Photodynamic therapy of tumors can lead to development of systemic antigen-specific immune response.
ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which the immune system can effectively recognize and destroy tumors is dependent on recognition of tumor antigens. The molecular identity of a number of these antigens has recently been identified and several immunotherapies have explored them as targets. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an anti-cancer modality that uses a non-toxic photosensitizer and visible light to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species that destroy tumors. PDT has been shown to lead to local destruction of tumors as well as to induction of anti-tumor immune response.We used a pair of equally lethal BALB/c colon adenocarcinomas, CT26 wild-type (CT26WT) and CT26.CL25 that expressed a tumor antigen, ?-galactosidase (?-gal), and we treated them with vascular PDT. All mice bearing antigen-positive, but not antigen-negative tumors were cured and resistant to rechallenge. T lymphocytes isolated from cured mice were able to specifically lyse antigen positive cells and recognize the epitope derived from beta-galactosidase antigen. PDT was capable of destroying distant, untreated, established, antigen-expressing tumors in 70% of the mice. The remaining 30% escaped destruction due to loss of expression of tumor antigen. The PDT anti-tumor effects were completely abrogated in the absence of the adaptive immune response.Understanding the role of antigen-expression in PDT immune response may allow application of PDT in metastatic as well as localized disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that PDT has been shown to lead to systemic, antigen- specific anti-tumor immunity.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless light to generate reactive oxygen species that destroy tumors by a combination of direct tumor cell killing, vascular shutdown, and activation of the immune system. It has been shown in some animal models that mice that have been cured of cancer by PDT, may exhibit resistance to rechallenge. The cured mice can also possess tumor specific T-cells that recognize defined tumor antigens, destroy tumor cells in vitro, and can be adoptively transferred to protect naïve mice from cancer. However, these beneficial outcomes are the exception rather than the rule. The reasons for this lack of consistency lie in the ability of many tumors to suppress the host immune system and to actively evade immune attack. The presence of an appropriate tumor rejection antigen in the particular tumor cell line is a requisite for T-cell mediated immunity. Regulatory T-cells (CD25+, Foxp3+) are potent inhibitors of anti-tumor immunity, and their removal by low dose cyclophosphamide can potentiate the PDT-induced immune response. Treatments that stimulate dendritic cells (DC) such as CpG oligonucleotide can overcome tumor-induced DC dysfunction and improve PDT outcome. Epigenetic reversal agents can increase tumor expression of MHC class I and also simultaneously increase expression of tumor antigens. A few clinical reports have shown that anti-tumor immunity can be generated by PDT in patients, and it is hoped that these combination approaches may increase tumor cures in patients.
Project description:Harnessing immune system to treat cancer requires simultaneous generation of tumor-specific CTLs and curtailment of tumor immunosuppressive environment. Here, we developed an immunotherapeutic regimen capable of eliminating large established mouse tumors using HMGN1, a DC-activating TLR4 agonist capable of inducing anti-tumor immunity. Intratumoral delivery of HMGN1 with low dose of Cytoxan cured mice bearing small (????0.5?cm), but not large (????1.0?cm) CT26 tumors. Screening for activators capable of synergizing with HMGN1 in activating DC identified R848. Intratumoral delivery of HMGN1 and R848 plus Cytoxan eradicated large established CT26 tumors. The resultant tumor-free mice were resistant to subsequent challenge with CT26, indicating the generation of CT26-specific protective immunity. This immunotherapeutic regimen caused homing of tumor-infiltrating DC to draining lymph nodes and increased infiltration of T cells into tumor tissues. Cytoxan in this regimen could be replaced by anti-CTLA4) or anti-PD-L1. Importantly, this immunotherapeutic regimen was also curative for large established mouse Renca and EG7 tumors. Thus, we have developed a curative therapeutic vaccination regimen dubbed 'TheraVac' consisting of HMGN1 and R848 plus a checkpoint inhibitor, that can, without using exogenous tumor-associated antigen(s), eliminate various large tumors and induce tumor-specific immunity.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can lead to development of antigen-specific immune response and PDT-mediated immunity can be potentiated by T regulatory cell (Treg) depletion. We investigated whether the combination of PDT with cyclophosphamide (CY) could foster immunity against wild-type tumours expressing self-antigen (gp70).Mice with CT26 tumours were treated with PDT alone or in combination with low-dose CY. T regulatory cell numbers and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) levels were measured at several time points after treatment. Mice cured by PDT+CY were rechallenged with CT26 and monitored for long-term survival.Photodynamic therapy+CY led to complete tumour regression and long-term survival in 90% of treated mice while the absolute numbers of Treg decreased after PDT+CY and the TGF-β levels were reduced to a level comparable to naïve mice. Sixty-five percent of the mice treated with PDT+CY that survived over 90 days tumour free rejected the rechallenge with the same tumour when a second dose of CY was administered before rechallenge but not without.Administration of CY before PDT led to depletion of Treg and potentiated PDT-mediated immunity, leading to long-term survival and development of memory immunity that was only uncovered by second Treg depletion.
