F-DCFBC PET uptake in benign prostatic hypertrophy lesions, compared with cancer in the prostate, which may allow for more specific detection of primary prostate cancer by (18)F-DCFBC PET. This study demonstrates the utility of PSMA-based PET, which may be used in conjunction with MR imaging to identify clinically significant prostate cancer.
Project description:Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed on prostate adenocarcinomas, exhibits only limited expression in benign and extraprostatic tissues, and thus represents an ideal target for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Since its discovery over 30 y ago, significant effort has been made to develop clinical technology targeting PSMA. The last 5 y have seen an explosion of development of new agents targeting PSMA for diagnostic and therapeutic use. Imaging agents targeting PSMA have been developed for SPECT and PET platforms. PSMA PET imaging appears to outperform traditional imaging in the high-risk localized-disease state, in patients with biochemical recurrence after treatment, and in advanced disease. To date, most of the reported clinical studies of therapeutic agents have used PSMA-targeted radiometals to deliver ?-radiation to metastatic disease sites, with 177Lu being the most widely investigated therapeutic radioisotope. Studies of both antibodies and small-molecule agents have been published and have demonstrated encouraging results. Safety appears generally limited to mild transient bone marrow toxicity and xerostomia because of uptake of the small-molecule agents in the salivary glands. Radiologic responses can be dramatic, and decreases in pain have been observed. The effect on overall survival, however, has yet to be demonstrated.
Project description:Increased expression of PSMA, a differentiation antigen with folate hydrolase activity, is an independent marker of prostate cancer progression. Mice expressing moderate levels of human PSMA in their prostate develop PIN-like lesions by 9 months. The aim of this study was to determine whether PSMA is involved in prostate carcinogenesis and progression and, if so, the possible mechanism by which PSMA may exert its effects. Using prostates from PSMA-transgenic mice, we developed a tissue recombinant model that exhibits small atypical glands with features of adenocarcinoma. This was not observed in tissue recombinants that were composed of prostate tissues from the wild-type siblings. Cells from PSMA-transgenic tissue recombinants have the ability to form colonies in semisolid agar. PSMA may facilitate this phenotype by increasing the invasive ability of cells. Ectopic PSMA expression on PC-3 cells increased the invasive capacity of cells in in vitro invasion assays, which could be competed out by folic acid. These results suggest PSMA facilitates the development of prostate cancer, and the invasive ability of these cells may be modulated by folate levels. These findings show a novel mechanism that may contribute to the known role of folate in cancer prevention, and may lead to the use of PSMA inhibitors as novel chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Moreover, our model should prove useful for further dissecting pathways involved in prostate carcinogenesis and progression.
Project description:PSMA (prostate-specific membrane antigen) is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and is reported to be a promising target for antibody-based radioligand therapy in patients with metastasized prostate cancer. Since PSMA expression is not restricted to prostate cancer, the underlying study investigates PSMA expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Immunohistochemistry was used to identify PSMA expression in n = 275 samples of NSCLC tissue specimens. By means of CD34 co-expression, the level of PSMA expression in tumor associated neovasculature was investigated. The impact of PSMA expression on clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis was evaluated.PSMA tumor cell expression in NSCLC is as low as 6% and was predominantly found in squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.002). Neovascular PSMA expression was found in 49% of NSCLC. High neovascular PSMA expression was associated with higher tumor grading (G3/G4) (p < 0.001). Neither for PSMA tumor cell expression, nor for PSMA neovascular cell expression prognostic effects were found for the investigated NSCLC cases.Here, we report on the expression of PSMA in NSCLC tissue samples. Against the background of a potential treatment with radiolabeled PSMA ligands, our data might serve for the future identification of patients who could benefit from this therapeutic option.
Project description:Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) is an enzyme in the steroidogenesis pathway, especially in formation of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, and is believed to have a key role in promoting prostate cancer (PCa) progression, particularly in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This study aims to compare the expression level of AKR1C3 between benign prostatic epithelium and cancer cells, and among hormone-naïve prostate cancer (HNPC) and CRPC from the same patients, to understand the role of AKR1C3 in PCa progression. Correlation of AKR1C3 immunohistochemical expression between benign and cancerous epithelia in 134 patient specimens was analyzed. Additionally, correlation between AKR1C3 expression and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression-free survival (PFS) after radical prostatectomy was analyzed. Furthermore, we evaluated the consecutive prostate samples derived from 11 patients both in the hormone-naïve and castration-resistant states. AKR1C3 immunostaining of cancer epithelium was significantly stronger than that of the benign epithelia in patients with localized HNPC (<i>p</i> < 0.0001). High AKR1C3 expression was an independent factor of poor PSA PFS (<i>p</i> = 0.032). Moreover, AKR1C3 immunostaining was significantly stronger in CRPC tissues than in HNPC tissues in the same patients (<i>p</i> = 0.0234). Our findings demonstrate that AKR1C3 is crucial in PCa progression.
Project description:Increased abundance of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) on prostate epithelium is a hallmark of advanced metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) and correlates negatively with prognosis. However, direct evidence that PSMA functionally contributes to PCa progression remains elusive. We generated mice bearing PSMA-positive or PSMA-negative PCa by crossing PSMA-deficient mice with transgenic PCa (TRAMP) models, enabling direct assessment of PCa incidence and progression in the presence or absence of PSMA. Compared with PSMA-positive tumors, PSMA-negative tumors were smaller, lower-grade, and more apoptotic with fewer blood vessels, consistent with the recognized proangiogenic function of PSMA. Relative to PSMA-positive tumors, tumors lacking PSMA had less than half the abundance of type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), less activity in the survival pathway mediated by PI3K-AKT signaling, and more activity in the proliferative pathway mediated by MAPK-ERK1/2 signaling. Biochemically, PSMA interacted with the scaffolding protein RACK1, disrupting signaling between the ?1 integrin and IGF-1R complex to the MAPK pathway, enabling activation of the AKT pathway instead. Manipulation of PSMA abundance in PCa cell lines recapitulated this signaling pathway switch. Analysis of published databases indicated that IGF-1R abundance, cell proliferation, and expression of transcripts for antiapoptotic markers positively correlated with PSMA abundance in patients, suggesting that this switch may be relevant to human PCa. Our findings suggest that increase in PSMA in prostate tumors contributes to progression by altering normal signal transduction pathways to drive PCa progression and that enhanced signaling through the IGF-1R/?1 integrin axis may occur in other tumors.
Project description:The rising incidence rate of the cancer in the prostate gland has increased the demand for improved diagnostic, imaging, and therapeutic approaches. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), with folate hydrolase and carboxypeptidase and, internalization activities, is highly expressed in the epithelial cells of the prostate gland and is strongly upregulated in prostatic adenocarcinoma, with elevated expression correlating with, metastasis, progression, and androgen independence. Recently, PSMA has been an active target of investigation by several approaches, including the successful utilization of small molecule inhibitors, RNA aptamer conjugates, PSMA-based immunotherapy, and PSMA-targeted prodrug therapy. Future investigations of PSMA in prostate cancer (PCa) should focus in particular on its intracellular activities and functions. The objective of this contribution is to review the current role of PSMA as a marker for PCa diagnosis, imaging, and therapy.