Does minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 disparity affect the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease in tunisian recipients of hematopoietic stem cells?
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 (MiHAg-HA-1) disparity between a patient and his or her human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genoidentical donor has been widely associated with an increased risk of graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. OBJECTIVE:To examine the effect of HA-1 disparity on the incidence of both acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease in Tunisian recipients of hematopoietic stem cells. METHODS:A total of 60 patients and their 60 respective sibling hematopoietic stem cell donors were enrolled in this study. All patients prophylactically received cyclosporine A and/or methotrexate for graft-versus-host disease. An HA-1 genotyping assay was performed with the SSP-PCR method, and HLA-A*0201- and/or HLA-A*0206-positive samples were identified using the Luminex HLA typing method. RESULTS:The Luminex HLA typing assay showed that 54 patients were positive for either the HLA-A*0201 or HLA-A*0206 alleles. Among these cases, six pairs were mismatched for MiHAg-HA-1. Both acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease occurred in four mismatched patients (Fisher's p-values were 0.044 and 0.170, respectively). A univariate logistic regression model analysis showed that only acute graft-versus-host disease may be affected by recipient MiHAg-HA-1 disparity (p: 0.041, OR: 6.727), while chronic graft-versus-host disease correlates with both age and recipient/donor sex mismatch (p: 0.014, OR: 8.556 and p: 0.033, OR: 8.664, respectively). CONCLUSION:Our findings support previously reported data suggesting a significant association between HA-1 disparity and the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Project description:HLA disparity between hematopoietic stem cell donors and recipients is one of the most important factors influencing transplant outcomes, but there are no well-accepted guidelines to aid in selecting the optimal donor among several HLA mismatched donors. In this report, HLA-A is used as a model to illustrate factors that are barriers to delineating the relationship between specific HLA mismatches and transplant outcomes in the United States. Patients in this investigation received transplants for hematologic malignancies that were facilitated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) between 1990 and 2002 (n = 4226). High-resolution HLA typing was performed for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DPA1, and -DPB1. HLA-A mismatches were observed in 745 donor-recipient pairs and 62% of these pairs also had disparities at HLA-B, -C, and/or -DRB1. The HLA-A mismatches involved 190 different combinations of HLA-A alleles and 51% of these were observed in only 1 pair. Addition of a single HLA-A disparity when HLA-B, -C, and -DRB1 were matched (n = 282) was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.32, confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.63). When HLA-B, -C, and -DRB1 were matched, the most frequent HLA-A mismatches were HLA-A*0201:0205 (n = 28), HLA-A *0301:0302 (n = 15), HLA-A *0201:0206 (n = 15), HLA-A *0201:6801 (n = 12), HLA-A*0101:1101 (n = 11), and HLA-A*0101:0201 (n = 10). There were no statistically significant relationships between any of these disparities and transplant outcomes (engraftment, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease [aGVHD, cGVHD] relapse, treatment-related mortality [TRM], or overall survival [OS]) when adjustments for multiple comparisons were considered. Achieving 80% power to detect an effect of any 1 of these 6 HLA-A disparities on survival is estimated to require a total transplant population of 11,000 to more than 1 million U.S. donor-recipient pairs depending upon the HLA disparity. Thus, alternative approaches are required to develop a clinically relevant ranking system for specific HLA disparities in the United States.
