ABSTRACT: A dynamic cycle of O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) addition and removal is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase, respectively, in a process that serves as the final step in a nutrient-driven "hexosamine-signaling pathway." Evidence points to a role for O-GlcNAc cycling in diabetes and insulin resistance. We have used Drosophila melanogaster to determine whether O-GlcNAc metabolism plays a role in modulating Drosophila insulin-like peptide (dilp) production and insulin signaling. We employed transgenesis to either overexpress or knock down Drosophila Ogt(sxc) and Oga in insulin-producing cells (IPCs) or fat bodies using the GAL4-UAS system. Knockdown of Ogt decreased Dilp2, Dilp3, and Dilp5 production, with reduced body size and decreased phosphorylation of Akt in vivo. In contrast, knockdown of Oga increased Dilp2, Dilp3, and Dilp5 production, increased body size, and enhanced phosphorylation of Akt in vivo. However, knockdown of either Ogt(sxc) or Oga in the IPCs increased the hemolymph carbohydrate concentration. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Akt stimulated by extraneous insulin in an ex vivo cultured fat body of third instar larvae was diminished in strains subjected to IPC knockdown of Ogt or Oga. Knockdown of O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes in the fat body dramatically reduced neutral lipid stores. These results demonstrate that altered O-GlcNAc cycling in Drosophila IPCs modulates insulin production and influences the insulin responsiveness of peripheral tissues. The observed phenotypes in O-GlcNAc cycling mimic pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction and glucose toxicity related to sustained hyperglycemia in mammals.
Project description:Gene expression during Drosophila development is subject to regulation by the Polycomb (Pc), Trithorax (Trx), and Compass chromatin modifier complexes. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT/SXC) is essential for Pc repression suggesting that the O-GlcNAcylation of proteins plays a key role in regulating development. OGT transfers O-GlcNAc onto serine and threonine residues in intrinsically disordered domains of key transcriptional regulators; O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes the modification. To pinpoint genomic regions that are regulated by O-GlcNAc levels, we performed ChIP-chip and microarray analysis after OGT or OGA RNAi knockdown in S2 cells. After OGA RNAi, we observed a genome-wide increase in the intensity of most O-GlcNAc-occupied regions including genes linked to cell cycle, ubiquitin, and steroid response. In contrast, O-GlcNAc levels were strikingly insensitive to OGA RNAi at sites of polycomb repression such as the Hox and NK homeobox gene clusters. Microarray analysis suggested that altered O-GlcNAc cycling perturbed the expression of genes associated with morphogenesis and cell cycle regulation. We then produced a viable null allele of oga (oga(del.1)) in Drosophila allowing visualization of altered O-GlcNAc cycling on polytene chromosomes. We found that trithorax (TRX), absent small or homeotic discs 1 (ASH1), and Compass member SET1 histone methyltransferases were O-GlcNAc-modified in oga(del.1) mutants. The oga(del.1) mutants displayed altered expression of a distinct set of cell cycle-related genes. Our results show that the loss of OGA in Drosophila globally impacts the epigenetic machinery allowing O-GlcNAc accumulation on RNA polymerase II and numerous chromatin factors including TRX, ASH1, and SET1.
Project description:Drosophila development is a complex and dynamic process regulated, in part, by members of the Polycomb (Pc), Trithorax (Trx) and Compass chromatin modifier complexes. O-GlcNAc Transferase (OGT/SXC) is essential for Pc repression suggesting that the O-GlcNAcylation of proteins plays a key role in regulating development. OGT transfers N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) onto hydroxyl groups of serine or threonine residues of key transcriptional regulators using the nutrient-derived UDP-GlcNAc as a substrate, which is dynamically removed by O-GlcNAcase (OGA). We performed ChIP-chip and microarray analysis after OGT or OGA RNAi knockdown in Drosophila S2 cells and found that O-GlcNAc was elevated genome wide particularly at genes related to mitosis and cell cycle in OGA RNAi cells, but not at sites co-occupied by Pc member Pleiohomeotic (Pho), such as the Hox and NK homeobox gene clusters. Microarray analysis suggested that altered O-GlcNAc cycling perturbed the expression of genes associated with morphogenesis and cell cycle regulation. To examine the in vivo consequences of disturbed O-GlcNAc cycling in the whole animal, we produced a null allele of oga (ogadel.1) in Drosophila. Epigenetic activators including Trx group members Trithorax (Trx), Absent small or homeotic discs 1 (Ash1) and Compass member Set1 histone methyltransferases are O-GlcNAc modified in ogadel.1 mutants. ogadel.1 mutants displayed altered expression of a distinct set of cell cycle related genes in ovaries. Our results suggest that the loss of OGA could affect epigenetic machinery by accumulating O-GlcNAc on numerous chromatin factors including Trx, Ash1 and Set1 in Drosophila. We performed affymetrix tilingarray analysis after OGT or OGA RNAi knockdown in Drosophila S2 cells to find if that O-GlcNAc was elevated genome wide particularly at genes related to mitosis and cell cycle in OGA RNAi cells, but not at sites co-occupied by Pc member Pleiohomeotic (Pho), ------------------------------- This represents the gene expression component only