Project description:Impressive responses have been observed in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitory anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) or anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibodies. However, immunotherapy against poorly immunogenic cancers remains a challenge. Here we report that treatment with both anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies was unable to eradicate large, modestly immunogenic CT26 tumors or metastatic 4T1 tumors. Cotreatment with epigenetic-modulating drugs and checkpoint inhibitors markedly improved treatment outcomes, curing more than 80% of the tumor-bearing mice. Functional studies revealed that the primary targets of the epigenetic modulators were myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). A PI3K inhibitor that reduced circulating MDSCs also eradicated 4T1 tumors in 80% of the mice when combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Thus, cancers resistant to immune checkpoint blockade can be cured by eliminating MDSCs.
Project description:Aside from the induction of cell death, some anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs can modulate antitumor immune responses. In this study, we examined the anticancer effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (L-OHP), which are standard chemotherapeutic drugs for colon cancer, combined with cyclophosphamide (CP) in two mouse colon cancer models (CT26 and MC38 colon adenocarcinoma models). In the CT26 model, two injections of 5-FU/L-OHP and CP significantly suppressed the growth of subcutaneously established CT26 tumors compared with either 5-FU/L-OHP or CP, without a significant loss of body weight. The anticancer effect was weakened in nude mice. Cured mice acquired protective immunity against CT26, and CT26-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) were induced from their spleen cells. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating immune cells revealed that 5-FU/L-OHP treatment with or without CP increased the proportion of CD8+ T cells at tumor sites. The 5-FU/L-OHP treatment decreased the proportion of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and increased monocytic MDSCs in tumor sites, whereas the addition of CP treatment reversed these changes. In the MC38 model, although significant anticancer effects of the triple combination therapy were seen, additional treatment with anti-PD-1 antibody increased the number of cured mice. These mice exhibited protective immunity against MC38, and MC38-specific CTLs were generated from their spleen cells. Together, these results indicate that the antitumor effects of the combination of 5-FU/L-OHP and CP mainly depend on host T cells; moreover, the therapeutic efficacy can be effectively boosted by immune checkpoint blockade.
Project description:Both the pre-apoptotic exposure to calreticulin (CRT) and the post-apoptotic release of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) are required for immunogenic cell death. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic photosensitizers and visible light at a specific wavelength in combination with oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species that kill malignant cells by apoptosis and/or necrosis, shut down the tumor microvasculature, and stimulate the host immune system. We have previously shown that glycoconjugated chlorin (G-chlorin) has superior cancer cell selectivity and effectively suppresses the growth of xenograft tumors. In the present study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of PDT with G-chlorin treatment in colon cancer cells. PDT with G-chlorin suppressed CT26 (mouse colon cancer cells) tumor growth considerably more efficiently in immunocompetent mice (wild-type mice, allograft model) than in immune-deficient mice (nude mice, xenograft model), although control treatments were not different between the two. This treatment also induced CRT translocation and HMGB1 release in cells, as shown by western blot and immunofluorescence staining. To evaluate the use of PDT-treated cells as a tumor vaccine, we employed a syngeneic mouse tumor model (allograft model). Mice inoculated with PDT-treated CT26 cells were significantly protected against a subsequent challenge with live CT26 cells, and this protection was inhibited by siRNA for CRT or HMGB1. In conclusion, PDT with G-chlorin treatment induced immunogenic cell death in a mouse model, where the immunogenicity of this treatment was directed by CRT expression and HMGB1 release.
Project description:: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) augments the host antitumor immune response, but the role of the PDT effect on the tumor microenvironment in dependence on the type of photosensitizer and/or therapeutic protocols has not been clearly elucidated. We employed three bacteriochlorins (F2BOH, F2BMet and Cl2BHep) of different polarity that absorb near-infrared light (NIR) and generated a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to compare the PDT efficacy after various drug-to-light intervals: 15 min. (V-PDT), 3h (E-PDT) and 72h (C-PDT). We also performed the analysis of the molecular mechanisms of PDT crucial for the generation of the long-lasting antitumor immune response. PDT-induced damage affected the integrity of the host tissue and developed acute (protocol-dependent) local inflammation, which in turn led to the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. In order to further confirm this hypothesis, a number of proteins in the plasma of PDT-treated mice were identified. Among a wide range of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, TNF-?, GM-CSF), chemokines (KC, MCP-1, MIP1?, MIP1?, MIP2) and growth factors (VEGF) released after PDT, an important role was assigned to IL-6. PDT protocols optimized for studied bacteriochlorins led to a significant increase in the survival rate of BALB/c mice bearing CT26 tumors, but each photosensitizer (PS) was more or less potent, depending on the applied DLI (15 min, 3 h or 72 h). Hydrophilic (F2BOH) and amphiphilic (F2BMet) PSs were equally effective in V-PDT (>80 cure rate). F2BMet was the most efficient in E-PDT (DLI = 3h), leading to a cure of 65 % of the animals. Finally, the most powerful PS in the C-PDT (DLI = 72 h) regimen turned out to be the most hydrophobic compound (Cl2BHep), allowing 100 % of treated animals to be cured at a light dose of only 45 J/cm2.