Project description:Persistent complete donor chimerism is an important clinical indicator for remissions of hematological malignancies after HLA-matched allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). However, the mechanisms mediating the persistence of complete donor chimerism are poorly understood. The frequent coincidence of complete donor chimerism with graft-versus-leukemia effects and graft-versus-host disease suggests that immune responses against minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) are playing an important role in suppressing the host hematopoiesis after allogeneic SCT. Here, we investigated a possible relationship between donor immune responses against the hematopoiesis-restricted mHag HA-1 and the long-term kinetics of host hematopoietic chimerism in a cohort of 10 patients after allogeneic HLA-matched, HA-1 mismatched SCT. Functional HA-1 specific CTLs (HA-1 CTLs) were detectable in 6/10 patients lysing host-type hematopoietic cells in vitro. Presence of HA-1 CTLs in the peripheral blood coincided with low host hematopoiesis levels quantified by highly sensitive mHag specific PCR. Additionally, co-incubation of host type CD34+ cells with HA-1 CTLs isolated after allogeneic SCT prevented progenitor and cobblestone area forming cell growth in vitro and human hematopoietic engraftment in immunodeficient mice. Conversely, absence or loss of HA-1 CTLs mostly coincided with high host hematopoiesis levels and/or relapse. In summary, in this first study, presence of HA-1 CTLs paralleled low host hematopoiesis levels. This coincidence might be supported by the capacity of HA-1 CTLs isolated after allogeneic SCT to specifically eliminate host type hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Additional studies involving multiple mismatched mHags in more patients are required to confirm this novel characteristic of mHag CTLs as factor for the persistence of complete donor chimerism and leukemia remission after allogeneic SCT.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The HLA-A*02-B*46 haplotype is one of most frequent haplotypes among Guangdong Han populations. To explore the characteristics of the HLA-A*02-B*46 haplotype in Guangdong Han populations, the genetic polymorphism of HLA-A*02-B*46 haplotype was analysed by PCR-SBT in our study. FINDINGS: Among 88 samples with the homozygotes for HLA-A*02-B*46 in the low resolution, 4 different alleles for A*02 (A*0201, A*0203, A*0206, A*0207) and 1 allele for B*46 (B*4601) were identified by PCR-SBT. Among them, the A*0207 allele was the predominant allele. Inversely, among the samples with HLA-A*2-B*46(-), six alleles were detected for A*02 (A*020101, A*0203, A*0205, A*0206 and A*0207), and the A*0201 allele was predominant. On the other hand, the HLA-A*02-B*46 haplotype presented moderate heterozygosis (32.95%). In addition, the linkage with DRB1 was analysed in HLA-A*2-B*46 haplotype, and there existed 10 alleles with DRB1. With the low resolution for DRB1, the other 10 DRB1 alleles all linked with the HLA-A*02-B*46 haplotype except for DRB1*01, DRB1*10, and DRB1*17. Moreover, we found eight alleles of DRB1 in the HLA-A*0207-B*4601 haplotype. CONCLUSION: The polymorphism distribution of the A*02 allele between the HLA-A*02-B*46 and HLA-A*02-B*46(-) haplotypes among the Guangdong Han populations provides useful information for research on unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (UHSCT), anthropology, and disease association for populations with the HLA-A*02-B*46 haplotype.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To develop peptide-based immunotherapy for osteosarcoma, we previously identified papillomavirus binding factor (PBF) as a CTL-defined osteosarcoma antigen in the context of HLA-B55. However, clinical application of PBF-based immunotherapy requires identification of naturally presented CTL epitopes in osteosarcoma cells in the context of more common HLA molecules such as HLA-A2. METHODS: Ten peptides with the HLA-A*0201 binding motif were synthesized from the amino acid sequence of PBF according to the BIMAS score and screened with an HLA class I stabilization assay. The frequency of CTLs recognizing the selected PBF-derived peptide was determined in peripheral blood of five HLA-A*0201+ patients with osteosarcoma using limiting dilution (LD)/mixed lymphocyte peptide culture (MLPC) followed by tetramer-based frequency analysis. Attempts were made to establish PBF-specific CTL clones from the tetramer-positive CTL pool by a combination of limiting dilution and single-cell sorting. The cytotoxicity of CTLs was assessed by 51Cr release assay. RESULTS: Peptide PBF A2.2 showed the highest affinity to HLA-A*0201. CD8+ T cells reacting with the PBF A2.2 peptide were detected in three of five patients at frequencies from 2 x 10-7 to 5 x 10-6. A tetramer-positive PBF A2.2-specific CTL line, 5A9, specifically lysed allogeneic osteosarcoma cell lines that expressed both PBF and either HLA-A*0201 or HLA-A*0206, autologous tumor cells, and T2 pulsed with PBF A2.2. Five of 12 tetramer-positive CTL clones also lysed allogeneic osteosarcoma cell lines expressing both PBF and either HLA-A*0201 or HLA-A*0206 and T2 pulsed with PBF A2.2. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that PBF A2.2 serves as a CTL epitope on osteosarcoma cells in the context of HLA-A*0201, and potentially, HLA-A*0206. This extends the availability of PBF-derived therapeutic peptide vaccines for patients with osteosarcoma.