Project description:A dynamic cycle of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) addition and removal acts on nuclear pore proteins, transcription factors, and kinases to modulate cellular signaling cascades. Two highly conserved enzymes (O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase) catalyze the final steps in this nutrient-driven "hexosamine-signaling pathway." A single nucleotide polymorphism in the human O-GlcNAcase gene is linked to type 2 diabetes. Here, we show that Caenorhabditis elegans oga-1 encodes an active O-GlcNAcase. We also describe a knockout allele, oga-1(ok1207), that is viable and fertile yet accumulates O-GlcNAc on nuclear pores and other cellular proteins. Interfering with O-GlcNAc cycling with either oga-1(ok1207) or the O-GlcNAc transferase-null ogt-1(ok430) altered Ser- and Thr-phosphoprotein profiles and increased glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) levels. Both the oga-1(ok1207) and ogt-1(ok430) strains showed elevated stores of glycogen and trehalose, and decreased lipid storage. These striking metabolic changes prompted us to examine the insulin-like signaling pathway controlling nutrient storage, longevity, and dauer formation in the C. elegans O-GlcNAc cycling mutants. Indeed, we found that the oga-1(ok1207) knockout augmented dauer formation induced by a temperature sensitive insulin-like receptor (daf-2) mutant under conditions in which the ogt-1(ok430)-null diminished dauer formation. Our findings suggest that the enzymes of O-GlcNAc cycling "fine-tune" insulin-like signaling in response to nutrient flux. The knockout of O-GlcNAcase (oga-1) in C. elegans mimics many of the metabolic and signaling changes associated with human insulin resistance and provides a genetically amenable model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
Project description:Nutrient-responsive oogenesis in Drosophila is a complex and dynamic process regulated, in part, by members of the Pc and Trx complexes. The recent finding that O-GlcNAc Transferase (ogt/sxc) is essential for Pc repression raises the question of whether this nutrient-sensing pathway plays a role in regulating oogenesis. OGT transfers O-GlcNAc to key transcriptional regulators in response to graded levels of the nutrient-derived precursor UDP-GlcNAc; O-GlcNAcase (OGA) catalyzes the removal of O-GlcNAc. Here we produced a null allele of oga (oga1) in Drosophila to examine its in vivo function. We found that oga mutant flies were viable, but that females displayed greatly reduced fecundity. The ovaries from the female OGA knockout exhibited a starvation-like phenotype, even under well-fed conditions. Germline stem cell division was slowed in the germarium of OGA knockout fly ovarioles. Ovaries from the oga1 mutants displayed significantly decreased H3K4 monomethylation in germline stem cells. The Trithorax family members Trx and Ash1 and Compass member Set1 histone methyltransferases are O-GlcNAc modified in oga1 mutant ovaries. Our results suggest that the loss of OGA disrupts oogenesis at least in part by interfering with H3K4 monomethylation in germ cells in the ovary. The findings also suggest that O-GlcNAc cycling is an essential part of the nutrient-responsive epigenetic machinery regulating Drosophila oogenesis in response to a changing nutrient supply. Overall design: Three replications for Drosophila genotype WT, and mutant OGA and SXC.
Project description:Members of the insulin family peptides have conserved roles in the regulation of growth and metabolism in a wide variety of metazoans. The Drosophila genome encodes seven insulin-like peptide genes, dilp1-7, and the most prominent dilps (dilp2, dilp3, and dilp5) are expressed in brain neurosecretory cells known as "insulin-producing cells" (IPCs). Although these dilps are expressed in the same cells, the expression of each dilp is regulated independently. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the expression of individual dilps in the IPCs remain largely unknown. Here, we show that Dachshund (Dac), which is a highly conserved nuclear protein, is a critical transcription factor that specifically regulates dilp5 expression. Dac was strongly expressed in IPCs throughout development. dac loss-of-function analyses revealed a severely reduced dilp5 expression level in young larvae. Dac interacted physically with the Drosophila Pax6 homolog Eyeless (Ey), and these proteins synergistically promoted dilp5 expression. In addition, the mammalian homolog of Dac, Dach1/2, facilitated the promoting action of Pax6 on the expression of islet hormone genes in cultured mammalian cells. These observations indicate the conserved role of Dac/Dach in controlling insulin expression in conjunction with Ey/Pax6.
Project description:Elevated mitochondrial O-GlcNAcylation caused by hyperglycemia, as occurs in diabetes, significantly contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and to diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, little is known about the enzymology of mitochondrial O-GlcNAcylation. Herein, we investigated the enzymes responsible for cycling O-GlcNAc on mitochondrial proteins and studied the mitochondrial transport of UDP-GlcNAc. Analyses of purified rat heart mitochondria from normal and streptozocin-treated diabetic rats show increased mitochondrial O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and a concomitant decrease in the mito-specific O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Strikingly, OGT is mislocalized in cardiac mitochondria from diabetic rats. Interaction of OGT and complex IV observed in normal rat heart mitochondria is visibly reduced in diabetic samples, where OGT is mislocalized to the matrix. Live cell OGA activity assays establish the presence of O-GlcNAcase within the mitochondria. Furthermore, we establish that the inner mitochondrial membrane transporter, pyrimidine nucleotide carrier, transports UDP-GlcNAc from the cytosol to the inside of the mitochondria. Knockdown of this transporter substantially lowers mitochondrial O-GlcNAcylation. Inhibition of OGT or OGA activity within neonatal rat cardiomyocytes significantly affects energy production, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. These data suggest that cardiac mitochondria not only have robust O-GlcNAc cycling, but also that dysregulation of O-GlcNAcylation likely plays a key role in mitochondrial dysfunction associated with diabetes.