Project description:Ablative fractional photothermolysis (aFP) using a CO2 laser generates multiple small diameter tissue lesions within the irradiation field. aFP is commonly used for a wide variety of dermatological indications, including treatment of photodamaged skin and dyschromia, drug delivery and modification of scars due to acne, surgical procedures and burns. In this study we explore the utility of aFP for treating oncological indications, including induction of local tumor regression and inducing anti-tumor immunity, which is in marked contrast to current indications of aFP.We used a fractional CO2 laser to treat a tumor established by BALB/c colon carcinoma cell line (CT26.CL25), which expressed a tumor antigen, beta-galactosidase (beta-gal). aFP treated tumors grew significantly slower as compared to untreated controls. Complete remission after a single aFP treatment was observed in 47% of the mice. All survival mice from the tumor inoculation rejected re-inoculation of the CT26.CL25 colon carcinoma cells and moreover 80% of the survival mice rejected CT26 wild type colon carcinoma cells, which are parental cells of CT26.CL25 cells. Histologic section of the FP-treated tumors showed infiltrating neutrophil in the tumor early after aFP treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes showed aFP treatment abrogated the increase in regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg), which suppresses anti-tumor immunity and elicited the expansion of epitope-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes, which were required to mediate the tumor-suppressing effect of aFP.We have demonstrated that aFP is able to induce a systemic anti-tumor adaptive immunity preventing tumor recurrence in a murine colon carcinoma in a mouse model. This study demonstrates a potential role of aFP treatments in oncology and further studies should be performed.
Project description:Immunomodulating monoclonal antibodies (mAb) can evoke antitumor T-cell responses, which are attenuated by regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) and gemcitabine (GEM) can mitigate the immunosuppression by Treg and MDSC, respectively. In the current study, we examined the antitumor effects of a combination of local injection with anti-CD137 mAb and intermittent low-dose chemotherapy using CP and GEM in subcutaneously established CT26 colon carcinoma. Although a significant antitumor effect was observed when local anti-CD137 mAb therapy (5 ?g) was started early in the tumor-bearing stage (day 10), no therapeutic efficacy was observed when the mAb therapy was started at a later tumor-bearing stage (day 17). Analyses of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells revealed that the number of Gr-1(high/low) CD11b(+) MDSC started to increase 13 days after tumor inoculation, whereas injection with low-dose (50 mg/kg) CP and GEM mitigated this increase. In addition, although intermittent injections with low-dose CP and GEM on days 10 and 18 suppressed tumor growth significantly, additional local injections of anti-CD137 mAb on days 19, 21, and 23 further augmented the therapeutic efficacy. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes reactive to CT26 and a tumor antigen peptide were induced successfully from the spleen cells of tumor-cured or tumor-stable mice. In a bilateral tumor inoculation model, this combination therapy achieved systemic therapeutic effects and suppressed the growth of mAb-untreated tumors. These results suggest that intermittent immunochemotherapy using CP and GEM could retain the therapeutic potential of anti-CD137 mAb that is normally impaired during the late tumor-bearing stage.
Project description:To meet the ultimate goal of cancer therapy, which is treating not only the primary tumor but also preventing metastatic cancer, the concept of combining immunotherapy with photothermal therapy (PTT) is gaining great interest. Here, we studied the new material, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) coated copper sulfide nanoparticles (LPS-CuS), for the immuno-photothermal therapy. We evaluated the effect of LPS-CuS for induction of apoptosis of CT26 cells and activation of dendritic cells. Moreover, the LPS-CuS and laser irradiation was examined anti-metastasis effect by liver metastasis model mouse in vivo. Through PTT, LPS-CuS induced elimination of CT26 tumor in BALB/c mice, which produced cancer antigens. In addition, released LPS and cancer antigen by PTT promoted dendritic cell activation in tumor draining lymph node (drLN), and consequently, enhanced the tumor antigen-specific immune responses. Finally, the primary tumor cured mice by LPS-CuS-mediated PTT completely resisted secondary tumor injection in the spleen and also prevented liver metastasis. Our results demonstrated the potential usage of LPS-CuS for the immuno-photothermal therapy against various types of cancer by showing the clear elimination of primary colon carcinoma with complete prevention of spleen and liver metastasis.