Project description:Stem cell grafts from 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors are often mismatched for HLA-DP. In some patients, donor T-cell responses targeting the mismatched HLA-DP allele(s) have been found to induce a specific graft-versus-leukemia effect without coinciding graft-versus-host disease, whereas in other cases significant graft-versus-host disease occurred. Cell-lineage-specific recognition patterns within the allogeneic HLA-DP-specific donor T-cell repertoire could explain the differential clinical effects mediated by donor T cells after HLA-DP-mismatched allogeneic stem cell transplantation. To unravel the composition of the HLA-DP T-cell repertoire, donor T-cell responses were provoked by in vitro stimulation with allogeneic HLA-DP-mismatched monocyte-derived dendritic cells. A strategy including depletion of reactivity against autologous dendritic cells allowed efficient identification and enrichment of allo-reactive T cells upon stimulation with HLA-DP-mismatched dendritic cells. In this study we elucidated that the allogeneic HLA-DP-restricted T-cell repertoire contained T cells with differential cell-lineage-specific recognition profiles. As expected, some of the allogeneic HLA-DP-restricted T cells showed broad recognition of a variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types expressing the targeted mismatched HLA-DP allele. However, a significant proportion of the allogeneic HLA-DP-restricted T cells showed restricted recognition of hematopoietic cells, including primary malignant cells, or even restricted recognition of only myeloid cells, including dendritic cells and primary acute myeloid leukemia samples, but not of other hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types. These data demonstrate that the allogeneic HLA-DP-specific T-cell repertoire contains T cells that show restricted recognition of hematopoietic cells, which may contribute to the specific graft-versus-leukemia effect without coinciding graft-versus-host disease.
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) remains the only potentially curative option for variety of hematologic disorders. Lack of a suitable fully HLA-matched donor limits this option for many patients. Without a suitable related or unrelated HLA-matched donor, umbilical cord blood and haploidentical family members provide a potential source of stem cells. Timely donor availability makes haploidentical donors an attractive alternative donor source. Initial attempts at haploidentical HSCT was associated with significantly increased mortality owing to high rates of graft rejection and severe graft-versus-host disease caused by major donor-recipient HLA-disparity. However, over the past decade, outcomes of haploidentical HSCT have improved significantly. Here, we review the advantages and challenges of haploidentical transplantation. We also discuss new developments to attempt to overcome the challenges to a successful haploidentical transplantation.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (bone marrow transplantation [BMT]) is the only curative treatment of severe aplastic anemia. BMT from an human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor is the standard of care for young patients; immunosuppressive therapy is used for older patients or those lacking matched sibling donors. Patients with refractory or relapsed disease are increasingly treated with HLA haploidentical BMT. Historically, haploidentical BMT led to high rates of graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease. High-dose post transplant cyclophosphamide, which mitigates the risk of graft-versus-host disease, is a major advance. This article provides an overview of the haploidentical BMT approach in severe aplastic anemia.
Project description:Gene expression analysis of molecules with known function in HLA class II antigen processing and presentation. Various hematopoietic cell types and (cytokine pre-treated) non-hematopoietic cells that are targeted in Graft-versus-Leukemia reactivity and Graft-versus-Host Disease were collected. Expression was compared between the different hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types for the Invariant chain, HLA-DMA, HLA-DMB, HLA-DOA and HLA-DOB genes. The data show that the Invariant chain, HLA-DMA, HLA-DMB and HLA-DOA genes are expressed in all or the majority of cell types with HLA class II surface expression, whereas expression of the HLA-DOB gene is restricted to professional antigen presenting B-cells and mature dendritic cells. Total RNA was isolated from various hematopoietic cell types isolated (and cultured) from (G-CSF mobilized) peripheral blood from five different individuals and from (IFN-g pre-treated) fibroblasts cultured from skin biopsies from four different patients transplanted with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells.
Project description:HLA haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haplo-HCT) using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is an alternative strategy when a matched sibling donor (MSD) is not available. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the outcomes of MSD vs haplo-HCT. Eleven studies (1410 haplo-HCT and 6396 MSD recipients) were meta-analyzed. All studies were retrospective and high quality, and 9 were multicenter. Haplo-HCT was associated with ~50% lower risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.74), but higher risk of nonrelapse mortality (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12-1.66). Relapse, survival, acute GVHD, and GVHD-free relapse-free survival were not significantly different between the groups. Deciphering the relative contribution of PT-Cy and HLA disparity to the observed outcome differences between the groups requires further research.
Project description:Graft versus host disease is a difficult and potentially lethal complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It occurs with minor human leucocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch and is normally treated with corticosteroid and other immunosuppressive therapy. When it is refractory to steroid therapy, mortality approaches 80%. Mesenchymal stromal cells are rare cells found in bone marrow and other tissues. They can be expanded in culture and possess complex and diverse immunomodulatory activity. Moreover, human mesenchymal stromal cells carry low levels of class 1 and no class 2 HLA antigens, making them immunoprivileged and able to be used without HLA matching. Their use in steroid-refractory graft versus host disease was first described in 2004. Subsequently, they have been used in a number of Phase I and II trials in acute and chronic graft versus host disease trials with success. We discuss their mode of action, the results, their production, and potential dangers with a view to future application.