Project description:O-linked-?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification is a regulatory, nuclear and cytoplasmic post-translational glycosylation of proteins associated with age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and type II diabetes. Global elevation of O-GlcNAc levels on intracellular proteins can induce insulin resistance, the hallmark of type II diabetes, in mammalian systems. InC. elegans, attenuation of the insulin-like signal transduction pathway increases adult lifespan of the nematode. We demonstrate that the O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes OGT and OGA, which add and remove O-GlcNAc respectively, modulate lifespan in C. elegans. Median adult lifespan is increased in an oga-1 deletion strain while median adult life span is decreased upon ogt-1 deletion. The O-GlcNAc-mediated effect on nematode lifespan is dependent on the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16. DAF-16 is a key factor in the insulin-like signal transduction pathway to regulate reproductive development, lifespan, stress tolerance, and dauer formation in C. elegans. Our data indicates that O-GlcNAc cycling selectively influences only a subset of DAF-16 mediated phenotypes, including lifespan and oxidative stress resistance. We performed an affinity purification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins and observed that a high percentage of these proteins are regulated by insulin signaling and/or impact insulin pathway functional outcomes, suggesting that the O-GlcNAc modification may control downstream effectors to modulate insulin pathway mediated cellular processes.
Project description:O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a highly dynamic intracellular protein modification responsive to stress, hormones, nutrients, and cell cycle stage. Alterations in O-GlcNAc addition or removal (cycling) impair cell cycle progression and cytokinesis, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the enzymes responsible for O-GlcNAc cycling, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) are in a transient complex at M phase with the mitotic kinase Aurora B and protein phosphatase 1. OGT colocalized to the midbody during telophase with Aurora B. Furthermore, these proteins coprecipitated with each other in a late mitotic extract. The complex was stable under Aurora inhibition; however, the total cellular levels of O-GlcNAc were increased and the localization of OGT was decreased at the midbody after Aurora inhibition. Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is an M phase substrate for both Aurora B and OGT. Overexpression of OGT or OGA led to defects in mitotic phosphorylation on multiple sites, whereas OGT overexpression increased mitotic GlcNAcylation of vimentin. OGA inhibition caused a decrease in vimentin late mitotic phosphorylation but increased GlcNAcylation. Together, these data demonstrate that the O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes associate with kinases and phosphatases at M phase to regulate the posttranslational status of vimentin.
Project description:Mitochondrial impairment is commonly found in many diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer disease. We demonstrate that the enzymes responsible for the addition or removal of the O-GlcNAc modification, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), respectively, are critical regulators of mitochondrial function. Using a SILAC (stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture)-based proteomics screen, we quantified the changes in mitochondrial protein expression in OGT- and OGA-overexpressing cells. Strikingly, overexpression of OGT or OGA showed significant decreases in mitochondria-localized proteins involved in the respiratory chain and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Furthermore, mitochondrial morphology was altered in these cells. Both cellular respiration and glycolysis were reduced in OGT/OGA-overexpressing cells. These data demonstrate that alterations in O-GlcNAc cycling profoundly affect energy and metabolite production.
Project description:Many intracellular proteins are reversibly modified by O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc), a post-translational modification that dynamically regulates fundamental cellular processes in response to diverse environmental cues. Accumulating evidence indicates that both excess and deficiency of protein O-GlcNAcylation can have deleterious effects on the cell, suggesting that maintenance of O-GlcNAc homeostasis is essential for proper cellular function. However, the mechanisms through which O-GlcNAc homeostasis is maintained in the physiologic state and altered in the disease state have not yet been investigated. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a homeostatic mechanism involving mutual regulation of the O-GlcNAc-cycling enzymes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) at the transcriptional level. Specifically, we found that OGA promotes Ogt transcription through cooperation with the histone acetyltransferase p300 and transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ). To examine the role of mutual regulation of OGT and OGA in the disease state, we analyzed gene expression data from human cancer data sets, which revealed that OGT and OGA expression levels are highly correlated in numerous human cancers, particularly in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Using a KrasG12D -driven primary mouse pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell line, we found that inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling decreases OGA glycosidase activity and reduces OGT mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that ERK signaling may alter O-GlcNAc homeostasis in PDAC by modulating OGA-mediated Ogt transcription. Our study elucidates a transcriptional mechanism that regulates cellular O-GlcNAc homeostasis, which may lay a foundation for exploring O-GlcNAc signaling as a therapeutic target for human disease.